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and I ask in return only that my voice not be a cry in the wilderness in requesting consideration of problems which are national in scope, but which affect my people directly.
TUESDAY, MAY 12, 1953.
DEEPENING OF CONNECTING CHANNELS OF THE GREAT LAKES
HERBERT H. NAUJOKS, GENERAL COUNSEL, GREAT LAKES HARBOR
Mr. HAND. We are pleased to have with us and will be glad to hear Mr. Herbert H. Naujoks on certain problems of the Great Lakes.
Mr. Naujoks. Thank you, Mr. Chairman.
Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, I appear before your honorable committee as general counsel of the Great Lakes Harbors Association, a municipal association consisting principally of port cities on the shores of the Great Lakes. Our association desires to place before your committee the urgent need for an appropriation of funds in the Federal budget for the fiscal year 1954, to permit survey and examination by the United States Corps of Engineers of the connecting channels of the Great Lakes, with a view to providing at least 27 feet of navigation in these connecting channels, for reasons which will be set forth in my testimony.
We are gratified to know that the Public Works Committee of the United States Senate, at the instigation of Senator Humphrey, has by resolution directed the Corps of Engineers to make a survey and report in the matter of deepening the connecting channels of the Great Lakes to a depth of at least 27 feet. The action of the Senate committee constitutes an authorization which must, however, be implemented by the appropriation of funds necessary to cover the cost of the desired survey.
The deepening of the connecting channels of the Great Lakes is an imminent necessity, irrespective of congressional action which may be taken on St. Lawrence seaway legislation. Approximately 40 ships, most of them of the superfreighter class, have recently entered or will soon enter service on the Great Lakes. Some of these ships represent original construction in Great Lakes shipyards; several have been constructed in seacoast yards, and taken thence to the Great Lakes; and others represent conversion of ocean vessels into large modified-type Great Lakes bulk carriers. It is estimated that the post war Great Lakes bulk carrier construction program on both sides of the international boundary involves about $200 million, approximating the entire initial cost of the Great Lakes bulk-carrier fleet prior to 1940. The majority of the new ships are between 640 and 700 feet in length, and practically all are designed to operate at loaded drafts of 25 feet or more. The steamer Joseph H. Thompson of the Hansand Steamship Corp., has an overall length of 714 feet, and is the third longest vessel in the American merchant marine. On its initial voyage in the fall of 1952, this ship could carry only 80 percent of its cargo capacity due to draft limitations in the connecting channels of the Great Lakes, and this despite one of the highest water levels in the history of the Great Lakes.
Much more than a regional problem is presented. There is a valid national interest in the deepening of Great Lakes connecting channels. National policy is aimed at steel production of approximately 160 million tons per vear, compared to about 105 million tons, present annual capacity. Whether or not this national objective is achieved and the national security enhanced in proportion, will depend in large measure upon the efficiency of bulk-carrier operations on the Great Lakes and the productive ability of the steel industry, which, in turn, rests largely upon Great Lakes iron-ore movements.
There is widespread support for early action by the Congress for deepening of the connecting channels of the Great Lakes, entirely aside from congressional consideration of the seaway. Within the last several months, most careful study has been given this matter by responsible marine, industrial, and public interests in the Great Lakes region. To show the interest and concern of the Great Lakes area in this problem, may I recite a few of the conferences and groups which are on record in support of the proposition for early deepening of the Great Lakes connecting channels.
At Detroit, on December 16, 1952, a joint conference of marine and industrial interests strongly supported the proposition as stated. At St. Paul, Minn., a conference of marine and industrial interests called by Governor Anderson on January 29, 1953, approved "immediate action to facilitate a survey of the connecting channels and harbors of the Great Lakes by the United States Corps of Engineers, resulting in congressional authorization of such deepening and improvement as their report indicates being economical and feasible. At Milwaukee, Wis., on December 18, 1952, the Governor's committee for the St. Lawrence seaway project supported legislation to deepen connecting channels of the Great Lakes and for United States participation in the St. Lawrence project separately but simultaneously. At Chicago, Ill., on January 23, 1953, the executive committee of the Great Lakes Harbors Association took similar action. I am authorized to advise you that the Toledo Port Authority and the Cleveland Chamber of Commerce thoroughly supports the same proposition, as does the Milwaukee Association of Commerce.
We have been in consultation on this matter with the Lake Carriers Association, representing the majority of the bulk vessel operators on the Great Lakes, and are informed thatthe Lake Carriers' Association strongly urges the deepening of channels in rivers connecting the Great Lakes in order to fully utilize in the interest of the national defense and the national economy the maximum carrying capacity of the Great Lakes iron-ore fleet; that the Nation's steelmaking capacity has been vastly expanded and the capacity of the Great Lakes fleet should be equal in any emergency to supplying of Lake Superior iron ore for the steel industry, and that unless the channels are deepened, deeper drafts and higher speeds of the new and reconstructed vessels will be lost to the national defense.
The Corps of Engineers has approved a proposal for deepening 31 miles of the Delaware River at an estimated cost of $87 million, principally to serve the new Fairless Mills of the United States Steel Corp." This project affords a striking comparison with the deeping of the connecting channels of the Great Lakes. One involves a 31mile project, principally to serve one industry and one locality. For approximately the same expenditure, the St. Clair, Detroit, and St. Mary's Rivers and shoal areas in the Straits of Mackinac can be deepened to accommodate deep-draft shipping on the Great Lakes with immense benefits to two nations and to the most vital industrial and agricultural region of the world.
The American Association of Port Authorities is composed of most of the principal ports of the Western Hemisphere. Because of the division of interest within its membership, the association has tactitly agreed for many years past to avoid debate on the St. Lawrence seaway, which is sought by its Great Lakes port members, but opposed by certain ocean ports. At its 1952 annual meeting, this association adopted a resolution supporting the deepining of harbors and channels to serve the requirements of new types of shipping. The resolution is short, but is extremely pertinent to this discussion and is quoted, as follows:
Whereas water transportation on the high seas, the Great Lakes and other waterways is vital to the national interest, to the defense effort, and to the economic welfare of the Nation; and
Whereas ships of increasingly larger length, beam, and draft have been and will continue to be constructed for operation to and from ports located on the coasts, on the Great Lakes and on navigable rivers: Now, therefore, be it
Resolved, That the American Association of Port Authorities hereby goes on record as favoring the modernization of channels and connecting waterways by the deepening thereof to usable depths consistent with the size of ships now in use or under construction or expected to be constructed in the future, subject to the usual procedure of survey and determination of economic need for each specific project by the Government agencies charged with this function.
(Voted and unanimously approved by United States members.)
Please note that action on this resolution was unanimous, and that ocean ports unfriendly to the seaway thus recognized the validity of a new shipping problem in the lake region due to the impact of new deep-draft vessels in large numbers.
Appended to this statement is a tabulation showing the dimensions of 30 of the large new vessels added to the Great Lakes bulk carrier fleet during the past several years. This list will be expanded considerably in 1953 with the completion of new ships now under construction in shipyards.
The Great Lakes and their connecting channels form a natural transportation highway with a water surface area of 95,000 square miles and a shoreline of over 8,300 miles, affording access to a region notable for the magnitude of its natural and industrial resources. This great natural waterway, during the calendar year 1953, will probably handle 50 million tons of waterborne commerce. The Great Lakes themselves are fully navigable for ships of practically any draft. Available drafts for shipping on the Great Lakes are controlled by the so-called connecting channels, which consist of the St. Mary's River between Lakes Superior and Huron; and the St. Clair and Detroit Rivers, which connect Lakes Huron and Erie. In these connecting channels, the available depth which controls is 21 feet for upbound traffic and 25 feet for downbound traffic. The transportation needs of the country and the impact of large and deep-draft vessels entering the Great Lakes trade in large numbers point inescapably to the need for usable drafts of 27 feet in these connecting channels.
On behalf of the Great Lakes Harbors Association, therefore, may I respectfully urge that your honorable subcommittee recommend to the Appropriations Committee and the House of Representatives the timeliness and the need for appropriation of funds to permit survey and examination of these connecting channels by the Corps of Engineers, with a view to their deepening to usable depths of 21 feet at the earliest possible date.
Mr. Hand. The committee is very glad to have had your statement. We are very well aware of the enormous importance of traffic on the Great Lakes, and its relationship to the steel industry and to other industries, and you can be assured that your statement will have the full consideration of the committee.
Mr. NAUJOKS. Thank you.
TUESDAY, MAY 12, 1953.
HON. MORGAN M. MOULDER, A REPRESENTATIVE IN CONGRESS
FROM THE STATE OF MISSOURI STEVE JACKSON, PRESIDENT, BLACKWATER-LAMINE FLOOD CON
Mr. HAND. Mr. Moulder, the committee is very glad to have you with us. I understand Mr. Jackson is going to present the testimony with reference to two of the Missouri projects.
Mr. MOULDER. Mr. Hand, Mr. Jackson is from my district, and he has the information which will be presented to the committee.
I shall not take the time of the committee other than to call the committee's attention to the fact that his project survey has been under way for a number of years and a considerable sum of money has been expended, and for the next fiscal year I believe the requirement is $20,000 for completion.
Mr. Hand. How much?
Mr. HAND. It does not sound like very much. Of course, we know of your interest; you have made us well aware of that fact.
Mr. MOULDER. Thank you. Mr. Jackson has the details and data with reference to the importance and necessity for completion of the survey for future use in the flood-control plan, as may be finally agreed upon.
Mr. Hand. Very good; we will be very glad to hear you, Mr. Jackson.
Mr. Jackson. We have filed some enlarged charts, and I have some other copies, which can be supplied to the members of the committee.
Secondly, I have some data made up, which is contained in the main file, and which I will submit for the record.
Mr. HAND. We will be very glad to receive it. (The data referred to follows:)
DATA ON FLOODS IN THE BLACKWATER-LAMINE BASIN, JANUARY 1952 1. Location.--The Blackwater-Lamine River Basin is situated in the west central part of the State of Missouri, south of the Missouri River. It is composed of the Lamine River drainage area proper and the basin of the Blackwater River, which enters the Lamine River about 9 miles above its junction with the Missouri River. It is bounded on the north and east by several small streams that flow directly into the Missouri River and on the west and south by the Osage River drainage basin. The main source of the Lamine River is in Flat Creek and the total length of the Lamine River, including Flat Creek, is approximately 103 miles. The total drainage area, including the Blackwater River Basin, which comprises 58 percent of the total, is approximately 2,640 square miles. The length and drainage areas of the principal tributaries are shown in the following tabulation:
19 22 6C 20
120 104 285 142
2. Economic development.—The total population of the area included within the Lamine River Basin is about 106,050, of which approximately 50,100 are urban, living in cities or towns with a population of 500 or more, or suburban nonfarming inhabitants. The larger towns serve mainly as marketings and distributing points for neighboring agricultural areas. However, manufacturing is of considerable magnitude in the basin.
3. Agricultural and livestock raising are of prime importance in the Lamine River Basin, as the soils are highly productive, rainfall is generally adequate, and only small portions of the basin are too rough for cultivation. Approximately 1,518,000 acres, or 90 percent of the total area of the basin, is classified as farmland. The principal crops are corn, wheat, soybeans, and hay. A small percentage of oats and alfalfa are produced. Dairying and poultry raising are important industries in the basin.
4. The basin is well served by transportation facilities. The principal railroad lines are the Missouri Pacific; Missouri-Kansas-Texas; Gulf, Mobile & Ohio; and Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific. Federal, State, and county highways form a network over the entire area and provide excellent connections with important marketing and distribnting centers.
5. Nature of flood 8.—The normal annual precipitation in the Lamine River Basin is 38 to 40 inches, of which about 69 percent falls during the 6-month growing season of April through September. The annual rainfall is subject to considerable variation, the minimum of record being 20.86 inches in 1886 and the maximum prior to 1951 being 59.41 inches in 1927. During January to November 1951, inclusive, the total amount of rainfall was 57.91 inches at Sedalia, 54.27 inches at Clifton City, 57.51 inches at Concordia, and 60.84 inches at Sweet Springs.
6. The Lamine River Basin is subject to frequent floods caused by runoff from intense storms. Floods have occurred every month of the year. The period of most frequent floods is from April through June. At present there are 2 discharge stations in the basin, 1 on the Lamine River near Clifton City and the other on the Blackwater River near Blue Lick. These gages were established in 1922. Flood stage at Clifton City has been exceeded 142 times in 29 years, 1923 to 1951, inclusive; the period of flooding varies from 1 to 5 days and the average flood period is 1.7 days. At Blue Lick on the Blackwater River, during 1923 to 1933 inclusive, and 1938 to 1951, inclusive (25 years), flood stage has heen exceeded 89 times. The period of flooding varies from 1 to 12 days and the average flood period is 3.5 days.
7. Flood damages.-During 1951, 12 overflows occurred on the Lamine River and 6 overflows occurred in the Blackwater River Basin. The highest overflow on the Lamine River was on June 28, and the crest stage of 32.5 feet at Clifton City was the second highest in 46 years. The maximum stage of record was 35,3 feet on September 18, 1905. The crest stage near Blue Lick on the Blackwater River of 35.1 feet on July 14 was the second highest stage in 23 years. The maximum stage of record 41.2 feet on November 18, 1928.
8. A total of 71,300 acres was inundated by the 1951 floods. Approximately $3,900 acres were utilized for crops and pastures. Damage to crops in the basin