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(Objection by Defendants; as incompetent and immaterial which objection was overruled; and to which ruling of the court the defendant by their counsel took an exception.

(Said letter was thereupon by the Court admitted in evidence, marked Government's Exhibit 26, and the same is in words and figures as follows:

393

GOVERNMENT EXHIBIT 26.

"Dear Comrade Secretary:

This letter is not intended for the attention of the whole league. This one is intended only for you.

You know the conditions under which we are working. Our papers are being suppressed, our phone wires seem to be tapped, our every move is subject to espionage and interference. It may not be long before our organization itself is disrupted and declared illegal, as were those of the young socialists in old Russia. We must be ready to beat that game when it comes.

If you have followed my previous instructions you will now have an unofficial 'Emergency Committee' composed of the most trustworthy young socialists in your league ; you will have several copies of your most important records and especially of your mailing list stowed away in various safe and secluded places ; and you will have three trustworthy officers broken in for each important job that is vital to the welfare of the league. At least one of these officers should be a girl, so that if our boys were all jailed for refusal to serve, the girls can

keep the league going. Now comes the next step. 394 Get these emergency officers together and lay this matter before them.

Make up your minds that if ever the Y. P. S. L. is suppressed you will immediately get together all of its members as quietly as possible under the name of some athletic club, dramatic society, or pleasure circle. The name of this other organization should have nothing in common with socialism but it will be the Y. P. S. L. just the same. Should this other organization be discovered and disrupted, go thru the same processes again and again and again, if necessary.

The important thing to remember is that this work must be carried on secretly by a few of your trustworthy members in the interest of the league. It is . underground' work. In ordinary times it would not be necessary, but these are not ordinary times. I would urge you not to read this letter off in open meeting. Not that all your members are not trustworthy, but the fewer that know about these special plans the less chance there is for leakage. Get together to do this work. When the war is over and the liberties of our country are once nore assured we can sit around the table and tell how we kept our organization alive during the crisis. But for the time being you will do well to work silently. Trusting that you will take care of this matter, I remain, Yours for comradeship

WM. F. KRUSE, National Secretary Young Peoples Socialist League.

395

Cross-Examination Continued by Jr. Stedman

The stencil is an oiled sheet that is placed in a typewriting machine and then he latter is written on the typewriter, and then the stencil is taken off from he typewriter and put on with a gauze sheet under it on the stencil machine. I don't remember who operated the machine that day. I don't know who wrote he Dillon letter on the typewriter. I saw it after it was mimeographed. I lon't remember seeing it mimeographed. There were 500 letters. I don't recall iny mimeograph work done on that day, on the day before, nor any on the folowing, nor the name of any communication which was mimeographed within hree or four days before at this time, nor within three or four days after. I lo not recall how many times I saw Miss Brown that day or any other employe. 'r how many times I saw Mr. Germer that day, or what time of the day it was hat I saw him. I did mimeograph work frequently for parties outside of the ffice. There was work done for some trade union leagues and that work would

be done for them as a matter of accommodation, and Mr. Germer was 96 not communicated with about it; he had no knowledge of it. It was

mimeographed for outside parties. I generally done mimeograph work or different secretaries of leagues after office hours, but there was some done uring office hours sometimes as a matter of accommodation. Mr. Germer nade no complaint and would pay no attention to that. I have no recollection it all as to the time the mimeographing of the Dillon letter was finished.

Redirect Examination by Mr. Fleming.

The figures “ 500" are in my handwriting on this Dillon letter.

Recross Examination by Mr. Stedman.

The figures 500 placed on the letter was my method of showing the number of copies that were run off on the mimeograph. There was an automatic counter on the machine. I looked at it when we started, added 500 onto it, and when we reached the exact number we stopped. I don't remember looking at the indicator on that day.

ANTON DVYLIS, called as a witness on behalf of the Government, having

been first duly sworn, testified as follows:

Direct Examination by Mr. Fleming.

My age is 24 years. I reside at 358 East 53rd street. Have lived there two months. I am married. I was born in Lithuania. I have lived in America

for five years. I came here in January 1914. I have not declareil my in397 tention to become a citizen of America. I am a member of the Y. P.S.I.

I joined in 1916, Lithuanian Branch No. 1. Office at 301 South Halsted street. I as employed as a pressman for a Lithuanian paper called Naujienas I know William F. Kruse. I wrote a letter to Kruse on June 26th last. This (referring to letter shown witness) is the letter I wrote to Kruse. It bears my signature. I sent the letter by Mr. Sligus to Mr. Kruse and received a repls back. I saw Mr. Kruse write his name. I know his signature, I don't re member if the letter was received from Mr. Kruse. I don't remember who signed it.

(Whereupon counsel for defendants objected ; objection sustained.)
Mr. Fleming: We will have another witness to connect this up.
(Witness was withdrawn temporarily)

JAMES A. FRIBERG, called as a witness on behalf of the Government baving

been first duly sworn, testified as follows:

Direct Eramination by Mr. Fleming.

I live at 5933 South Green street, Chicago, Illinois. I am a musician identi.

tied with the United States navy since last April. I am a musician of the 398 navy stationed at Great Lakes, Illinois. I have known William F. Kruse

since June of last year. I met him at Camp Yipsel, Fox Lake. ( wax introduced by ny brother Conrad L. Frlberg. I saw Kruse a week later at his office. Later I met Kruse, in 1917, at the Douglas Park Auditorium, October, 1917. My brother was present and Mr. Bleischmidt. I don't know where Conrad is now. I saw him last March, 1918, I have not heard from him since. I have written Mr. Kruse. The letter addressed to Mr. Kruse bearing date July 21 1917 was written by me. I received a reply to that letter. I destroyed the reply. This (referring to document exhibited to witness ) is a copy of the

answer I received from Mr. Kruse. 399 (Said reply letter was then tendered and received in evidence as Gown

ernment's Exhibit 27.) To which the defendants objected as incompetent and immaterial as to each defendant, which objection was overruled and to which overruling of said och jection by the court the defendants by counsel took an exception.

(Said letter was thereupon by the Court admitted in evidence marked Gorernment's Exhibit 27, and the same is in words and figures as follows, to wit:)

400
GOV. EX. 27.

Aug. 7, 1917 Mr. James A. Friberg, c/o Harbor Point Club House,

Harbor Springs, Mich. Dear Comrade

I was very glad to hear from you and the delay in my answering your lettze is due to the fact that it arrived at the office while I was spending my vacati at Fox Lake. I hope that you will escape the draft and that you will continue Toni good work for our cause. You probably know that Fred Bartholomae has been taken on the first call, and that he has been passed as physically fit. It is rather rough on the boy, particularly since Fred is such a good worker.

There is now great agitation to start a daily paper in Chicago and I am sure that your suggestion has been brought up by several comrades. It strikes me as being a very good one and should the occasion present itself, I will bring it . up myself. Wishing you the best of success at your work, I remain Yours for comradeship

National Secretary, Young People's Socialist League.

101 (Thereupon letter from James A. Friberg to William F. Kruse dated

July 21, 1917, was tendered as Government's Exhibit 28. (Objection by counsel for defendants as incompetent and immaterial, which objection was overruled; to which ruling of the court defendants were allowed an exception.)

(Said document was thereupon by the court admitted in evidence, marked Government's Exhibit 28, and the same is in words and figures as follows, to wit:)

102

GOVERNMENT'S EXHIBIT 28

Harbor Springs, Mich. July 21, 1917. Dear Comrade Kruse:

I am writing this on the eve of when I am to know my fate. I am playing at a millionaires' summer resort. I am reminded of the war every where I see all the rich women knitting for the soldiers. It's very kind of them, isn't it. My brother just sent me the American Socialist. Believe me, it's good reading. Rather than buy yellow newspapers here I have been reading magazines. If I am not drafted I will subscribe for American Socialist even if it is impossible to get it on account of its being barred from the mails.

I wish to call your attention to the real object of this letter. I notice in July 14 issue of the American Socialist that a Daily Socialist Paper is under discussion. Financing it seems to be the only trouble. I can offer no suggestion about that but couldn't it be possible for every party member pledge himself to buy it every day for a year? Don't you think it would be advisable for every local in Cook County or Vicinity to see if every member present at the next possible meeting would pledge himself to buy the paper or at least take a vote on it? I realize that the paper would have to be sold to more than Socialist Party members to be a success but it should have the entire support of members. After the paper should become started, while it is more acceptible to have subscribers to it I think that if the Party members bought them from out of the Loop stands as well as in the loop the news dealer would see

to it that he kept a supply on hand. With the Socalist Daily glaring at 403 them from the stands I look for it to become a humdinger. I wished I

could offer some suggestions as to financing the paper so it could be started but I guess that will be some problem, even for the learned Socialists. Yours for Socialism

JAMES A. FRIBERG. (/0 Harbor Point Club House. Harbor Springs, Mich.

104

Mr. Kruse called at my home once, I don't know who to see, I was not home at the time.

Cross-Examination by Mr. Stedman.

Conrad Friberg is my brother. He introduced me and Mr. Kruse at Fox Lake. I don't know what matters were discussed, I don't remember. I registered and my brother registered. My brother was called but never appeared. I don't know where he is. I saw Kruse about six times. I heard no conversation between Kruse and my brother in regard to registering and entering the service at Fox Lake. Mr. Fleming directed me to come here to testify. I was directed to come here by my officer. He had a letter from Mr. Clyne. He wanted to know what it was about and I told him. Kruse never told me not to register.

SAMUEL LEWENKROHN, called as a witness on behalf of the Government, having been first duly sworn, testified as follows:

Direct Examination by Mr. Fleming. I live in Racine, Wisconsin for a little over three years. I work for the Western Printing & Lithographing Company. I was in charge of the book de partment and in general charge of the proof reading room for that company in 1917. We did printing for Mr. Adolph Germer, Executive Secretary of the

National Socialist Party. 405 The Witness: I recognize this (referring to order bearing date March

14, 1917). I recognize this order. It was filled, delivered and paid for. I recognize Mr. Germer's signature on the order. Orders on this signature were filled by us, payments made and shipments delivered.

I recognize these (referring to orders bearing date May 7, 1917; February 7, 1917, and March 14, 1917) ; they bear the signature of Adolph Germer.

(Thereupon the Government tendered in evidence as Government's Exhibit 29 an order signed by Adolph Germer dated February 7, 1917, to the Western Printing Company, Racine, Wisconsin, No. 5064, for 500,000 copies of the March Organization Leaflet.

(Objection by defendants upon the ground that the same is too remote, and that it is long before we even declared war and that there is no connection shown with any of the defendant excepting Germer.)

(Objection overruled ; to which ruling by the court the defendants were al. lowed an exception).

(Document was thereupon admitted in evidence, marked Government's Exhibit 29, and the same is in words and figures as follows, to wit:)

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Socialist Party-National Office
803 West Madison Street, Chicago, Ill.
Telephone Haymarket 5660
Order

Date February 7th, 1917. To Western Printing Co.,

Racine, Wis. No. 5064

Terms: Please put above Order Number

on Our Invoice. Please deliver and charge to our account the following: 500,000 March Organization Leaflets

ADOLPH GERMER

Erecutive Secretary. Please notify us if above cannot be filled as ordered, attention M-R

Our Order Number must appear on bill. 407 (Thereupon the Government tendered in evidence Exhibit 30, the order

signed Adolph Germer bearing date March 14, 1917.) (Said document was thereupon by the court admitted in evidence, marked Government's Exhibit 30, and the same is in words and figures as follows, to wit:) 408

GOVERNMENT EXHIBIT 30.

Socialist Party-National Office
803 West Madison Street, Chicago, Illinois.
Telephone Haymarket 5660.
Order

Date March 14, 1917. To Western Printing Co.

Racine, Wis. No. 5128

Terms: Please put above order Number

on our Invoice. Please deliver and charge to our account the following: 500 Anti-War Pictures

ADOLPH GERMER Please notify us if the above cannot be filled as ordered, attention of Our order number must appear on bill.

109 (Thereupon the Government tendered in evidence Exhibit 31, being

the order signed by Adolph Germer bearing date of May 7 1917. To which the defendants interposed an objection which was overruled by the court to which an exception was allowed.

(Said document was thereupon by the court admitted in evidence, marked Government's Exhibit 31, and the same is in words and figures as follows, to wit:)

410

GOV, EX. 31.

Socialist Party-National Office
803 West Madison Street, Chicago, Ill.

Telephone Haymarket 5660

Order

Date May 7, 1917. To Western Printing Co.

Racine, Wis. No. 5198

Terms : Please put above Order Number

on our Invoice.
Please deliver and charge to our account the following:

300 War Pictures
Print line below as follows,

“ Thou shalt not kill ",
10M Envelopes, like enclosed.

Received,
May -8
Answered

ADOLPH GERMER

Executive Secretary. Please notify us if above cannot be filled as ordered, attention of M. R. Our Order Number must appear on bill.

413 The Witness: (Continuing) We printed Government's Exhibit 33

(exhibiting document to witness). That is the picture printed as the Anti-War Picture. Deliveries were made in pursuance to those orders. The pamphlet “Down with War” which you show me is the March Leaflet which we printed upon the order marked Exhibit No. 29.

(Whereupon Government's Exhibits 32 and 33 were tendered in evidence, “ Down With War" and war picture.)

To which offer by the Government the defendants made an objection because said document is immaterial, incompetent and remote which objection was overruled, to which ruling by the court the defendants were severally allowed an exception.

(Said Exhibits were thereupon received in evidence by the Court, marked Government's Exhibits 32 and 33, and the same are in words and figures as follows, to wit:)

411

GOVT EX 32

Down with War!
The workers of the United States have no desire

and no reason to shed their blood.

By a mere executive decree, the President of our country has broken off diplomatic relations with the German empire, and placed the people of the United States in imminent danger of being actively drawn into the mad war of Europe.

During the last thirty months, the blackest months in the annals of human history, six million innocent men have been brutally killed, and many more millions have been crippled and maimed for life. Whole countries have been devastated and the accumulated treasures of human industry and nature's generosity have been ruthlessly destroyed.

Europe is a dread house of mourning in which the disconsolate sobs of the widows and orphans at home mingle with the agonized groans of the wounded and dying on the battlefield.

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