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be found in order to relieve and supply in some measure what is hereinbefore set forth;

“Therefore * * * as the Excise on Wines and Beers to be consumed by the Tavern keepers and Tapsters next year within the jurisdiciton of this City of New Amsterdam will be publicly let to-morrow to the highest bidder, according to the praiseworthy custom and order of our Fatherland, to raise the Excise on Wines and Beer everywhere within this Province, so that henceforward there shall be paid by the Tavern keepers and Tapsters as Excise for an ordinary

“Hogshead of French or Rhenish wine 20 florins,
“An anker of said wine, 4 florins,
“An anker of Spanish wine, Brandy or Distilled Liquor 7 florins,
“A marked tun of Strong New Netherland Beer 4 florins,
A tun of Foreign Beer 6 florins,
“ Larger or smaller casks in proportion.”

Note.-By an ordinance of June 5, 1651, the Director and Council had adopted the policy of affixing a maximum price at which liquors and other articles might be sold. Tbat ordinance declares that "the present price of wine, brandy and strong liquors shows how an exorbitant price is realized by the small measure from them, so that more than 100 per cent. on the first cost is advanced on the one and the other. Therefore • in regard to the wines, brandies and strong liquors which for a long time past have been sold by some tapsters 10, 12, yea 14 stivers the quartern or gill, to the great wrong of the commonalty. Therefore the Director and Council thereupon ordain that in the taverns the can of French wine shall be sold at 18 or 20 stivers; the Spanish wine 40 or 44 stivers; the gill of brandy 7 stivers, and no higher; and this until further order or occurrence of the rise or fall of the price of the wine by the great measure."

1655, November 29th. An ordinance fixing the price of strong New Netherland Beer. “ The Director General and the Council of New Netherland having considered on the one side the great, excessive and immoderate profit which the Brewers exact on their brewed Beers, and on the other hand the repeated complaints presented to them by the Inhabitants of this Province against the Brewers, that they, on the imposition of increase of any Taxes, are making their Beer each time thinner and poorer and will, notwithstanding, have the same price, yea, more than they asked for it when grain was dearer and scarcer than it is at present, which tends to the great prejudice of the Inhabitants and only to enrich some few: Wherefore the aforesaid Director General and Council do hereby command and Ordain that all Brewers within this Province, or those who make a business of Brewing and dispose or sell their Beer to others shall sell or take for a guaged Tun of strong New Netherland Beer no more than Twenty guilders, for which they shall be bound to brew good Beer, particularly not weaker than has been hitherto manufactured.”

1655, December 20th. Ordinance of the Vice Director of Fort Casimir imposing an Excise on

Liquors at Fort Casimir and prohibiting the sale of Liquor to

Indians on the South River [Delaware). “Whereas it is resolved pursuant to the Instructions of the Hon'ble Vice Director and the order of the Hon'ble Governor and Supreme Council to impose some Duties on Liquors for the maintenance of the Fort and other indispensable expenses, therefore, the Inhabitants of this place are warned that there shall be paid from this time forward to the Vice Director, For one hogshead of French Wine..... For one anker of Brandy or distilled Liquor... For one tun of Holland or Foreign Beer...........

" " " " New Netherland Beer..................... Larger and smaller quantities in proportion.

“ Which Excise shall also be paid by those who drink in company or clubs; but those who will lay in some for their provision shall be exempt from this Impost.

“ It is further expressly forbidden to all persons, be they who they may, to sell any Strong Drink to Indians, whereby they may be reduced to a state of drunkenness on the penalty thereto prescribed at the Menahatas. Also no person shall attempt to sell or barter any property distributed to the Soldiers on the penalty of having said articles taken for the use of the Hon'ble Company, and the value thereof in addition."

1656, April 27th. An ordinance modifying the Excise duty on Brandy, Wines and Beer

“ The Director General and Council of New Netherland,

" To all those who shall see these Presents, or hear them read, Greeting, make known.

“ WHEREAS the Farmer of the Duties and Imposts that belong to the Supreme Government from exported goods which are not sent direct to Holland with the return ships, hath submitted to us divers complaints of the great frauds and smuggling which are committed in regard to the abovementioned Duties, notwithstanding our Ordinance and Edict formerly enacted thereupon. Therefore the Director General and Council do, hereby, * * * warn * * * that henceforth they do not embark, transport, carry or remove * * * any Beavers, Otters, Bearskins or other Peltries, or Wines, Beer or distilled Liquors, unless such Peltries, Wines and Beer are first pertinently entered with the Farmer Poulus van der Beecq or his Collector, * * * and receive from him a Permit setting forth the full quantity, by whom shipped, or sent off, and to whom consigned, and on going beyond the jurisdiction of New Netherland to pay the Duty imposed thereon, viz: Of the Peltries according to the just value,

8 per cent. For one tun of Holland or New Netherland Beer.......

fi 3 For one anker of Brandy, Spanish wine or Liquor........

3 4 For one anker of French or Spanish wine or the like........

1 12 “ Larger or smaller vessels in proportion; on pain of forfeiting the concealed Peltries, Wines and Beer and double the value thereof, whether the Skipper, or even the owner take them with him for his own use or on freight for others.

Further, to prevent difficulty * * * everyone is hereby ordered and commanded not to convey his entered Peltries, Wines and Beer from one house to another on the day when they are entered and the duties paid, but to transport them before sundown on board or to their place of destination;"

Note.-By the subsequent ordinance of April 26, 1663, the export duty on home brewed New Netherland beer was removed.

1656, June 7th. Ordinance amending the ordinance for the collection of Duties on

Exported Liquors. “ The Director General and Council of New Netherland hereby make known, that on the Remonstrance and petition, as well of the Dutch as of the English Merchants resorting to this place, in regard to the Duties imposed on Exported Wines, Beer, Distilled Wines and Liquors, they have modified and mitigated one third part in form as follows: In order not to annul the lease and not to prejudice the Farmer, the seller has to pay the Farmer one third, the purchaser one third, and the remaining third shall avail the Farmer as an offset with the Receiver of the Director General and

Council, so that the buyer and seller each, individually has to pay the
Farmer only
On one tun of Beer............................................. 11.
On one anker of Brandy, Spanish Wine or Liquor................ A. 1,1
On one anker of French and Rhenish Wine.........

................. f1.0.11 Larger or smaller vessels in proportion.”

1656, September 6th. An Ordinance regulating the Fees payable at the Custom-house and

Public Store, New Amsterdam.
By the Director General and Council of New Netherland.

In regard to the wages of the Porters, for goods and merchandise to be brought from the ships into the Company's store, the Director General and Council aforesaid do Ordain that the Skippers shall henceforth be bound to deliver the goods and merchandise on the Pier or shore, at high water mark, in front of or near the Company's store, whence the sworn Porters shall bring them into the Company's store and receive for pay, For one pipe of Wine................................... 6 stivers. For one hogshead........................................ 5 stivers. For one aume of Wine or tun of Beer............

4 stivers. For one-half aume, (of wine)...................

3 stivers. For one anker, (of wine)...........

2 stivers. For one case of Duffels, or any other of that size....

8 stivers. For an Eastern chest or large trunk.....

8 stivers. For a case of axes, cask of nails or kettles.....

5 stivers.

1656, October 26th. An ordinance renewing and amending the ordinances for the due

observance of the Sabbath; against furnishing Liquor to Indians

or exporting Liquors without a Permit. “ The Director General and Council of New Netherland. To all who see or hear these presents read,

“ Greeting; make known

“That it is found by daily and sad experience that the previously issued and frequently renewed Ordinances and Edicts, against the desecration of the Lord's Sabbath; the unseasonable Tapping on that day and at night after the posting of the guard or the ringing of the Bell; the very dangerous, yea damnable sale or bestowal of Wine, Beer, and distilled Liquors * * * to the serious, damage, loss and disturbance of the peace and quiet of the Inhabitants and to the gross contempt of the authority and quality of the Superior and Inferior Magistrates of this Province, neither regarded, observed, maintained nor even enforced, according to the good meaning of the Director General and Council, and as necessity clearly requires: Therefore the Director and Council aforsaid, wishing, in virtue of their office, and prompted by duty and necessity to provide herein, do renew and enlarge their previously enacted Ordinances and Edicts and hereby interdict and forbid,

First, all persons from performing or doing, on the Lord's day of rest by us called Sunday, any ordinary labor, such as Ploughing, Sowing, Mowing, Building, Woodsawing, Smithing, Bleaching, Hunting, Fishing, or any other work which may be lawful on other days, on pain of forfeiting one pound Flemish for each person; much less any lower or unlawful exercise and Amusement, Drunkenness, frequenting Taverns or Tippling houses, Dancing, Playing Ball, Cards, Tricktrack, Tennis, Cricket or Ninepins, going on pleasure parties in a Boat, Car or Wagon, before, between or during Divine Service, on pain of a double fine; especially all Tavern keepers or Tapsters from entertaining any Clubs, or tapping, bestowing, giving or selling, directly or indirectly, any Brandy, Wine, Beer or Strong Liquor to any person, before, between or during the Sermons, under a fine of six guilders, to be forfeited by the Tavern keeper or Tapster for each person, and three guilders by every person found drinking during the time aforesaid. In like manner, Tavern keepers or Tapsters shall not accommodate or entertain any company, or tap, sell, or give any Wine, Beer Distilled Liquors or waters, to any person at night, on Sundays or on other days after the posting of the guard or ringing of the bell, on the same penalty; the domestic guest, persons appointed on public business, with the consent and by order of the Magistrates, alone excepted.

" Secondly, with regard to the very dangerous, injurious and damnable sale, bestowal and giving of Wine, Beer or distilled Liquors to the Indians or Natives of this Country, from which almost as many mischiefs proceed, or at least are threatened and apprehended, as there are drunken Savages, the Director General and Council aforsaid, renewing and enlarging their previously published Edicts, do hereby Order and command, that no person, of what quality or profession he may be, shall sell, trade to, bestow, give, furnish or carry, or allow to be carried, to or for any Indians, in or out of the house, by land or water, from Yachts, Barks, Boats or Canoes, Carts or Wagons, by what name soever such vehicles may be called, either directly or indirectly, any Beer, Wine, distilled Spirits or Liquors under a penalty of Five hundred guilders, and in addition to be arbitrarily punished on the body and banished from the country.

“ And in order that the same may be discovered, for the better promotion and maintenance of the public peace and quiet, between the good Inhabitants of this Province and the Barbarians, all superior and inferior officers, free or hired servants of the Company, and Inhabitants of this Province, are, by their Office and fealty exhorted, required and commanded to aid in preventing, discovering and giving information of such most dangerous and damnable sale or bestowal of Wine, Beer or distilled Spirits, or, failing therein to pay half the fine, in case it afterward appear or become known that they were privy to, or had not informed of, such sale, gift or present of Wine, Beer or distilled Spirits to any Indians.

“Farther the said Director General and Council, being credibly informed and told, that Wine, Beer and distilled Liquors are peddled and retailed up and along the Rivers, from upgoing and returning Yachts, Barks, Boats, Ships and Canoes, do hereby not only interdict and forbid such peddling and retailing, but Ordain, enact and command that no Skippers, Sloop owners or Canoemen or Boatmen or any other free or bound Inhabitants, of what name, nation, quality or business they may be, shall from this time forth either for themselves or for others, embark, load, take with them in any Bark, Yacht, Boat, Canoe or any other vessel, any Wine, Beer, distilled Liquors or Spirits in large or small casks or even in cans, jugs, or Demijohns without having first entered the correct quantity with the Officer of the place where the Wine, Beer or distilled Spirits, in large or small quantities are embarked, shipped or loaded, and received from the Officer a cer. tificate or permit, on which shall appear the quantity and quality of casks. and other measure of the Wine, Beer or distilled Liquors to be taken along, for whom shipped and to whom consigned, and shall bring back a proper certificate or proof of the delivery to such person, signed by the Officer and the Receiver thereof at the place of delivery; and all that on pain of forfeiting the concealed Wine, Beer or distilled Liquors and a fine of Five hundred guilders for the first time, and forfeiting in addition, for the second offense, the Bark, Yacht, Boat or Canoe.

Fourthly. The Director General and Council, being further informed and duly considering, that frauds can creep in, both in the matter of Tapping and baking, for the concealment whereof excuses may be set up and invented

because no Guild or Association is hitherto known; to prevent such, as much as possible, the Director General and Council Ordain and command that from this time forward, no person shall make any profession of Baking or Tapping unless he first apply to the Court in the respective jurisdiction and receive from it or its Agent a License for that business, which all tavern Keepers and Bakers shall renew every quarter of a year, commencing on the first of November next, and pay for it each time one pound Flemish, for the benefit of the respective Court, on pain of suspension of his business for notorious and obstinate neglect.

“ The Fines and Amercements above specified are to be applied, one third for the Officer who shall enter the complaint, one third for the Church or the Poor, one third for the public benefit.

In order that all this may be better known, practiced and obeyed, and that no one pretend ignorance hereafter on this subject, the Director General and Council do hereby Ordain and command that these presents shall be published and posted everywhere that it is customary to have publication made, and that after publication they be observed and executed without any favor, affection, simulation or respect of persons, as we find such to be for the public service, and for the better and greater peace of the good Inhabitants."

1656, November 25th. Ordinance of the Director General and Council of New Netherland,

further regulating the Excise in New Amsterdam. By the Director and Council of New Netherland:

“It is, on the proposal of the Schout, Burgomasters and Schepens, Advised, and until there be a larger number of the ordinary Councillors, also provisionally Ordained, that when the Schout, Burgomasters and Schepens rent out the Burgher Excise on Wine and Beer, with the approbation of the Director General and Council, agreeably to the Custom and Order of Fatherland; the Ordinances and Regulations on that subject enacted by the Supreme Government of our Fatherland, ought consequently be likewise put in practice and observed here, as far as possible; Therefore we resolve and Ordain by form of Explanation:

" That all persons in, or within the jurisdiction of this City, who make a business of Brewing, shall, pursuant to the Ordinance, pay to the Farmer, twenty stivers for each brewing, whether of Strong Beer or Small Beer.

“In order to prevent frauds and smuggling, we resolve and Ordain that no Brewers shall remove any casks of Beer from the brewery or lay them in their own or in other People's Houses or Cellars, without first having given notice thereof to the Farmer and receive from the Farmer or his Collector a permit or license therefor, whereupon must appear the quantity of the Beer which the Brewer intends to remove on his or their account; for which Permit six stivers shall be paid for the behoof of the Farmer; the Brewer remaining bound to submit to the gauging and to the fine in case of fraud.

“ It is true that the general Ordinance discriminates between Brewers and wholesale Beer merchants, which distinction does not as yet, exist here, because the Brewers themselves, delivering the Beer by the whole, half or quarter cask, are to be considered both as Brewers and wholesale Beer merchants; therefore, it is resolved and provisionally Ordained, that the Brewers and the retailers of Beer, shall agree with the Farmer respecting their own consumption, or else pay to the Farmer or his Collector, pursuant

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