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rs with whom they have no difference. No matter where one is born sught to be able not to assume au irrational view on this subject. If the alists of every nation would take the same view that you do, there would 10 rumbling in the respective Governments. The ruling class would have full support of the Socialists. ou further say that we are making the party organization the tool of a ign enemy government now at war with this country. Let me ask you my Gaylord, do you take the position of Stephen Decatur " my country may ver be right, but right or wrong my country"? Of course, if that is your tion then your protest is not in harmony with the international Socialist movement,

You speak of the autocratic government of Germany, Austria, Bulgary and Turkey. How about the autocratic government of Servia, Roumania, y, Japan and Belgium, and until very recently the despotism of Russia ? you know of any degree of democracy existing in any of these countries? you know of the ruling class of those countries, fighting for democracy and lization? Why single out a few of the autocratic countries who happen le allied on one side of this war? Besides, as one living in America, my test concern is to establish a degree of democracy and liberty in the United tes instead of meddling and taking sides in the European war. I can see difference between the autocracy of Germany and the other empires and zdoms. I hate them all and I hope that the people of the respective atries, before the war is over, or after the war, will manifest good sense be courageous enough to connect over all the crowns in Europe. ou speak further of the propaganda we are carrying on to the advantage he feudal government of a nation with which this nation is now at war.

Isn't it a fact that so long as we are furnishing guns and ammunition and food stuffs to the allies, that we are not only actively engaged in a propa

ganda to the advantage of those feudal governments, but are an active t of the war? Why close our eyes to facts? I hate the word “Kaiser"

“Sultan," but I also hate the word “King” and I further hate to be ened in a propaganda that will actively strengthen one side or the other. er all, as our anti-war proclamation well says we are not conducting a : against the “Kaiser," but we will shoot the german people who are now iggling within their own country to establish a degree of democracy. ne more point and then I am going to leave you. You call our attention he fact that there were only 185 delegates out of a possible of 300, present. iust remind you that a national referendum was pending when the contion was called, providing for a convention in September to be attended 200 delegates instead of 300 as per constitution. The Emergency ConvenI was called on the same basis as the referendum provided for the Sepber Convention. If you say that it was not a representative convention,

then you must confess that you were not a representative delegate. Surely you wouldn't claim that you and a few who shared your views were the

only representative delegates and all the others were not. et us forget awhile that we were born in America or in Germany or Engd, or elsewhere, and let us remember that we now live in this

country and let try to solve the problems of the workers here at home. By doing so we sht succeed in keeping this country out of international intanglements, even ugh it might interfere with the profits of Wall Street. is stated in the outset, I am submitting your letter to the Executive Comtee. Vith all good wishes, I remain, as ever,

Fraternally yours,


Executive Secretary.

Recross Examination by Mr. Stedman. Vhen Mr. Sherman (the shipping clerk) sent out the letters they were lally checked referring to Order for Dillon letters Invoice 7804 witness testi1: I do not know that they were sent out. The check appears on that order ce, and there is no check in front of the 400 Dillon letters. There is no mark t indicates that the 400 circular letters were ever sent out. Mr. Berger was nember of the National Executive Committee and a member of the Emericy Committee.

Redirect Examination by Mr. Fleming.

Mr. Berger passed through my office on the way to Mr. Germer's office should judge I first saw Mr. Berger the second week I was there.

DR. C. E. CHERRINGTON, called as a witness on behalf of the Government,

testified as follows:

Direct Examination by Mr. Clyne.

I am a dentist in business in Chicago. I attended a meeting held at the hors of Fred Pischel, 1440 Warren avenue about August 22, 1917, and August by invitation through mail. I saw Mr. Kruse there, there were about 40 or

people present. I heard Kruse speak in substance as follows: This 740 a capitalistic war, the United States had no business to be in it. Th:

soldiers that were sent to Europe were simply cannon fodder, that it would be of no benefit to attempt to push the Germans back or take what they had taken away from them, that it would only waste the lives of the American boys. He referred to the Federal Building as the Temple of Injustice and the Chamber of Inquisition, rivaling the Inquisition of the past. He spoke of the Peoples Council, and denounced the people who had prevented them from meer ing in the different States, he spoke of the prejudice; and also told of the federal agents coming into the room of two young friends, two young ladies at midnight. Laura Hughes a Canadian woman also spoke.

Cross-Examination by Mr. Stedman.

This meeting was held at a private residence on the second floor, meeting called at 8 o'clock P. M. There were about 10 men and 30 or 40 women present, men of 25 to 40 years. I was rather displeased at the remarks of Mr. Kruse The remarks aroused no feeling of disloyalty in me and aroused no seditious feelings in me. I understood from his talk that capitalism meant the Morgans and Rockefellers. He mentioned the question of profit.

He said that this is a capitalistic war and violently attacked different people who had prevented the Peoples Counsil from holding meetings. He said the Peoples Council would be formed in every state in the union; that they would find places to meet and that “they must not be supine fish but should be met of conviction and martyrs if need be.” He said that the purpose of the People Council was to prevent war, to stop war completely.

Laura Hughes spoke largely on the wrongs that Great Britain had committed. She discussed the oppression of Ireland and the wrongs of Egypt and different parts of the world. Said that she was born in Canada.

Ernest Reichmann, a conscientious objector out at Camp Grant, presided.


EDNA PETERS, called as a witness on behalf of the Government, testified as follows:

Direct Examination by Mr. Fleming.

I have lived in New York City since November 9, 1918, I am attending the Rand School of Social Science. I was awarded a scholarship. Given me by the Rand school.

Mr. Fleming: How did you happen to get that scholarship?
Mr. Stedman: I object.

Objection overruled ; exception. Mr. Fleming: Q Who caused you to get that scholarship in the Rand Schom of Social Science?

The Witness: A A letter was sent to Mr. Arnold of Milwaukee by the Rand School.

Mr. Fleming: Q Mr. Arnold with an office in the Second floor of Brisbane Hall-immediately adjoining Mr. Berger.

A. Yes.

Mr. Cunnea: Objected to. There is manifestly animus between this couns! and the witness, and no apparent reason that I can see, with a lead that 5 hurtful.

(Objection overruled ; exception of defendants by their counsel.)

Prior to November 9, 1917, I lived in Milwaukee, employed as a reporter for

the Milwaukee Leader on a general suburban route, I was connected 2 with the editorial branch of Milwaukee Leader under Claude R. Diegle.

I have been a member of the Young Peoples Socialist League for exactly teen months, being a member of the North Side Club. The League has been existence for about six years. I know William F. Kruse. I have not met all the defendants. I know Berger well enough to talk to him. I don't know rmer very well. I did not meet Germer at Pabst Park at the Socialist Conation in Milwaukee last spring. I saw him (Germer) there but didn't hear n speak. I also saw Berger there. I am somewhat deaf. I remember ring Kruse at Pabst Park in August, 1917 attending the Chautauqua. :: Kruse addressed the meeting. I could not hear what was said. I S present at a meeting July 9 in Milwaukee when Mr. Tucker spoke. rger was there also. I have read the pamphlet entitled "The Price We Pay," roclamation and War Program" "Why You should Fight." I joined the P. S. L. in August, 1917 During the winter we held only a few meetings. ielped distribute pamphlets entitled “The Price We Pay,” “Why You Should ght," and "Proclamation and War Program" during the winter of 1917. I sent the National Office at Chicago for the pamphlets. I sent to William F. Kruse. vrote one letter to Adolph Germer about these pamphlets and thereupon the tness identified letter referred to as bearing her signature and the me was marked Government's Exhibit 128. I received the pin referred to in

the letter. 3 (Said document, was thereupon admitted in evidence marked Govt

Exhibit 128 and the same is in words and figures as follows, to wit:)

GOV. EX. 128.

Address all communications to The Milwaukee Leader

The Milwaukee Leader

Victor L. Berger, Editor Phone Grand 6060
Lily, Except Sunday
Brisbane Hall, 528–530 C) stnut St. Milwaukee, Wis.

Nov. 15, 1917

Sent 11/16/17 lolph Germer. ar Comrade Germer :I sent back to you a button which by mistake I had ordered instead of a pin, t as yet have received no reply, kindly let me know if you have received it no. The young people's Socialist club which I belong to will have a meeting tonight d I shall take the matter up in earnest with them. Sunday morning coming me from a social, a group of eight of us went out with literature, one of the y comrades and myself carrying "The Price We Pay” and “Proclamation d War Program.” I hope the clubs in the city will soon take up this work as to aid in winning the Spring Election. Hoping to receive an early reply, I am,

Yours for Socialism, Shipped

EDNA PETERS. v 16 1917 1

Pkg (Stamped :) The Socialist Party National Office Madison & Halsted Sts., ceived Chicago, Ills. Nov. 16 1917 No--

Cross-Eramination by Mr. Cochems.

I am nineteen years of age. Since coming to Chicago I have not talked or ited with Mr. Kruse, Engdahl, Germer, Berger or St. John Tucker. I came iday night and was told I could go to my home in Milwaukee I have not ken to Stedman or to Mr. Cunnea since I came to Chicago. I first learned at I was to be a witness in this case on Monday noon of last week when an ploye of the Department of Justice came up to me and said he wanted a tement in the Berger case. I was taken to the Federal Building and then the hotel and kept at the hotel until the following Tuesday noon.

I was en to Hotel Woodstock by a woman of the Department of Justice; I was t served with a subpoena or summons or anything like that. A detective of

138525—19-VOL 2-17

the Department of Justice gave the orders that I be taken to the hotel. process was served upon me of any kind. I was served with a subpoe Thursday morning and came from New York alone. I obtained my scholarship throught Senator Arnold of Milwaukee. I have met Adolph Germer twio. Tucker once and never have met Engdahl. When I came from New York to Chicago I went directly to Mr. Fleming's office (District Attorney). He (Mr. Fleming) asked me if I had money to go to my home in Milwaukee. I said fa, and he (Fleming) gave me $5.00 and told me to return Monday morning. I have never refused to give him (Fleming) such evidence as I could truthfuis give and there has been no lack of candor or frankness on my part in me interviews with Mr. Fleming. I signed a statement in Mr. Fleming's offic in this building, two months ago, at which time I was subpoenaed from Minwaukee. In reference to my testimony Mr. Fleming went through it again this morning and had Mr. Plummer go through it again with me this morning Fleming spoke to me this noon about my former testimony, in reference on seeing Mr. Berger at Pabst Park.


Redirect Examination by Mr. Fleming.,

I never told Mr. Deigle (head of editorial department for Milwaukee Leader the fact that I was asked about the distribution of literature, the writing of letters or about my examination in Chicago.

Mr. Stedman: I ask as additional grounds to strike out the statement that the witness is hostile.

(Objection overruled; exception.)

LAWRENCE L, McDONOUGH, called as a witness on behalf of the Govere

ment, testified as follows:

Direct Examination by Mr. Fleming.

My business is a police officer. I am held at the First Deputy Superintendent's office, 306 City Hall; I have been assigned to the Anarchist Squad covering the Bolsheviki, I. W. W.'s and disloyal meetings, gatherings. I don't recall attending a meeting at Riverview Park Picnic grounds Sunday, June 11. I made a report if I did. I have no independent recollection of that meeting.

(Whereupon there was offered and received in evidence Government's Exhibit 129, report on page 55 of Scrap Book B, letter addressed by Adolph Germer

National Executive Secretary to National Executive Committee.) 746 To the admission of Ex 129 in evidence the defendants jointly and

severally entered and objection upon the ground that said exhibit is incompetent, and published prior to the 15th of June 1917 and incompetent, objertion was overruled to which the defendants severally were allowed an exception

(Said document was thereupon by the court admitted in evidence as Government's Exhibit 129, and the same is in words and figures as follows, to wit

[blocks in formation]

National Office, Socialist Party.

Chicago, III., February 6, 1917. To the National Executive Committee. Dear Comrades:

The inclosed is a draft of a proclamation adopted by the National Emergence Committee. It is the intention to issue this in two-page leaflet form to be dis tributed broadcast throughout the country.

Comrade Hillquit wired in this proclamation to the office. The Emergency Committee met immediately in conjunction with the translator-secretaries and adopted it with a few minor changes and additions. We must get this out inmediately, and I suggest that you send in your approval or disapproval by wire.

The telegram sent to the President and congressmen brought in four objet tions. One from Comrade Spargo, One from the State Executive Committee New York, one from Comrade Hillquit and one from National Committeemat Boudin of New York. The demand for an embargo was based upon our ohi slogan, "Starve the war and feed America,” and in harmony with this declanstion. However, since diplomatic relations have been severed with the Germiss Empire, our protest should be clean cut against war, as enunciated in the inclosed proclamation.

The Emergency Committee had contemplated a meeting of the National Execue Committee this week, but Comrade Hillquit informs us that he cannot end; Comrade Maley said she could attend under difficulties and Comrade irgo could attend provided we substituted someone at the party's expense to his lecture engagements. In view of these facts, and feeling that this procsation deals with the situation for the present, the Emergency Committee indoned the idea of a meeting of the whole committee. Remember, send in your vote by wire because the importance of the situation nands that we get it off the press at once. Yours fraternally,


Frecutive Secretary. ncl. BHB


By a mere executive decree, the President of our country has broken off lomatic relations with the German Empire, and placed the people of the ited States in imminent danger of being actively drawn into the mad war of rope. During the last thirty months, the blackest months in the annals of human tory, six million innocent men have ben brutally killed, and many more milas have been crippled and maimed for life. Whole countries have been de. stated and the accumulated treasures of human industry and nature's gensity have been ruthlessly destroyed. Curope is a dread house of mourning in which the disconsolate sobs of the lows and orphans at home mingle with the agonized groans of the wounded d dying on the battlefield. In this savage carnival of wholesale and indiscriminate murder, there was t one powerful member of the family of nations that preserved an attitude of nparatively sanity—the United States of America. Removed by the vast etch of the Atlantic ocean from the scene of the inhuman conflict, safe in our nomic self sufficiently, and proud of our advanced and democratic instituns, we watched the self destruction of our European brothers with bleeding arts, eagerly waiting for the opportunity to bring them back to reason and ice, to life and happiness. And suddenly, with little notice or warning, without the sanction or consent the people and without consultation with the people's chosen representatives

in congress, we are practically ordered to join in the mad dance of death 9 and destruction and to swell the ghastly river of blood in Europe with

the blood of thousands of American Workers. The Socialist Party of the United States, speaking in behalf of hundreds of pusands of its adherents and in behalf of the working class of the country. ters a solemn protest against this wanton attempt to draw us into the European nflict. We are opposed to wars between nations because war is a reversion to brutal rbarism. We are opposed to the present threatened war in particular because

great war has ever been waged with less justification and on more frivolous Ptexts. The policy of unrestricted and indiscrimate submarine warfare recently nounced by the German Government is most ruthless and inhuman, but so is is as a whole and so are all methods applied by both sides. War is murder. ar is the climax of utter lawlessness, and it is idle to prate about lawful or wless methods of warfare. The German submarine warfare does not threaten our national integrity

independence, not even our national dignity and honor. It was not aimed imarily at the United States and would not affect the American people. It ould strike only those parasitic classes that have been making huge profits manufacturing instruments of death or by taking away our food and selling

it at exorbitant prices to the fighting armies of Europe. 0 The workers of the United States have no reason and no desire to shed

their blood for the protection and furtherance of the unholy profits of eir masters and will not permit a lying and venal press to stampede them into king up arms to murder their brothers in Europe. The six million men whose corpses are now rotting upon the battlefields of urope were mostly workingmen. If the United States is drawn into war, it

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