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In this sa vage carnival of wholesale and indiscriminate murder, there was but one powerful member of the family of nations that preserved an attitude of comparative sanity--the United States of America. Removed by the vas stretch of the Atlantic ocean, from the scene of the inhuman conflict, safe in our economic self-sufficiency, and proud of our advanced and democratic insti. tutions, we watched the self-destruction of our European brothers with bleeding hearts, eagerly waiting for the opportunity to bring them back to reason and peace, to life and happiness.
And suddenly, with little notice of warning, without the sanction or consent of the people and without consultation with the people's chosen representatives in congress, we are practically ordered to join in the mad dance of death and destruction and to swell the ghastly river of blood in Europe with the blood of thousands of American workers.
The Socialist Party of the United States, speaking in behalf of hundreds of thousands of its adherents and in behalf of the working class of the country. enters a solemn protest against this wanton attempt to draw us into the European conflict.
We are opposed to wars between nations because war is a reversion to brutal barbarism. We are opposed to the present threatened war in particular because no great war has ever been waged with less justification and on more frivolous pretexts.
The policy of unrestricted and indiscriminate submarine warfare pe 412 (ently announced by the German government is most ruthless and it
Inuman, but so is war is a whole and so are all methods applied by both sides. War is murder. War is the climax of utter lawlessness, and it is idle to prate about lawful or lawless methods of warfare.
The German submarine warfare does not threaten our national integrity or independence, not even our national dignity and honor. It was not aimed primarily at the United States and would not affect the American people. It would strike only those parasitic classes that have been making huge profits by manufacturing instruments of death or by taking away our food and selling it at exorbitant prices to the fighting armies of Europe.
The workers of the United States have no reason and no desire to shed their blood for the protection and furtherance of the unholy profits of their masters and will not permit a lying and venal press to stampede them into taking up arms to murder their brothers in Europe.
The six million men whose corpses are now rotting upon the battlefields of Europe were mostly workingmen. If the United States is drawn into war, it will be the American workers whose lives will be sacrificed-an inglorious, senseless sacrifice on the alter of capitalist greed.
Workers of America, awake! The hour is grave; the danger is imminent! Sience would be fatal! Gather the masses in meetings and demonstrations! Speak in unmistakable tones! Let your determined protest resound from one end of the country to the other !
Send telegrams or letters to President Wilson, to the United States Senators and Congressmen. Demand that American citizens and American ships be forbidden to enter the war zone, except at their own risk. Insist that this nation shall not be plunged into war for the benefit of plundering capitalists.
Down with war! Down with the inhuman social system that breeds war! Long live peace! Long live live the International solidarity of the workers of all nations !
The Above Proclamation Is Issued to the American People
issued monthly by
803 West Madison St., Chicago Price 10c per hundred
750 per thousand
Union Label) Co., Racine, Wis.
114 The Witness : We printed about 550,000 of those “ Down With War";
and an additional order of 200,000; total 750,000. BESSIE OXENHANDLER, called as a witness on behalf of the Government,
having been first duly sworn, testified as follows:
Direct Escamination by Mr. Fleming.
I live at 3556 West 15th street; employed by the Continental Casualty 415 Company as a stenographer. Prior to that I was employed by F. C.
Austin Drainage Excavator Company as stenographer for a period of three months. Prior to that I was employed by the National office of the Socialist Party from May 10th 1917, until the last part of March, 1918. I was employed by Mr. Adolph Germer as stenographer. There were several other stenographers. I have known Mr. Tucker since I was employed by the Socialist Party. He had an office at 803 West Madison street. I know Mr. Engdahl, saw him almost daily. I saw Mr. Tucker over there during the course of my employment about the first six months that I was employed by the Socialist Party. I saw him most every day. The last two or three months he was not there so frequently. I know Mr. William F. Kruse; I saw him almost every day. I took dictation from Mr. Germer and Mr. Tucker.
(Referring witness to letter bearing date October 25, 1917): I saw that letter before; it was dictated to me by Mr. Germer. (Referring witness to letter under date of November 17, 1917): that letter was dictated to me by Mr. Adolph Germer; also the letter dated December 26, 1917. The letter dated October 23, 1917, as dictated to me by Mr. Adolph Germer.
(Whereupon said letters were tendered in evidence by the Government). 416 To which defendants by counsel objected as incompetent immaterial and
remote which objection was overruled, to which ruling by the court the defendants were allowed an exception.
(Said letters were thereupon received in evidence as Government's Exhibits 34, 35, 36 and 37, and the same are in words and figures as follows, to wit:) 417
GOVERNMENT EXHIBIT 34
Chicago, Ill. Oct. 25, 1917.
F. W. Rehfeld,
After our telephone communication I find that the following lists were sent:
Saturday: Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, W. Virginia, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, Wisconsin, Wyoming,
Monday: New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Wednesday: Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut,
Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts. 418 Wednesday P. M. Singles : (alphabetically) Alabama to Wyoming,
Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nevada, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico.
This was the total list for the American Socialist. In addition to the above we have about 4,000 on the Eye Opener list, which will be sent out the first thing in the morning. It seems that one package was lost or held up in the mails somewhere, and I hope it will have reached you by the time you receive this letter. I wanted very much to get the entire list away by Monday, but somehow some very important work developed here in the office that had to be taken care of, and I was obliged to put on extra help.
ADOLPH GERMER AG/BO.
Chicago, Ill. Nov. 17, 1917.
Wisconsin. Dear Comrades:
Enclosed please find $1.00 contributed by Robert Leitner, 841 Polk St., San Francisco, California. Please send receipt direct to Comrade Leitner. With best wishes, I remain
Erecutive Secretary. AG/BO,
Nov 19 1917 420
GOV. EX. 36.
Chicago, Ill., Dec. 26, 1917.
Milwaukee, Wis. Dear Comrades:
Enclosed please find our check in amount $3.35, remitted by Mary A. Stevenson, Puyallup, Washington, in response to your appeal for assistance. Please acknowledge receipt to her. With best wishes, I remain,
ADOLPH GERMER Dec 28 1917
Executive Secretary. AG/BO.
Chicago, Ill. Oct. 23, 17 Dear Victor :
After our phone conversation I asked Miss Campbell about the mailing list as she informed me that the following states were sent to you by Special De livery yesterday (Monday). There is no reason why you should not have received it unless the Postmaster or the other friend of “ Democracy " Mr. Barry is holding it up. Here are the states sent yesterday: New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania. This evening we sent all states from Alabama to New York (In alphabetical order) With best wishes
GEBNER 422 Mr. Cochems: I want to interpose a special objection on behalf of the
defendant, Berger, to whom this letter, Government's Exhibit 34, purports to be written, upon the ground that the context indicates no relation this case whatever, and unless the District, Attorney can indicate some relation to the subject matter of this inquiry, I want to object to the introduction of these letters briefly, as a matter of saving time; further I object to them unless the objection is shown.
The Court: Objection overruled.
To which ruling by the court the defendants were allowed an exception. (Thereupon the witness was referred to Book A, page 73, and testified as follows):
I recall that Letter Book A. I recall that letter. It was dictated by Mr. Germer. It bears the initials A. G. Adolph Germer, and my initials, B. O. And it bears the stamped signature of Adolph Germer,
(Said letter was tendered in evidence by the Government as Exhibit 38, signed by Adolph Germer, bearing date May 17, 1917, appearing on page 73 of
letter book A heretofore identified.) 423 To which offer by the Government the defendants by counsel objected
on the ground that said document was immaterial and incompetent and remote which objection was overruled, to which the defendants were allowed an exception.
(Said document was thereupon admitted in evidence as Government's Exhibit 38, and the same is in words and figures as follows, to wit :)
GOVERNMENT EXHIBIT 38.
Chicago, Ill., May 17, 1917 Dear Comrades and Brothers :
You well remember how often the soldiers have been used against you and your fellow unionists whenever you have been compelled to go on a strike for higher wages, shorter hours, and better conditions of labor. You have not forgotten what happened in Colorado, Michigan, W. Virginia and other places. Now this military force has been strengthened by the passage of an undemocratic and Unamerican conscription law. The oppressors of labor want a stronger military machine to use against you when you demand redress from the ever increasing cost of living. You can stand so much pressure and no more. When your wages will absolutely fail to make both ends meet, you are bound to ask for more and if necessary, you will go on a strike to get it. To offset your strength in the past, soldiers have been used on innumerable occasions, and they have shot men in cold blood and burned women and children to
death. This will be done again. 425 The rise of this pernicious policy can only be checked by creating
healthy sentiment against it. We have the organization that will do the work, if you will help us furnish the literature. We want to circulate at least one million copies of the enclosed petition blank, demanding that the people of the Country be given the right to vote on the question of military conscription. If the War that has been declared for democracy, that principle should first be practiced at home.
We also want to distribute millions of copies of the enclosed Proclamation and War Program, which points out clearly why we are paying such tremendous prices for the necessaries of life. In order to do this successfully, we must turn to you for assistance, and appeal to you that you vote a liberal donation to this worthy cause. If you cannot vote a donation out of your treasury, take up a collection at the meeting or on pay-day.
Make all remittances payable to the National Office Socialist Party, 803 West Madison Street, Chicago, Illinois.
Let us join hands in one supreme effort to save this Country from the terrible fate that has befallen Europe.
Yours for Victory,
ADOLPH GERMER AG/BO.
426 I know the defendant Victor L. Berger. I knew him all the time that I
was in the employ of the National Office of the Socialist Party. That was from May 10, 1917, down to March, 1918. He came up there occasionally, about twice a week. I do not remember the dates, then a period of three or four weeks would elapse before I would see him again. He called to see Mr. Germer.
Cross-Examination by Mr. Stedman.
Mr. Berger was a member of the National Executive Committee, and Mr. John M. Work was another member of the Committee. I was not present at the meetings of the Executive Committee. I don't know how many meetings there were. I don't remember how many times I saw Berger in April 1917 or in May, nor in June. I don't recall that I saw him at all during the month of June. I don't know what Mr. Tucker was engaged in. Mr. Germer was on the Madison street side. To go to Mr. Tucker's office. You would walk from Mr. Germer's office east, through Miss Brown's room, and then south through Kruse's room and then another room to get into Tuckers. I took dictation
from Tucker. I don't know the contents of any of the letters dictatei. 427 I have identified some of the letters that I wrote for Mr. Tucker. I
talked three times to Mr. Fleming and Mr. Rooney and the stenographer. I don't remember that I was in the office on June 16th, last year. My desk was three offices west of Mr. Germer's in June, 1917. I don't know whether Mr. Tucker was employed by the National Office at any time. I don't recall taking any letters for Mr. Tucker in reference to the Intercollegiate Socialist Society, in regard to independent work that he was carrying on. I don't remember the nature or contents of any letter that I took for him. I don't re. member his dictating any letters on matters pertaining to the Christian Socialist. I do not recall how many letters he dictated to me in June 1917, or May. I thought he was employed there about six months. His room was on the Halsted Street side. Tucker was there in May 1917. He was working in the literature department. I don't remember what position he occupied in September or October of that year. Mr. Engdahl had charge of the American Socialist. Mr. Fleming called me into his office the day before Thanksgiving.
Redirect Examination by Mr. Fleming. I did not have anything to do with the employment of people up there. I
don't know whether Tucker was actually employed there or not, or 428 whether he was receiving a salary. All I know is that he came around
there during the period that I have testified. (Whereupon the attention of the witness was directed to letter on page 190 of Scrap Book A, Government's Exhibit 25, relating to the Liberty Edition of the American Socialist.) That letter was dictated to me by Mr. Tucker. ELI CROUSE, called as a witness on behlf of the Government, having been
first duly sworn, testified as follows:
Direct Examination by Mr. Clyne.
I live at Staunton, Illinois. I have been a resident of that place since October 12, 1917. I am a minister, of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 84 years, at Staunton, Illinois at the present time. I have seen the defendant Tucker be fore. I saw him on January 14, 1918, in Staunton, Illinois, where he delivered an address in the Labor Temple Auditorium at which time I was present There were about 300 people present. They ranged from about 18 to about 60 or 65 years of age; mostly young people. It started a little before eight o'clock. I did not know the first speaker. The second speaker was the chairman of the evening. He said, this is the first time we have had the privilege
of listening to an address by a minister of the gospel, and they were highly favored in having with them a minister from Chicago to deliver
the address of the evening, that this was the first of a series of five meetings which would be held, the succeeding meetings in the very near future. and he publicly announced the speaker: Mr. Kruse, Mr. Engdahl and Mr. Scott Nearing. He said the fifth speaker they had not secured, but would announce his name later on. He also announced the subject for the evening, which was " The Philosophy of the Kitchen Chair.” That was the subject that Mr. Tucker was to speak on. I recall in substance what Mr. Tucker said in his speech. Mr. Tucker said that from the very earliest times the chair had been the symbol of authority and the seat of power. This was signified in the fact that the chair was upon a raised platform or a rostrum and that from this chair the actions of society and politics had been dictated. He said this was illustrated in Parliamentary and Legislative bodies. There the chair was upon a raised platform. The members in that body must address the chair.