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Rome. An Apartment in CÆSAR’s House. Enter OCTAVIUS CÆSAR, LEPIDUS, and Attendants. C.Es. You may see, Lepidus, and henceforth

It is not Cæsar's natural vice to hate
One great competitor ' : From Alexandria
This is the news; He fishes, drinks, and wastes
The lamps of night in revel: is not more manlike
Than Cleopatra; nor the queen Ptolemy
More womanly than he: hardly gave audience, or
Vouchsaf'd * to think he had partners * : You shall

find there
A man, who is the abstract of all faults
That all men follow.

I must not think, there are Evils enough po to darken all his goodness :

* First folio, Vouchsafe. † First folio, enow. 3 One great competitor :) Perhaps-Our great competitor.

Johnson. Johnson is certainly right in his conjecture that we ought to read~" Our great competitor," as this speech is addressed to Lepidus, his partner in the empire. Competitor means here, as it does wherever the word occurs in Shakspeare, associate or partner. So Menas says :

“ These three world-sharers, these competitors

Are in thy vessel." And again, Cæsar, speaking of Antony, says

" That thou my brother, my competitor,

“ In top of all design, my mate in empire.” M. Mason. One competitor is any one of his great competitors. Boswell. 4- or

Vouchsafd to think he had partners :) The irregularity of metre in the first of these lines induces me to suppose the second originally and elliptically stood thus :

Or vouchsaf'd think he had partners,” &c. So, in Cymbeline, Act II. Sc. II. :

“ Will force him think I have pick'd the lock," &c. not lo think. Steevens.

His faults, in him, seem as the spots of heaven,
More firy by night's blackness'; hereditary,
Rather than purchas'do; what he cannot change,
Than what he chooses.
Cæs. You are too indulgent: Let us grant, it is

Amiss to tumble on the bed of Ptolemy;

5 - as the spots of heaven,

More firy by night's blackness ;] If by spots are meant stars, as night has no other fiery spots, the comparison is forced and harsh, stars having been always supposed to beautify the night ; nor do I comprehend what there is in the counterpart of this simile, which answers to night's blackness. Hanmer reads :

spots on ermine, Or fires, by night's blackness.” Johnson. The meaning seems to be—“ As the stars or spots of heaven are not obscured, but rather rendered more bright, by the blackness of the night, so neither is the goodness of Antony eclipsed by his evil qualities, but, on the contrary, his faults seem enlarged and aggravated by his virtues.

That which answers to the blackness of the night, in the counterpart of the simile, is Antony's goodness. His goodness is a ground which gives a relief to his faults, and makes them stand out more prominent and conspicuous.

It is objected, that stars rather beautify than deform the night. But the poet considers them here only with respect to their prominence and splendour. It is sufficient for him that their scintillations appear stronger in consequence of darkness, as jewels are more resplendent on a black ground than on any other.That the prominence and splendour of the stars were alone in Shakspeare's contemplation, appears from a passage in Hamlet, where a similar thought is less equivocally expressed :

“ Your skill shall, like a star i' the darkest night,

Stick firy off indeed." A kindred thought occurs in King Henry V.:

though the truth of it stands off as gross
“As black from white, my eye will scarcely see it.”
Again, in King Henry IV. Part I.':

“ And like bright metal on a sullen ground,
“My reformation, glittering o'er my fault,
“ Shall show more goodly, and attract more eyes,

“ Than that which hath no foil to set it off." MalonB. 6 — purchas'd;] Procured by his own fault or endeavour.


To give a kingdom for a mirth; to sit
And keep the turn of tippling with a slave;
To reel the streets at noon, and stand the buffet
With knaves that smell of sweat: say, this becomes

him, (As his composure must be rare indeed, Whom these things cannot blemish ?) yet must

No way excuse his soils", when we do bear

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say, this becomes him,
(As his composure must be rare indeed,

Whom these things cannot blemish,)] This seems inconsequent. I read :

And his composure,” &c. Grant that this becomes him, and if it can become him, he must have in him something very uncommon, yet, &c.

Johnson. Though the construction of this passage, as Dr. Johnson observes, appears harsh, there is, I believe, no corruption. In As You Like It we meet with the same kind of phraseology:

what though you have beauty,
(As by my faith I see no more in you

Î'han without candle may go dark to bed,)

“ Must you therefore be proud and pitiless ? " See vol. vi. p. 459, n. 6. MALONE.

8 No way excuse his soils,] The old copy has-foils. For the emendation now made I am answerable. In the MSS. of our author's time / and f are often undistinguishable, and no two letters are so often confounded at the press. Shakspeare has so regularly used this word in the sense required here, that there cannot, I imagine, be the smallest doubt of the justness of this emendation. So, in Hamlet :

and no soil, nor cautel, doth besmirch, “ The virtue of his will." Again, in Love's Labour's Lost :

“ The only soil of his fair virtue's gloss." Again, in Measure for Measure :

“ Who is as free from touch or soil with her,

“ As she from one ungot.” Again, ibid. :

“ My unsoild name, the austereness of my life.” Again, in King Henry IV. Part II. :

“ For all the soil of the achievement goes
" With me into the earth."

So great weight in his lightness. If he fillid
His vacancy with his voluptuousness,
Full surfeits, and the dryness of his bones,
Call on him for't': but, to confound such time”,
That drums him from his sport, and speaks as loud
As his own state, and ours,—'tis to be chid
As we rate boys; who, being mature in knowledge,
Pawn their experience to their present pleasure,
And so rebel to judgment.

Enter a Messenger.

Here's more news.

In the last Act of the play before us we find an expression nearly synonymous :

His taints and honours

Wag'd equal in him.” Again, in Act II. Sc. III. : “ Read not my blemishes in the world's reports.”

Malone. If foils be inadmissible, (which I question,) we might read fails. In The Winter's Tale, we meet with this substantive, which signifies omission, or non-performance : “ Mark, and perform it. See'st thou ? for the

fail “Of any point in't, shall not only be

“ Death to thyself,” &c. Yet, on the whole, I prefer Mr. Malone's conjecture.

Steevens. 9 So great weight in his lightness.] The word light is one of Shakspeare's favourite play-things. The sense is His trifling levity throws so much burden upon us. Johnson.

Call on him for't :] Call on him, is, visit him. Says Cæsar -If Antony followed his debaucheries at a time of leisure, I should leave him to be punished by their natural consequences, by surfeits and dry bones. Johnson.

- to confound such time,] See p. 170, n. 7. Malone.

- boys; who, being mature in knowledge,] For this Han. mer, who thought the maturity of a boy an inconsistent idea, has put :

“ — who, immature in knowledge :" but the words experience and judgment require that we read mature : though Dr. Warburton has received the emendation. By boys mature in knowledge, are meant, boys old enough to know their duty. JOHNSON,



Mess. Thy biddings have been done; and every

Most noble Cæsar, shalt thou have report
How 'tis abroad. Pompey is strong at sea;
And it appears, he is belov'd of those
That only have fear'd Cæsar * : to the ports
The discontents repair', and men's reports
Give him much wrong’d.

I should have known no less :-
It hath been taught us from the primal state,
That he, which is, was wish'd, until he were;
And the ebb'd man, ne'er lov'd, till ne'er worth

love, Comes dear'd, by being lack'do. This common


- The

4 That only have fear'd Cæsar :) Those whom not love but fear made adherents to Cæsar, now show their affection for Pompey.

Johnson. s The DISCONTENTS repair,] That is, the malecontents. So, in King Henry IV. Part I. Act V. Sc. I.:

that may please the eye
“Of fickle changelings and poor discontents."

MALONE. 6 - he, which is, was wish'd, until he were ; And the ebb'd man, ne'er lov'd, till ne'er worth love,

Comes Dear'd, by being lack'd.] [Old copy-fear'd.] Let us examine the sense of this (as it stood) in plain prose. earliest histories inform us, that the man in supreme command was always wish'd to gain that command, till he had obtain'd it. And he, whom the multitude has contentedly seen in a low condia tion, when he begins to be wanted by them, becomes to be fear'd by them.” But do the multitude fear a man because they want him? Certainly, we must read :

“Comes dear'd, by being lack'd.” i. e. endear'd, a favourite to them. Besides, the context requires this reading; for it was not fear, but love, that made the people flock to young Pompey, and what occasioned this reflection. So, in Coriolanus :

“ I shall be lov'd, when I am lack'd." WARBURTON. The correction was made in Theobald's edition, to whom it was communicated by Dr. Warburton. Something, however, is yet

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