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2 II Rouse Memnon's mother: Awaken the Dawn from the

dark Earth and the clouds where she is resting. Au-
rora in the old mythology is mother of Memnon (the
East), and wife of Tithonus (the appearances of Earth
and Sky during the last hours of Night). She leaves
him every morning in renewed youth, to prepare the
way for Phoebus (the Sun), whilst Tithonus remains in
perpetual old age and grayness.
1. 27 by Peneus' stream : Phoebus loved the Nymph
Daphne, whom he met by the river Peneus in the vale
of Tempe. This legend expressed the attachment of
the Laurel (Daphne) to the Sun, under whose heat the
tree both fades and flourishes.
It has been thought worth while to explain these allu-
sions, because they illustrate the character of the Grecian
Mythology, which arose in the Personification of natural
phenomena, and was totally free from those de basing
and ludicrous ideas with which, through Roman and
later misunderstanding or perversion, it has been asso-

il 1. 1 Amphion's lyre: He was said to have built the

walls of Thebes to the sound of his music.
1. 9 Night like a drunkard reels : Compare Romeo and
Juliet, Act II. Scene 3: “The gray-eyed morn smiles'
&c. It should be added, that three lines, which ap.
peared hopelessly misprinted, have been omitted in this

Poem. 4

Time's chest: in which he is figuratively supposed to
lay up past treasures. So in Troilus, Act III. Scene 3,
'Time hath a wallet at his back' &c.
A fine example of the highwrought and conventional
Elizabethan Pastoralism, which it would be ludicrous to
criticise on the ground of the unshepherdlike or unreal
character of some images suggested. Stanza 6 was

probably inserted by Izaak Walton. 8 IX This Poem, with xxv and xciv, is taken from Davison's

Rhapsody,' first published in 1602. One stanza has been here omitted, in accordance with the principle noticed in the Preface. Similar omissions occur in XLV, LXXXVII, C, CXXVIII, CLXV, CCXXVII, CCXXXV. The more serious abbreviation by which it has been attempted to bring Crashaw's Wishes' and Shelley's Rosaline. 15 XVIII

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Euganean Hills' within the limits of lyrical unity,
is commended with much diffidence to the judgment
of readers acquainted with the original pieces.
Presence in line 12 is here conjecturally printed for
present. A very few similar corrections of (it is pre-
sumed) misprints have been made :---as thy for my,
XXII, 9: men for me, XLI, 3: viol for idol, cclII, 43 :
and one for our, 90 : locks for looks, cclxxi, 5: dome
for doom, CCLXXV, 23:— with two or three more less
This charming little poem, truly “old and plain, and
dallying with the innocence of love' like that spoken
of in Twelfth Night, is taken, with v, XVII, XX,
XXXIV, and xl, from the most characteristic collec-
tion of Elizabeth's reign, 'England's Helicon,’ first
published in 1600.
Readers who have visited Italy will be reminded of
more than one picture by this gorgeous Vision of
Beauty, equally sublime and pure in its Paradisiacal
naturalness. Lodge wrote it on a voyage to the
Islands of Terceras and the Canaries'; and he seems
to have caught, in those southern seas, no small por-
tion of the qualities which marked the almost con-
temporary Art of Venice, the glory and the glow
of Veronese, or Titian, or Tintoret, when he most
resembles Titian, and all but surpasses him.
The clear (1. 1) is the crystalline or outermost heaven
of the old cosmography. For resembling (l. 7) other
copies give refining: the correct reading is perhaps
revealing. For a fair there's fairer none : If you
desire a Beauty, there is none more beautiful than

that fair thou owest : that beauty thou ownest. 19 xxiii the star Whose worth's unknown, alihough his height

be taken: apparently, Whose stellar influence is uncalculated, although his angular altitude from the plane of the astrolabe or artificial horizon used by

astrologers has been determined. 21 XXVII keel: skim. 22 XXIX expense : waste. 23 xxx Nativity once in the main of light: when a star has

ri.,un and entered on the full stream of light ; - anElizabeth. Late forgot : lately. 31 XLI haggards: the least tamable hawks. 33 XLIV cypres or cyprus, used by the old writers for crape;

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other of the astrological phrases no longer familiar.
Crooked eclipses : as coming athwart the Sun's ap-
parent course.
Wordsworth, thinking probably of the 'Venus' and
the 'Lucrece,' said finely of Shakespeare : ‘Shake-
speare could not have written an Epic; he would
have died of plethora of thought.' This prodigality
of nature is exemplified equally in his Sonnets. The
copious selection here given, (which, from the wealth
of the material, required greater consideration than
any other portion of the Editor's task,) — contains
many that will not be fully felt and understood with-
out some earnestness of thought on the reader's part.

But he is not likely to regret the labour. 24 XXXI upon misprision growing: either, granted in error,

or, on the growth of contempt. xxxu. With the tone of this Sonnet compare Hamlet's ‘Give

me that man That is not passion's slave' &c. Shakespeare's writings show the deepest sensitiveness to passion : -- hence the attraction he felt in the con

trasting effects of apathy. 25 XXXIII grame : sorrow. It was long before English Poetry

returned to the charming simplicity of this and a few

other poems by Wyat. 26 XXXIV Pandion in the ancient fable was father to Philomela. 28 XXXVIII ramage : confused noise. 29 Xxxix censures : judges.

By its style this beautiful example of old simplicity and feeling may be referred to the early years of

whether from the French crespe or from the Island whence it was imported. Its accidental similarity in spelling to cypress has, here and in Milton's Penseroso,

probably confused readers. 34 XLVI, XLVII ‘I never saw anything like this funeral dirge,'

says Charles Lamb, 'except the ditty which reminds Ferdinand of his drowned father in the Tempest. As that is of the water, watery; so this is of the earth, earthy. Both have that intenseness of feeling, which seems to resolve itself into the element which it contemplates.'

30 XL


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Page No. 37 LI crystal : fairness. 38 This ‘Spousal Verse' was written in honour of the

Ladies Elizabeth and Katherine Somerset. Although beautiful, it is inferior to the 'Epithalamion' on Spenser's own marriage, - omitted with great reluctance

as not in harmony with modern manners. 39

1. 13 feateously: elegantly. 42

1. II shend: put out. 43

1. I a noble peer: Robert Devereux, second Lord Essex, then at the height of his brief triumph after taking Cadiz: hence the allusion following to the Pillars of Hercules, placed near Gades by ancient legend. L. 13 Eliza: Elizabeth. L. 29 twins of Fove : the stars Castor and Pollux : baldric, belt;

the zodiac. 46 LVII A fine example of a peculiar class of Poetry; — that

written by thoughtful men who practised this Art but little. Wotton's, LXXII, is another. Jeremy Taylor, Bishop Berkeley, Dr. Johnson, Lord Macaulay, have left similar specimens.

Summary of Book Second This division, embracing the latter eighty years of the sevententh century, contains the close of our Early poetical style and the commencement of the Modern. In Dryden we see the first master of the new : in Milton, whose genius dominates here as Shakespeare's in the former book, — the crown and consummation of the early period. Their splendid Odes are far in advance of any prior attempts, Spenser's excepted : they exhibit the wider and grander range which years and experience and the struggles of the time conferred on Poetry. Our Muses now give expression to political feeling, to religious thought, to a high philosophic statesmanship in writers such as Marvell, Herbert, and Wotton : whilst in Marvell and Milton, again, we find the first noble attempts at pure description of nature, destined in our own ages to be continued and equalled. Meanwhile the poetry of simple passion, although before 1660 often deformed by verbal fancies and conceits of thought, and afterward by levity and an artificial tone, - produced in Herrick and Waller some charming pieces of more finished art than the Elizabethan : until in the courtly compliments of Sedley it seems to exhaust itself, and lie almost dormant for the hundred years between the days of Wither and Suckling and the days of Burns and Cowper. — That the change from our early style to the modern brought with it at first a loss of nature and simplicity is undeniable : yet the far bolder and wider scope which Poetry took between 1620 and 1700, and the successful efforts then made to gain greater clearness in expression, in their results have been no slight compensation.


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52 LXII 1. 20 whist: hushed.

1. 13 Pan: used here for the Lord of all.
1. 19 Lars and Lemures: household gods and spirits
of relations dead. Flamens (l. 22) Roman priests.

That twice-batter'd god (1. 27) Dagon. 57

1. 9 Osiris, the Egyptian god of Agriculture (here, perhaps by confusion with Apis, figured as a Bull), was torn to pieces by Typho and embalmed after death in a sacred chest. This mythe, reproduced in Syria and Greece in the legends of Thammuz, Adonis, and perhaps Absyrtus, represents the annual death of the Sun or the Year under the influences of the winter darkness. Horus, the son of Osiris, as the New Year, in his turn overcomes Typho. It suited the genius of Milton's time to regard this primeval poetry and philosophy of the seasons, which has a further reference to the contest of Good and Evil in Creation, as a malignant idolatry. Shelley's Chorus in Hellas, ‘Worlds on worlds,'treats the subject in a larger and sweeter spirit. L. 11 unshower'd grass : as watered

by the Nile only. 60 LXIV The Late Massacre : the Vaudois persecution, carried

on in 1655 by the Duke of Savoy. This collect in verse,' as it has been justly named, is the most mighty Sonnet in any language known to the Editor. Readers should observe that, unlike our sonnets of the sixteenth century, it is constructed on the original Italian or Provençal model, — unquestionably far superior to the imperfect form employed by Shakespeare and

Drummond. 61

Cromwell returned from Ireland in 1650. Hence the prophecies not strictly fulfilled of his deference to the Parliament, in stanzas 21 - 24.


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