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I attended the meeting under direction of Mr. Barry of Department of Justice. I saw and heard Mr. Tucker on that occasion. Mr. Tucker said in substance: this war is a struggle between the capitalist groups of the nations in it, and that America had been dragged into this war by the moneyed interests and that the workers must fight and pay the bill. He said he believed the President was sincere when he (the President) said that America desired nothing for herself for participating in the war but that America was helping the Allies to get everything and to judge from Lloyd George's speech the Allies wanted everything. Tucker referred to an article appearing in a British magazine which he attributed to Cecil Rhodes to the effect that by the year of 1920 Great Britain with the help of America and Russia would find it necessary to crush Germany utterly in order to make her commercial supremacy secure for all times.
In referring to Russia Mr. Tucker said: the working men's and soldiers council in Russia which followed the overthrow of the Czar was doing every thing possible to bring an early peace and general peace to the world. He further stated that Balfour of the British Commission had attempted to sell a number of worthless patents, on war implements to this country for the sum of two million dollars. In referring to Mr. Root's report of the American Commission that visited
Russia in which Mr. Root had referred to the need of a Press Bureau 675
to overcome the unfavorable stories brought back by Russians who had
been to this country and returned to Russia to the effect that we had not one ruler, but fifty; that America was in fact a demoreracy but was in reality a plutocracy. Tucker alluded to the difficulties such a press bureau would have in overcoming such unfavorable things as the Patterson strike, the Chicago strike and the Pennsylvania mine warfare.
There was a resolution introduced at that meeting by Alderman Emil Seidel, the substance of which favored an early peace, resuested the president to state our war aims on the basis of no punitive indemnities and on forcible annexations of territory. The reslution pledged the signers to work for the repeal of selective military conscription or compulsory military service, the adoption was moved by Mr. Berger. I did not hear it seconded.
Cross-Eramination by Mr. Stedman. I believe Mr. Tucker said he was against all empires, British and German. That he wanted America to remain a democracy and not to become a part of either the German or British Empire. I think he referred to the contemporary review of London of December 1895. Referring to article by Cecil Rhodes
that there was to be a combination to crush Germany or otherwise she 676 would become a commercial rival. That the time of the conflict would
be necessary in 1920. I made memorandum only. We were instructed not to take shorthand notes by Mr. Barry. Shorthand notes would have gives a complete statement of the speech. We took what impressed us as a possible violation. By taking shorthand notes you have the speech in its entirety. I made the memorandum the next morning as much as I could recall of it, and I supposed that what impressed me was in the memorandum. There were Press tables in front but they were reserved for the Press. I made no effort to work at one of those tables. Mrs. Laura Hughes was present. She talked about the selective miliary conscription which was about to go into effect in Canada and stated that Canada had not gone under military conscription up to that time although the war had been in progress for over two years. There was an audience of about 4000; there were seven from the Secret Service there.
Redirect Examination by Mr. Fleming.
The Leader carried a report of that meeting and the Sentinel (arried one.
Recross-Eramination by Alr. Stedman.
John H. Maurer was present-was introduced as President of the Pennsyt
vania Federation of Labor. He said conscription, was not as fair and 677 democratic as it seemed ; that the rich man, if he were killed his family
was secure from want but if the poor man was killed the family suffered ; that in war, those that could least afford it had to suffer the most and die and pay the bill. He (Maurer) also suggested that an investigation should be made as to how many members of Congress held steel stock and the date they acquired it. He said he was opposed to issuing one dollar's worth of bonds; that he did not believe in the issuance of bonds; that he would go into the rich peoples homes and take just as liberally as the Government did the poor man's life and that he would put every parasite to work. I did not bring
the memorandum with me. I was unable to find it. 578 (Whereupon there was offered and received in evidence as Govern
ment's Exhibit 102, a resolution adopted at this peace meeting taken from Milwaukee Leader of Tuesday Evening, July 10, 1917, and the same is in words and figures as follows, to wit:) To the admission of Ex 102 into evidence the defendants severally entered their objection, upon the ground that said exhibit was immaterial, irrelevant and incomptant and not a part of the res gesta, or a logical development of the offense alleged in the indictment objection was overruled to which the defendants severally were allowed an exception. 679
GOVERNMENT'S EXHIBIT 102.
Resolutions Adopted at Peace Meet. We American citizens and voters of Milwaukee, Wisconsin, in mass meeting assembled, hereby respectively submit the following resolutions to the president of the United States and to both houses of congress:
1. We favor an immediate, general and democratic peace, including no forcible annexation of territory and no punitive indemnities.
2. We respectifully urge the president of the United States and congress to announce our war aims on the above principles.
3. We oppose censorship of newspapers and interference with their distribution by the postal department. Private mail should not be tampered with. Secret diplomacy must be abolished.
4. We pledge ourselves to work for repeal of laws of compulsory military conscription and service.
5. We call upon the working people of our country to insist that where women take the place of men, women are to receive men's wages.
6. We demand a referendum on the question of conscription and war.
A copy each of these resolutions is to be sent to the president of the United States, the speaker of the house and the presiding officer of the senate and to the Wisconsin delegation in both houses of congress. 680 FRANK A. FITZGERALD, called as a witness on behalf of the Government, testified as follows:
Direct Eramination by Mr. Fleming. I live in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. I am manager of the Cream City Bill Posting Company; been in business 30 years. Our business is poster advertising. I have known Victor L. Berger 25 years and have had frequent business dealings with him. In September, 1917, Mr. Berger wanted me to see regarding advertisements, getting up a poster to advertise the Milwaukee Leader. I went to Mr. Berger's office. This was the 1st of September. We talked about the size of the poster and the number to be made. It was decided upon a 20 ft. by 9 ft. size. We contracted to print 100 and post 50 for two months display. It was a verbal contract, the price was about $600, a copy of the poster was furnished to us. I took the copy and re-wrote it to make an arrangement in getting the proper display upon the sheets. After the sketch was made I brought it up to be submitted to him and he looked it over and he said, there is a line there I don't quite like. I would like to think of a good line at the top. I was sitting there and he was in the middle of the room, and I suggested to him “Why, don't you use ‘War is Hell'”. Berger said that's good, too. You go ahead, Frank, with the balance of the sketch and leave that go until later. A couple of days later I was called up over the telephone for a copy of the first line by Mr. Rayfoeldt and also Mr. Berger called at the same time. Berger said, Go ahead. I wrote it down: “ War is Hell Caused by Capitalism. Socialists Want Peace". “This is the proper wording." We struck off 100 of those posters. We posted 50 throughout the City, in suburbs and one in
West Allis, I believe that was torn down by some of the citizens. They 681 remained up for about 60 days, but they were changed. I got a letter from the Department of Justice asking about that contract and I answel it and sent the letter to Mr. Berger telling him that we would cover objectionable top line without cost. This was before all were posted. In gone on a fishing trip before they started posting. I should judge 45 W posted.
(Whereupon there was offered and received in evidence as Government Exhibit 103 a photographic representation of posters referred to as follow “War is Hell ; Caused by Capitalism"; " Socialists Want Peace"; " The M waukee Leader, Victor L. Berger, Editor." “ Read the Peoples Side" Newsiest Daily in the City, 2 Cents per copy, 10 cents per week. Office 6th a Chestnut streets. Telephone Grand 5060,” which is in words and figures follows, to wit:) To which offer by the government the defendants severally entered the
objection on the ground that said exhibit was incompetent and irrevelas and not shown to be the natural result or greed act of any of the defendan or a part of the res gesta, objection was overruled and the defendant
jointly and severally allowed an exception. 682
Cross-Eramination by Mr. Cochems. I received instructions from the Soicalist headquarters and Mr. Berger and Miss Thomas directing me to cover up part of the poster. It isn't the firs time a bunch of boys or kids or hoodlums had torn down bills as this w torn down. That happened frequently. The part we covered up on the big board was: “War is Hell” “Caused by Capitalism" and " Socialists Want Peace." I suggested that “ War is Hell" should be used as the first line.
Redirect Eramination by Mr. Fleming.
FRANK JUSCHINSKI, called as a witness on behalf of the Government, being first duly sworn, testified as follows:
Direct Examination by Mr. Fleming.
I am in the business of printing and am the proprietor of the Homan Press, Chicago, Illinois. I know William F. Kruse and did work for him in August of 1917. He brought me a copy and I set the job up and showed him the proof and he 0. K.'d it and then I printed it and delivered the job by a boy. The two affidavits you show me are the papers printed by me for Wm. F. Kruse. There were two jobs. There were 1000 copies of one and 250 copies of the other. The printing was paid for by William F. Kruse. I recognize my signature to the receipt you show me.
(Witness was referred to memorandum dated 7/21/17 and identified 683 the signature as that of William F. Kruse, and also identified the signa.
ture of William F. Kruse to the receipt for $1.50 dated 8/23/17. (Whereupon the Government tendered the foregoing two copies of affidavits and memoranda signed by William F. Kruse, same being 2 receipts, as Government's Exhibit 104.)
(Whereupon counsel for Defendants objected; objection overruled; exception.)
(Said documents were thereupon by the court admitted in evidence as Govern: ment's Exhibit 104, and the same are in words and figures as follows, to wit:)
GOV. EX. 104.
The Homan Press,
Chicago, Aug. 14, 17,
Wm. F. Kruse.
The National Office Soc. Party
803 W. Madison St.
1425 South Kedzie Avenue Terms Net.
1 M Affidavits
6.00 "Paid Aug 17/17
To Wm. F. Kruse
"Ordered paid Aug. 18, 1915." tecd payment
WM. F. KRUSE. 85
GOV. EX. 104.
Serial No. ocal Board
1. Affidavit of Person Whose Discharge Is Sought State of County of
to wit: I,
do solemnly swear that I am years old, and reside at
(Street and Number) (City, town and county or township
(State, Territory or District) und that Serial Number
was given me by Local Board
(Insert official designation and address of Local Board) und that claim for my discharge was filed with said Local Board on the --- day of
--, 191------, on the ground that I was a "member of (Day)
(Month) well-recognized religious sect or organization,” organized and existing on and before May 18th, 1917, with whose then existing principles participation in war s incompatible and that my convictions are against war or participation therein in accordance with the creed or principles of the said well-recognized organization. do solemnly affirm that I am a member in good faith and goo standing
of the Socialist Party of America, Local Cook County, Branch, 686 which on the 18th day of May, 1917, was organized and existing as a
well recognized organization whose principles forbade its members to participate in war, and I here by affirm that this fact entitles me to exemption under the provisions of Section 4 of the Selective Service Law.
I do further solemnly affirm that said Socialist Party of America has consistently opposed war from the time of its organization as is demonstrated by its official utterances, and that it has consistently opposed this war as is demonstrated by the National Executive Committee proclamation of August 12th, 1914, the proclamation of August 14th, 1914, the manifesto on the Lusitania crisis issued in May, 1915, the peace platform adopted in May, 1915, the U-Boat manifesto of April 21st, 1915, and the message to President Wilson, March 30th, 1917; copies of which documents can be furnished for the inspection of this Board. I do further solemnly affirm that the creed and principles of said Socialist Party of America forbid its members to take part in war, and
submit as evidence Article II, Section 7, of the National Constitution of 687 the Socialist Party of America, which said Constitution was adopted
August 3rd, 1915, and which reads as follows: “Article II, Section 7–Any member of the Socialist Party, elected to an office, who shall in any way vote to appropriate moneys for military or naval purposes, or war, shall be expelled from the Party."
I do further solemnly affirm that my creed and convictions are absolutely in accord with the principles of said Socialist Party as herein set forth and that I cannot conscientiously become a party to any war.
I do' hereby bind myself to report in person and to notify the said Local Board, at once, whenever these conditions, now entitling me to discharge, cease to exist.
Affirmed and subscribed to before me this
(Notary Public) State of Illinois, County of Cook.
My Commission expires
His appointive power enables him to build up a gigantic machine. It enables him to hold a club over senators and members of the House of representative so that, if they want to be in the good graces of the administration and get anything for their districts, they must kow-tow to the president, instead of representing their constituents.
He also has the power to veto acts passed by congress. They can only be passed over his veto by a two-thirds vote.
The president must be shorn of these autocratic powers.
All this is one of the many things that must be done before we shall have : democracy in this country. It is hard to do so because of the totally undemocratic
manner of amending the consitution, which is another of the many 696 binding straps with which we are hobbled.
Certainly, the presidency will either have to be abolished, or else its overweening powers will have to be curtailed and limited to the simple function of the execution of the laws, before democracy in this country will be anything but a joke.
Yet, we find the president himself, although clothed with and exercising all these autocratic powers, blandly asserting that we are fighting for democracy!
Learn, brothers of Russia. Learn from us, before it is too late.
The publishers of Bibles are away behind with their orders. The war has created an unprecedented demand for them, especially for the New Testament.
This is good news. We hope the purchasers of these books will read them
They will probably have to do it on the sly, however. For, as you know. the Bible is treasonable nowadays. It says, “ Thou shalt not kill." This infamous doctrine has been put over on the human race for a long time. But our latter day commercial and political saints will have none of it. They are a whole lot wiser than God-who is said to have given the commandment, “Thou shalt not kill," to Moses. They have amended the Commandment by striking out the word “not so as to make it read, " Thou shalt kill." Before any more Bibles go to press, we suggest that that word be gouged out of the plate. Of course, it will leave a blank spot on the page. But that's all the better. It will call the attention of the present and future generations to the fact that our wise commercial and political saints overruled God and censored His word.
Then, they must remember that the New Testament rear firms the above mentioned commandment. But that isn't the worst. It also adds a new com. mandment—" that ye love one another." Now, isn't that horrid? That will have to be gouged out too.
And, while we are about it, let's gouge out the place where it says “ Blessed are the peacemakers for they shall be called the children of God."
There are a number of other anti-bloodshed and anti-hatred expressions that also call loudly for the chisel. When the censor gets through, it will be a badly speckled book, but it will be safe and highly moral. All the treasonable utterances made by God and His Son will have been eliminated.
And the war fan preachers will no longer be embarrassed every Sunday when they go to read the Scripture lesson.
It is highly desirable that all locals, branches, and comrades who can should send contributions to the National Office for defense fund.
Comrades here and there are subjected to persecution and this fund is used for the purpose of giving them legal defense. The regular income of the office on account of the small dues is not sufficient for this purpose. Send contributions to National Office, Socialist Party 803 West Madison St. Chicago.