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On January 21, 1947, to 15,509 millions of gallons of water, of which it is estimated that approximately 8,000,000,000 gallons will not be potable. That leaves a supply in the reservoir at the present time, as of January 21, 1947, of 7,500 millions of gallons, which at your estimated rate of consumption of 50,000,000 gallons a day give you an estimated water supply of approximately 150 days.

Senator THYE. Providing it never rained in all that period of time.

Secretary KENNEY. I do not know what the rainfall is since the 21st of January of this year. That can be very easily obtained. It would be increased by the amount of rain there has been.

Mr. MACOMBER. Is not that final figure which you gave, of 7,000,000,000 gallons, the figure of present potable stored water in San Vincente and El Capitan alone!

Secretary KENNEY. That is correct. And I am glad you brought that point up, because I wanted to explain the wrong impression which is created from the figures Senator McCarthy used this morning.

He used a figure of 59 billion. That is the amount of water in storage in the municipal reservoirs as of January 21, 1947, but against that there are many outstanding commitments to the California Water & Telephone Co., La Mesa Lemon Grove and Spring Valley, Santa Fe Irrigration, Del Mar Water, Light & Power Co., and a number of other water users. That is not in toto available to the city of San Diego.

The principal source of supply to the city of San Diego comes from the source which I have just given. Also, I understand from the city, the pipe lines from the other reservoirs are small, narrow-gage pipe lines, and very little water can be expected from those sources.

The CHAIRMAN. You say this water from these other reservoirs is used for irrigation!

Secretary KENNEY. According to the figures given to me, there are commitments in these other reservoirs.

The CHAIRMAN. Are they being used at the present time, or have they been used up to this time for irrigation purposes ?

Secretary KENNEY. I would have to ask the San Diego people to give that.

Senator O'CONOR. I understood the mayor to have said they were being used and there were commitments outstanding.

Mayor Knox. They have been used for years. They were developed for irrigation to start with and used for years for irrigation. Those commitments are legal, out of which San Diego cannot get if they want to.

Secretary KENNEY. Those people would have recurring water rights. The people of San Diego would have no rights to that water.

The CHAIRMAN. I did not understand, Mayor, that you were including public utility reserves in your total figúres this afternoon.

Mayor Knox. Public utilities only acquired a very small portion by the purchase of some little water company that had rights with the San Diego system. And they acquired those. It amounts to a very small amount.

The CHAIRMAN. Mr. Kenney, Mayor Knox seems to think that San Diego has gotten the worst end of this bargain with the Navy Department and that they were caught in a squeeze and had to take your contract which you offered them. I gathered from his remarks that

he hoped for relief from this contract some day. Is it your intention and expectation that the city of San Diego will meet its obligations which it made with regard to this aqueduct in full?

Secretary KENNEY. We feel the city of San Diego has made a contract with the United States Government, and knowing the city of San Diego from many years' experience with it, I am quite sure it will live up to its obligation.

The CHAIRMAN. And you expect them to do that?

Secretary KENNEY. We expect them to do that. I might say, Mr. Chairman, that this is the first time I have ever found myself criticized for a contract whereby we got back the total cost to the Federal Government.

Senator THYE. You might justly be criticized when you entered into something after VJ-day without going back, when you had that under war emergency, and presenting it to Congress.

Secretary KENNEY. This still was a war emergency, even though VJ-day had occurred. Our authority under those statutes is still in existence, Senator.

Senator THYE. I will grant you that, but, nevertheless, you are very cautious in which manner you act.

Secretary KENNEY. The emergency is not as great as it was before.

Mr. MACOMBER. There is no question, is there, but what following VJ-day you could have canceled those four prime contracts that had been made?

Secretary KENNEY. The Navy Department could have canceled every contract it had, but it would have been most unwise for it to

We still have a Naval Establishment we have to maintain. Mr. MACOMBER. A Naval Establishment that at that time was using at the most some 18,000,000 gallons a day; is that right?

Secretary KENNEY. The estimate that has been given to me of total use of water by the Federal Government in San Diego this year is in the neighborhood of 38 percent. I do not know what portion of that is allocable to the Navy Department. The Navy Department has a substantial investment in the San Diego area.

Mr. MACOMBER. I think that some figures submitted to the committee from the Navy Department showed that the Navy Department's consumption during 1944 and 1945 was 18 to 20 million gallons a day. I may be mistaken.

Secretary KENNEY. That would be approximately 40 percent of the consumption, so my figure of 38 is substantially correct.

Mr. MACOMBER. Well, the Navy installations are substantially reduced so far as number of personnel are concerned, are they not?

Secretary KENNEY. I do not have at my fingertips the reduction in personnel." There are still substantial personnel there because, as I say, North Island is still there; the naval training base is still there; the commandant's headquarters are still there; and the supply depots are still there. Those are not the type of activities we roll up.

Mr. MACOMBER. I am getting to this point, Mr. Kenney, that, whatever may have been the justification for making the four original prime contracts prior to VJ-day to construct an aqueduct with a capacity of 50,000,000 gallons a day and constructing it large enough so another barrel could be put on to make it 100,000,000 gallons a day, were you still justified following VJ-day, with prospective re

do so.

duction in your naval installations, in continuing with the same contract to furnish the city of San Diego an aqueduct which would supply the city 50,000,000 gallons a day, when you never used more than 20,000,000 gallons!

Secretary KENNEY. I would like to ask Admiral Manning to supplement anything I say. You are going again as to the wisdom of the contract that we entered into. I cannot answer offhand, but I seriously question whether there would have been any great economy at that time to have changed the character and type of construction.

Have you anything to add ?

Admiral MANNING. There would not have been, because the structure which is being put in now is an economically and engineering sound structure. To attempt to make a shorter, smaller structure for a pipe line of that length and traversing the terrain that it did would not have been sound engineering or sound economy.

Secretary KENNEY. I would like to read a list of the installations that we have in San Diego. The naval air station at North Island, naval supply depot, naval hospital, destroyer base, Coast Guard station, marine base, naval training station, naval fuel depot, marine rifle range, Camp Elliott. And I also may add that we have up the coast at Camp Pendleton the large marine training base which will probably have to be supplied with water from this aqueduct, because the water supply at Camp Pendleton will probably not be adequate to supply Pendleton.

The CHAIRMAN. Have you completed your testimony?

Secretary KENNEY. Well, I have sort of jumped around, Mr. Chairman, on my statement. I think I have covered practically everything I had in it. I have nothing further to add.

The CHAIRMAN. Are there any questions to ask Mr. Kenney or the Admiral or Mr. Hill?

Senator THYE. Is there anyone here who would like to make a statement who could not remain over for the other days? That would be the question in my mind. For their convenience they might be given an opportunity to make a statement here for the record, because I could visualize someone having come and then finding it impossible to remain here for 2 or 3 days.

Have you anyone, Mayor Knox, that you would like to have testify at this time that could not remain to make a statement at a later date?

Mayor Knox. No; I think everyone that is here from San Diego considers this important enough to stay until you wind it up, sir.

The CHAIRMAN. I think we can do that by noon Thursday, Mayor Knox.

I assume representatives of the Navy could be here Thursday morning at 10 o'clock. I would like to have Senator McCarthy and Senator Robertson have a chance to go over the testimony of the last hourover your testimony particularly, Mr. Kenney. While representatives of the General Accounting Office are here this afternoon, it seems rather late to call on them to start their testimony. However, I wonder if these men from the General Accounting Office desire to put any question to any of the witnesses who have appeared today who might not be able to be here Thursday?

(The representatives from the General Accounting Office indicated that they desired to ask no questions at this time.)

The CHAIRMAN. Otherwise, it seems best not to ask you men from the General Accounting Office to start your testimony at a quarter of five tonight. Tomorrow almost every member of this committee is already tied up in some other committee, so it seems inadvisable to attempt to get a quorum together tomorrow. But, I think we can best plan to meet here Thursday morning at 10 o'clock to hear the representatives of the General Accounting Office and also give representatives of the Navy an opportunity to add anything to their testimony which they have presented here this afternoon.

Mayor Knox. I wonder if I might make one supplemental statement. On VJ-day, I have been informed by the commandant, we had 176,000 naval men in the San Diego area, and as of the day before I left there were still 106,000 men. One thing that has not been brought out here is that San Diego, being a landlocked harbor and one that is not susceptible to rough water in storm, has anchored today within its borders over 600 ships that would have to be taken care of, all of which require water. That might indicate the reason that water consumption has not gone down more than it has—that while those ships were out during the war, after the war something had to be done with them, and they were brought back, and many of them are in active service, although they are anchored there. They use a lot of water.

The water usage is not going down in proportion to the decrease in military.

Mr. MACOMBER. Have you any figures as to the average monthly or daily consumption during 1946 for purposes of comparison with the figures we have?

Mayor Knox. I think I have the first 6 months of 1946. Would you like to have them?

Mr. MACOMBER. Please.

Mayor Knox. Yes; I have up through the month of June of 1946. Total Government use of water in June

Mr. MACOMBER (interposing). No; I meant, Mayor, the total consumption in the area to compare with the fifty-five to sixty million gallons daily consumption, or whatever it was, during 1944 and 1945.

The CHAIRMAN. Average daily use?

Mr. MACOMBER. Average daily use of city water by everybody that was using San Diego city water. I think you gave us some figures covering 1944 and 1945.

Mayor Knox. Well, that is what I was going to give you for the first half of 1946. Average daily use of water in January was 16.76 million; in February, 22.30 million; in March, 17.91 million; April, 18.89 million; May, 19.85 million; June, 21.46 million-an average for those 6 months of 21.10 million.

Mr. MACOMBER. For Government use only?

Admiral MANNING. That is for Government use only. What they asked for was the total daily use.

Mayor Knox. Yes; I think I have that. This is broken down in hundreds of cubic feet, so it would not do you any good.

Mr. MACOMBER. Could you submit some such figures, sir, so we may have some basis of comparison between present use and peak wartime use?

Mayor Knox. Yes, sir.

Secretary KENNEY. Mr. Chairman, do you want me back on Thursday?

The CHAIRMAN. I think some representatives of the Navy should be here Thursday.

Secretary KENNEY. I can either be here or can have someone here. I am available at any time the committee wishes to have me come up. The CHAIRMAN. I think that is up

to you, Mr. Kenney, as to whether you want to come here personally Thursday morning. If you have someone here from the Navy that can answer any questions that might arise, that is perfectly all right. If Mr. Hill is here it is all right, because of course we will continue along the legal lines.

Mr. Hill. I will be here, sir.

(Secretary Kenney's prepared statement is as follows:) STATEMENT OF THE HONORABLE W. JOHN KENNEY, ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF THE


At the request of the committee, representatives are present from the Navy Department, the Bureau of Reclamation, and the city of San Diego to present the facts in connection with the construction of the San Diego aqueduct and to answer any questions which the committee may desire answered.

By its letters of February 4 and 10, 1947, to the committee, the Navy Department has already presented to the committee a full statement of the facts relating to the San Diego aqueduct and of its position with respect to the legal objections raised by the Comptroller General in his letter of January 27, 1947.

I should like, very briefly, to discuss the principal factors covered in detail in the Navy Department's letters and the exhibits attached to them. To begin with, it is necessary to emphasize the fact that San Diego is located in an extremely arid region and water is a prime factor in the very continuance of the life of the community.

With the exception of negligible quantities of water produced from wells, San Diego is completely dependent upon rainfall for its water supply. This rainfall is meager in comparison with other areas. For example, the average annual rainfall in Washington, D. C., is 41 inches, in contrast with an average annual rainfall of 10 inches along the coastal area at San Diego. The rainfall in the San Diego area is extremely erratic. Over the 60-year period from 1883 to 1943 rainfall ranged from 2 to 580 percent of the mean annual rainfall.

The San Diego water-supply system, which was designed and constructed well before the war, relies on the capture, retention, and carry-over from periods of high rainfall to take care of periods of rainfall inadequate to meet current consumption.

A projection of the normal growth trend before the war indicated that the water-supply system would be adequate until approximately 1960. This prewar estimate was completely upset by the wartime population growth which was largely the result of direct or indirect Federal activities in the area. From 200,000 in 1940 the population grew to 450,000 in 1944. The water consumption during this period increased to a point where it was exceeding a safe consumption figure by more than 40 percent. Without substantial augmentation of the water supply as of 1944, the time when the President's interdepartmental committee undertook its survey of the situation, it was estimated that the reserve of potable water would be completely used up by July of 1947 in case the precipitation in the intervening years was meager, a fact which on the basis of previous experience had seriously to be reckoned with. That the augmentation which was imperatively required was substantially attributable to direct and indirect Federal activities in the area is indicated by the fact that consumption of water by direct and indirect Federal activities increased from 10 percent of the total consumption in 1941 to over 40 percent in 1944.

The importance of the San Diego area to the Federal Government and more particularly to the successful prosecution of the war in the Pacific, and to a lesser extent in Europe, cannot be overemphasized. An important segment of the aircraft industry operated in this area. The area was one of the important personnel training centers in the United States. The importance of the area as a staging and clearing point for the Pacific war requires no emphasis. These and a myriad other important wartime pursuits in the area would have been imperiled by a failure or material inadequacy in the water supply. It is no exaggeration to say that an acute crisis existed which found full recognition in the report

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