The Climate of the Earth

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Government Institutes, 1985 - Science - 386 pages
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Contents

INTRODUCTION The Significance and Scope of Climatology Subfields of Climatology
1
The Scope and Organization of This Book
2
CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL STRUCTURE OF THE ATMOSPHERE Atmospheric Composition
5
Density and Pressure Vertical Temperature Distribution
6
Other Layers
10
Latitudinal and Seasonal Variations
12
GLOBAL HEAT EXCHANGE Heat and Temperature
13
Insolation and Terrestrial Radiation
15
Temporal Variations
177
Distributions of Certain Threshold Values
181
CLIMATIC CLASSIFICATION AND DISTRIBUTION
182
Criteria
183
Boundary Conditions
185
The Classification Used in This Book
187
B Dry Climates
193
Tropical Humid Climates
195

Disposition of Insolation Within the EarthAtmosphere System
16
SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL HEAT BUDGET VARIATION SunEarth Relations Angle of Incidence
24
Daylight Period
25
Latitudinal Effects on Insolation Receipts
26
Heat Exchange at the Earths Surface Radiation Balance
30
Sensible Heat Exchange
34
Horizontal Transfers of Heat
37
ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE AND MOTION Air Pressure Measurement and Expression
39
Variation
40
WindForce Relations Coriolis Force
41
Hadley Cell
44
Momentum
45
Cellular Flow
46
OBSERVED ATMOSPHERIC AND OCEANIC CIRCULATION PATTERNS Surface Atmospheric Flow Schematic
50
Mean Observed Patterns
51
Causes of the Observed Pattern
56
Ocean Currents
58
Upper Atmospheric Flow
65
Divergence and Convergence
80
ATMOSPHERIC MOISTURE Latent Heat Water Vapor
84
Geographical Distribution of Evaporation and Atmospheric Humidity
87
ADIABATIC PROCESSES AND ATMOSPHERIC STABILITY
95
Atmospheric Stability
96
Air Masses
102
Source Regions
103
Weather Associations
104
Fronts
109
Distribution
110
Characteristics
113
FLOW PERTURBATIONS IN THE MIDDLE LATITUDES Waves
115
Cyclones
117
Thunderstorms and Tornadoes
122
Squall Lines
125
Tornadoes
127
FLOW PERTURBATIONS IN LOWER LATITUDES The Trade Wind Inversion
130
Hurricanes
132
Equatorial Westerlies
136
The Southeast Asian Monsoon
137
WIND Climatic Representation of Winds Prevailing Wind Resultant Wind
139
Local Winds SeaLand Breezes
140
MountainValley Breezes
141
Katabatic Winds
142
Extreme Wind Speeds
143
FORMS AND DISTRIBUTIONS OF CONDENSATION AND PRECIPITATION Condensation Dew and Frost
144
Fog
145
Clouds
146
Precipitation
152
Forms of Precipitation
154
Amount and Distribution of Precipitation
156
Intensity
163
TEMPERATURE Summary of Temperature Controls Heat Exchange
164
Change of State of Water
166
Expressions and Distributions of Temperature Expressions
167
Spatial Distributions
168
Subtropical Climates
196
Temperate Climates
199
Boreal Climate
200
Polar Climates Highland Climate Notes
201
CLIMATE OF NORTH AMERICA General Controls Primary Surface Air Flows and Action Centers
202
Upper Air Flows
209
Cyclogenesis and Cyclone Paths
211
Western Cordillera
213
The Rocky Mountain System
231
North America East of the Rockies
233
Lake Effects
241
Climatic Distribution
242
CLIMATE OF EURASIA Primary Controls
248
Peninsular Europe
250
Cyclogenesis and Cyclone Routes
257
Blocking
259
Local Winds
261
Climatic Types
262
Definition of Area
263
Primary Controls
265
Climatic Distribution
271
Southwest Asia
279
Monsoon Asia
282
Primary Air Flows
283
Atmospheric Disturbances
287
Precipitation Distribution
289
Climatic Types
292
CLIMATE OF AFRICA Continental Shape and Form
297
Primary Atmospheric Circulations
298
July Circulation and Associated Weather
300
January Circulation and Associated Weather
303
Ocean Currents
304
Climatic Distribution
307
SOUTH AND CENTRAL AMERICA Form and Position Topography
313
West Coast
314
East of the Andes
325
West Coast
327
Andes
328
Central America and the Caribbean
338
AUSTRALIANEW ZEALAND Australia The Physical Setting Primary Air Flows and Precipitation
342
Temperature
347
Special Weather Phenomena
348
New Zealand
351
THE POLAR REGIONS
355
Area and Topography
357
Heat Exchanges and Temperature
358
Atmospheric Circulation
360
Condensation Precipitation and Deposition
362
Greenland
364
The North Polar Basin
367
FURTHER READINGS
375
INDEX
379
Copyright

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