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the German navy boys in Kiel for a revolution and he was sentenced to t years for trying to incite mutiny and he was also freed a few weeks bens the revolution. The German minority became stronger and stronger, they split again. They have three parties there now, I judge from the peren They have the Scheidemann and Haase-Bernstein, and the third is the Spen cus group, of which I have only a hazy idea, because we have had both from Europe for years, but seems to be very much like the Bolshevik gm in Russia which is led by Liebknecht. Seventy-nine per cent of the Russia can neither read nor write and education there was exceedingly diffical There are three Socialist parties in Russia, the Socialist democratic 4 the Socialist revolutionary party and the Menshevik. The Social Demon party split again into three parts and every one of these parts was rea sented at the International Bureau. In 1910 they tried to unite the seves Social (lemocratie groups and they split again while uniting. One ma wanted the Socialist program complete carried through over night, very me!
like what we considered our impossibilities, and that group had a m 1787 jority. Both of them stood for peace and for Socialism, but the gra
that wanted Socialism at once had the majority at that convertid The “majority” is expressed by Bolshevism; and they passed their progra in that convention. That is the Bolshevik group. The other is called 1 Menshevik, and they have the same program but they want to bring it aluca gradually without violent methods; that is the minority. The bead and brain of that extreme group was a man by the name of Nicholai Lenine, whon have met a few times. He represented the extreme of the international; 1 and Rosa Luxemburg and a few others; but most of the men who wrote band and edited papers in Russia belong to the Menshevik group. But in my revod tion it happens, it is the law of all uprising, all changes, whether politica social, economic or religious, the most extreme group gets on top for awhid That was the case when Christianity was introduced ; during the French ma lution and also our own. I don't say there is any violence in Russia in v nection with Bolshevism in the sense that they would be violent to any per but they stand for an extreme, a violent, program, and want to carry it out once, which they did in Russia so far as the papers tell us. That is not in her mony with myself and my friends as possibly has been proven here. (Following editorial under heading of “Liberty Bonds" in the Milwauka
Leader under date of April 20, 1918, read to the jury :) 1788 " The Socialist party has always insisted upon obedience to all laws a
long as they are in force, reserving, however, at all times, the right 1 ask and agitate for the repeal of such laws as we consider dangerous and hans ful to the common weal. This rule holds good in relation to all legislation pe taining to war. Therefore, the Leader has never even suggested opposition 1 the conscription law after it had become a law. Nor has the Learler at an time discouraged the sale of Liberty Bonds. Where the Socialists are repre sented in city administrations and legislative bodies and the question of puz chase of Liberty Bonds arises, these officials should, of course, insist that then purchases be made in such a manner that the burden will fall upon the profiteer and others best able to bear the burden, in accordance with the Socialist part platform.
But we are frequently asked by individual workmen and women whether a not they should buy Liberty Bonds. We advise them to do so. We are calle nipon to explain why we give this advice, and we shall explain it with our usu frankness. The only possible way in which we can avoid aiding the war i either by leaving the country and the national administration probably woul not give you a passport to do that, or by committing suicide. You simpit
cannot continue to live in this country without aiding the war, just 1789 you cannot practice Socialism while living under the capitalist system
It is true you have some little choice as to how much you will aid they war. It is true the conscription of your sons and brothers and the war tare are matters of war, and you could not avoid them without violating the law It is also true there is no law which says a person must buy a Liberty Brno! but the circumstances virtually leave you no choice in the inatter. You an expected to buy. You are expected in such a way that you don't know i may happen to your person or folks or to your job if you don't buy. Therefore the buying of bonds is virtually a tax. We have not changed our belief abor the war in the slightest degree. We could not do so, because we know it to di correct, but when all of us have to sacrifice our relatives in the trenches with out questioning it, it does not seem wise to hesitate over a matter of dolları ents. We advise all of our readers to look upon the bonds as a kind of ad buy them in proportion to their ability.” h regard to the St. Louis Platform, they sent the war program out to a refum, first, and after it was disposed of on one thing, they sent out the rm to the referendum. The war program was followed by the platform ng sent to the referendum of the party. Our repudiation meant a 100% taxes, but that might be and was misunderstood. We were attacked by some people as repudiators, while you can repudiate a national debt in different ways, but I believe that plank was cut out by the National iittee. emember the cross examination as to whether I had printed an approval
“ Platform " in the January 12, 1918 issue. The pamphlet shown ne is onstitution and platform we sent out all over the country. Those orig
printed drafts of that type were changed and in book form the other one printed. This is the one that is sent out to use by the party now. ne document referred to was marked Defendants' Exhibit 68.)
DEFENDANTS EXHIBIT 68.
Defts Ex 68.
Socialist Party Platform
e majority of the workers in America, whether rendering service by hand ain, are victims of poverty, or near poverty; are insecure in their employand ever live in fear of want. Is is the fact because they are underpaid. The wages or salaries they re
are only a small part of the wealth or value they produce and such wages laries are insufficient to maintain a decent standard of life. verty of the masses, in a land of abundance like America, is the greatest of todern crimes. e wage worker is not free, because lie can work only by the consent of the rs of jobs. e owners who do not work and the workers who do not own the industries, naturally seek to protect and advance their own interests. Both seek to tain the share they now get and to secure more for themselves by taking thing from the other. The clash of these interests creates the class struggle. cause of this class struggle the workers organize into labor unions, co-operasocieties, and in the Socialist Party. The owners organize into employers' iations, commercial bodies, and citizens' alliances. They also control and nate the great political parties. Labor's principal weapons are strikes and otts. The capitalists respond with lockouts, blacklists, court injunctions, isonments, hangings and even mass murder. This terrible class warfare is d wide and a grave menace to civilization. Its abolition is the most imint and vital issue confronting the human race. le present system of production and distribution is known as the capitalist im to distinguish it from the several systems which preceded it, such as tel slavery and the feudal system. Under capitalism there are two distinct ies, the capitalist class and the working class. The capitalist class is maind by the taking of rents, interest and profits, le working class, owning no industries, lives by getting wages. The worker the only thing that he owns, his power to labor. This power to labor lessens his advancing years. introlling the government, the capitalist class makes laws in its own interest.
Behind these class laws is every instrument of the government to defend i and make sacred the private ownership of land and industries and special
privileges by which labor is robbed. bus the economic question is a political question. How you live is a political ition of momentous importance. The theory of a democratic government is kreatest good to the greatest number. The working class far out-numbers the talist class. Here is the natural advantage of the working class. By uniting lly in a political party of its own, it can capture the government and all its ers and use them in its own interest. he Socialist Party aims to abolish this class war with all its evils and to subite for capitalism a new order of co-operation, wherein the workers shall , and control all the economic factors of life. It calls upon all workers to unite, to strike as they vote and to vote as they strike, all against the class.
Only through this combination of our powers can we establish the 00-052 commonwealth, wherein the workers shall own their jobs and receive the social value of their product. The necessities of life will then be produced for the profits of the few, but for the comfort and happiness of all who la Instead of privately owned industries, with masters and slaves, there will be common ownership of the means of life, and all the opportunities and text of the world will be equal and free to all.
This magnificent goal represents the supreme ideal of the human race. such it is to the highest interest of every human being to join in the struggle the working class and help fight to a finish the battle which will free all a women and lift them to a position infinitely higher and better than can eter possible so long as the system of capitalism endures.
Immediate Program The following are measures which we believe of immediate practical i portance and for which we wage an especially energetic campaign:
Political Demands (1) Complete adult suffrage by the elimination of all sex, residential and ed
cational qualifications, by the abolition of all registration fees, poll ten or other impediments to voting. Enfranchisement of those who be declared their intention to become citizens and have resided in this cum
try one year. (2) Democratic control of the government through a constitutional amer
ment providing for the initiative, referendum and recall. (3) Effective voting and proportional representation on all legislati
bodies. 1793 (4) The abolition of the power of the courts to make and unmake las
because of alleged unconstitutionality or other grounds. (5) Rigid maintenance of the right of free press, speech and assemblage
peace and in war.
(1) National ownership and democratic control of the railroads, telegraph
and telephones, steamship lines, and all other social means of transport
tion, communication, storage, and distribution. (2) Nationalization of banking and of socially beneficial kinds of insurance, (3) Direct loans to municipalities and states at cost.
The following measures do not exhaust by any means the ways by whid the workers can be helped to freedom. They are compiled as suggestive e further activity to that end. (1) Abolition to the Senate and the veto power of the President. (2) Direct election of the President and Vice-President. (3) Immediate curbing of the power of the courts to issue injunctions. (4) Direct election of all judges of the United States Courts for short terus (5) Free administration of law and the creation of public defenders,
(1) Complete abolition of child labor. (2) A legal minimum wage based on the ascertained cost of a decent stander
of life. (3) Full protection for migratory and unemployed workers from oppression (4) Abolition of private employment, detective and strike breaking agencies
and the extension of the Federal Employment Bureau. (5) A shorter work day in keeping with increased industrial prodon
tivity. 1794 (6) An uninterrupted rest period of one and a half days in ead
week. (7) Freedom of industrial and political activities of the workers.
Taxation to be raised from graduated taxes on incomes and inheritance
and from site values. Adequate higher educational facilities for the entire youth of the nation,
and such contribution to family resources as will enable the youth to remain in contact with such facilities until they are fully equipped for
their economic and social careers. Government support, by loans and other methods, to farmers and workers'
co-operative organizations. The retention and extension of the public domain and the conservation
and full development of natural resources by the nation. Pensions for mothers, for invalidity, and old age.
Issued by the
in the Socialist Party and become an active worker for real democracy.
State. ullied Printing Trades Council Union Label.)
Witness continuing: It is dated 1917. In the old original draft “Repudiation of War Debts" appears as No: 7 under Political Demands. he one that was circulated it does not appear. The article in the paper vn me originally appeared in the Congressional Record on February 9, 1917. t has been printed once in my own paper. It is “ Unanswered Yet” 61st ” That is in the Republican of Chicago. I saw it first when it got into Congressional Record. The date is February 7, 1917. I know Mr. Calloway
I saw it in the Chicago Republican also. I read it there.
DEFTS EX 69
Unanswered Yet-61st Call
Congressman Calloway's Charges Go Unchallenged
Why Do Big Dailies Remain Silent?
Newspapers Put Selves in Bad Light
or sixty-one weeks now The Republican has printed the charges below made the floor of the United States Congress by Representative Calloway and up his time no answer has been made by any of the “big dailies” of Chicago. ongressman Calloway's charges, printed in the Congressional Record, Febry 9, 1917, were as follows: Mr. Chairman, under unanimous consent, I insert in the Record at this at a statement showing the newspaper combination, which explains their vity in this war matter, just discussed by the gentleman from Pennsylvania r. Moore): In March, 1915, the J. P. Morgan interests, the steel, shipbuilding, and oder interests and their subsidiary organizations, got together 12 men high in the newspaper world and employed them to select the most influential spapers in the t'nited States and sufficient number of them to control erally the policy of the daily press of the United States. These 12 men worked the problem out by selecting 179 newspapers, and n began, by an elimination process, to retain only those necessary for the purpose of controlling the general policy of the daily press throughou country. They found it was only necessary to purchase the control of 2 the greatest papers. The 25 papers were agreed upon; emissaries were to purchase the policy, national and international, of these papers; an en ment was reached, the policy of the papers was bought, to be paid for by month; an editor was furnished for each paper to properly supervise anc. information regarding the questions of preparedness, militarism, fiar policies, and other things of national and international nature considered it to the interests of the purchasers.
" This contract is in existence at the present time, and it actvunts for news columns of the daily press of the country being filled with all som prej redness arguinents and misrepresentations as to the present conditia the l'nited States army and nary, and the possibility and probability of a
l'nited States being attacked by foreign foes. 1797 “ This policy also includes the suppression of everything in opis
to the wishes of the interests served. The effectiveness of this son has been conclusively demonstrated by the character of stuff carried in daily press throughout the country since March, 1915. They have resorted anything necessary to commercialize public sentiment and sandbag the Sating Congress into making extravagant and wasteful appropriations for the and navy under the false pretense that it was necessary. Their stock argra is that it is 'patriotism.' They are playing on every prejudice and passies the American people." 1798 Witness continuing: I remember the resolution offered by J. Ham
Moore asking for an investigation of this matter. I don't know why the resolution never went through Congress but I know it was voted down by immense majority.
HARRIET GI'SSIE, witness for defendants :
Direct Eramination by Mr. Johnson. I reside at 1741 North Hancock Street; I live with my mother and am ployed. I know William F. Kruse, and one Arnold Schiller, who lives on ka stone Avenue, Chicago, identified with the military forces of the United State On December 11, Wednesday, Mr. Schiller was present at my home. He met tioned Mr. Kruse's name. He said he would rather see Mr. Kruse dead the alive; that he had no use for him and that he would get even with him, beics when the detectives raided the Socialist party office they found letters wiin Mr. Schiller had addressed to Mr. Kruse, and that he also had to look out fu himself first because the military sentence is heavier than the civilian. E also said that Mr. Fleming had instructed him to carry a gun to protect himself also that he was afraid of cross-examination because Mr. Cunnea would make him look like a rag-doll.
I had occasion to visit the Federal building with reference to this is 1799 Friday December 13. A detective from Fleming's office called for z
and upon arriving at the office Mr. Plummer confronted me with spera questions to which Mr. Schiller replied “no "-with the stenographer takin everything down on the typewriter. Then Mr. Plummer turned to Mr. Schtin and said " Well, I am speaking to this young lady” and he turned to me in said: "Well, now Harriet, talk to me like you would to a father " which I miei him I was, and to protect Mr. Schiller I also said " no.” Mr. Plummer aske. me to sign the statement written by the stenographer which I refused to du knowing that the thing mentioned therein was untrue. Then Mr. Plumesaid to me "Do you know I can force you to sign " and I told him I would se and he said " There is such a thing as a jail." I said I knew there was to I would not sign. I arrived at the office, I judge, about 6.30. Then Mr. Pla. mer went out and Mr. Clyne came in and he asked me if I would not sigo, and I told him that the answers were untrue, and then Mr. Plummer said " He Mr. Schiller mentioned these various things” and I told him "Yes" and M asked me if I could swear to it, and I said I could. Then he turned to be Schiller and asked him whether he had said anything to me or asked the questions and Mr. Schiller said “Well, I said I didn't think I had no u
for Mr. Kruse." Then Mr. Clyne and Mr. Plummer left the office, leavis 1800 Mr. Schiller and I alone and 10 minutes later somebody called in to vir
Schiller and ten minutes later Mr. Schiller returned and said that the had decided they couldn't use me; that I was of no importance to them, the