Arctic-Subarctic Ocean Fluxes: Defining the Role of the Northern Seas in Climate
Robert R. Dickson, Jens Meincke, Peter Rhines
Springer Science & Business Media, 4 мар. 2008 г. - Всего страниц: 736
The Ocean-Atmosphere-Cryosphere s- tem of the Arctic is of unique importance to the World, its climate and its peoples and is changing rapidly; it is no accident that the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA) was the first comprehensive regional assessment of climate-impact to be conducted. Reporting in 2005, ACIA concluded that changes in climate and in ozone and UV radiation levels were likely to affect every aspect of life in the Arctic. In effect, the ACIA process was essentially one of prediction: projecting that large climatic changes are likely to occur over the 21st century and documenting what might be their projected impacts. Although the ACIA Report was based on the most modern synthesis of obser- tions, modelling and analysis by hundreds of Arctic scientists, it notes with clarity that its conclusions are only a first step in what must be a continuing process. nd Reporting in November 2007, the 2 International Conference on Arctic Research Planning (ICARP II) has recently made much the same point. To make its proj- tions with higher confidence, --- to take the crucial second step in other words, -- both reports plainly state the need for a more complete and detailed understanding of the complex processes, interactions, and feedbacks that drive and underlie ‘change’ at high northern latitudes, including particularly the long-term processes of circulation and exchange in our northern seas where much of the decadal ‘m- ory’ for Arctic change must reside.
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Aagaard ADCP AMOC annual Arctic Ocean ASOF Atlantic inflow Atlantic water atmospheric average Baffin Barents Sea Bering Strait boundary current branch Canada Basin Canadian Archipelago Carmack changes Channel climate models decades deep convection Deep Water Denmark Strait Denmark Strait Overflow density depth Dickson DSOW East Greenland Current estimates Faroe flow fresh water freshening freshwater flux freshwater transport Geophys Res Lett Geophysical Research geostrophic global Greenland Sea Häkkinen heat flux heat transport hydrographic ice export Iceland Basin increase interannual Irminger Basin Irminger Sea Journal of Geophysical km3/year Labrador Sea layer mean measurements Meincke mooring NEADW Nordic Seas northward Norwegian Sea observations Oceanogr Oceanography Østerhus outflow overflow water Polar recirculation region Ridge Rudels salinity salinity anomalies sea ice shelf sill simulated slope subpolar gyre surface temperature and salinity thermohaline circulation tip jet tracer trend upper variability velocity volume flux warm water mass wind winter Yashayaev