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at such times as shall be appointed by him. The Town Superintendents of common schools are required to file their reports with the county clerk, on or before the first day of August in each year. The law made it the duty of the county clerks to transmit certified copies of all such reports to the Superintendent by the first day of October in every year. This duty is now to be performed by the County Superintendents, who, for that purpose, are to have access to the reports filed in the clerk's offices, without charge. Although the time thus fixed for transmitting the reports to the Superintendent is longer than is necessary, in many counties, yet for the purpose of giving ample opportunity to render the returns full and accurate, the same time is appointed for the County Superintendents to make their reports ; but it is required that they shall be made and deposited in the post-office in season to reach the office of the Secretary of State by the first day of October in each year. This is essential to enable the Superintendent to prepare his annual report to the legislature, for presentation at the proper period.
2. Their contents. The reports are required by the statute to be the same as those now made by county clerks, with such additional information as the Superintendent shall require. They will contain:
1. A statement of the whole number of towns and cities in the county, distinguishing those from which the necessary reports have been made, and those from which none have been received :
2. A true and accurate abstract of all the reports filed with the county clerk during the year, or since the pre ceding annual report, by the Town Superintendents of common schools of the several towns, certified by the County Superintendents respectively, and arranged according to the towns, in which the results are carried out in proper columns, in the manner in which they are presented in table A. in the appendix to the annual report of the Superintendent to the legislature. This is required in order that the County Superintendents may see whether the footings in the reports of the Town Superintendents are correct; and if any errors are discovered, to have them corrected. The several columns are to be footed, so as to exhibit an abstract of the reports for the whole county. In this abstract the County Superintendents are required to state particularly the whole number of organized districts in the county, and where any of them consist of parts taken from adjoining counties, they will specify those in which the school-house stands in their county, so that the exact number of districts in the county shall be ascertained and reported.
3. They will also report the number of district schools visited by them during the year, and the number of times each school has been so visited, specifying the number when they were accompanied by the town inspectors or any of them. They will state the condition of the schools under the following heads:
(1.) Teachers. The number of males and their ages, viz: the number under 18 years of age; those over 18 and under 21; over 21 and under 25; over 25 and under 30; over 30 and under 40; over 40 and under 50; and over 50. The number of females and their ages in the same manner. The length of time those of different sexes have taught school, viz: the number of males who have taught less than one year, the number who have taught one year and less than two; two years and less than four; four years and less than six ; more than six years; and the same in respect to females. They will also state the monthly compensation of the teachers, speeifying how many receive the different sums that may be found to be paid; thus, the number receiving $8.00 per month; the number receiving $10.00, &c. and arranging them according to the sex of the teachers. They will ascertain from the teachers respectively the different portions of time they have kept any one school, and will communicate the result in a table, showing how many teachers have kept the same school one year, two years, three years, four years, five years, more than five and less than ten, and more than ten years.
(2.) The course and extent of study pursued. Under this head the report will state the following particulars:
Number of pupils in attendance at each time of visitation.
Number of classes in the school.
Number of pupils learning to spell, without being able to read.
Number of pupils learning to read.
Number of pupils studying History of the United States.
Number of pupils studying other history.
Number of pupils engaged in other studies, specifying them and the number pursuing each study. .. (3.) They are to report the result of their observations ;
1st. In relation to the qualifications of the teachers generally.
2d. In relation to the mode of teaching adopted in the schools.
3d. In relation to their government and discipline.
And they will notice gross irregularities or imperfections.
4. Condition of the School-Houses. They will state the number built of stone, those of brick, of wood framed, and of logs ; also the number having but one room ; those having two rooms in which schools are kept, and those having three or more rooms; the number in good repair, and the number in a bad or decaying condition. They will also state the number which have no privies, those which have one, and those which have two or more.
5. Condition of the district.-Any information which may be obtained under the enquiries already suggested, and which may be deemed useful, or in respect to which any beneficial action of the department can be had, will be stated in the report.
6. The state of the district libraries.—They are required to examine the library of each district, and ascerlain the whole number of books purchased, and on hand, and their condition; and the average number in circulation, i. e. the proportion usually kept out. They all the district libraries in the county, and the average of circulation, obtained from the averages of each district. They will state generally, the condition of the books, as far as seen by them, and the degree of care and attention apparently bestowed in their preservation by the trustees and librarian. If they discover any improper books in the libraries they should suggest to the trustees their removal; and if they find them continued, notwithstanding, they will report the facts to the department.
7. They will also report the whole number of persons to whom they have given certificates of qualification as teachers, during the year, specifying their sexes and ages, viz: those under 18—those over 18 and under 21-over 21 and under 25-over 25 and under 30-over 30 and under 40—over 40 and under 50—and those over 50.
8. It will be perceived that trustees of school districts are required to state in their reports the number of select schools, other than those that are incorporated, within their respective districts, and the average number of pupils attending them. There are such schools in cities and villages, as in Utica, Schenectady, Poughkeepsie and other places, which are not within any school district. As the information desired has a very important bearing upon the common school system, the County Superintendents are required to ascertain the number of such schools and the pupils taught in them during the year, which are kept in such cities and villages and are not included in any school district, and state them in their annual reports. They will be careful not to embrace any that are con. tained in the reports of the trustees; and to insure accuracy, they will specify the city or village in which the select schools are established. Those that are incorporated will be included in the reports to the Regents of the University.
IV. THE LICENSING OF TEACHERS AND ANNULLING THEIR CERTIFI
CATES. 1. Examining and licensing teachers.—This authority, it will be perceived, is given by sub. 2 of $ 36, of the act of 1841, (No. 171,) and by $ 8 of the act of 1843. It being very desirable that all the teachers should be licensed by the County Superintendents, so as to secure
to competent talent and knowledge, and to produce unifoimity in a county ; and to afford every reasonable accommodation to those desiring to offer themselves, they should make their arrangements to examine applicants for licenses in the different towns of their county, during their visitations in such towns. For this purpose, they should appoint a particular day and place in each town, and when the town is very large, in different sections of it, when they will be in readiness to examine teachers. Public notice of such appointment should be given. It is probable that this will bring together several applicants, and thus diminish the labors of the Superintendent: particularly as a county license by him will obviate the necessity of yearly examinations, as well as prevent the necessity of a re-examination during the year. In making such examinations they should confine themselves to the subjects specified in the statute in relation to inspectors, $ 46, (No. 57 :) and should ascertain the qualifications of the candidates in respect, first, to moral character ; second, learning; and third, ability.
First.—They should require testimonials of moral character, from those acquainted with the applicant, which should be either verbal or written, and the latter is to be preferred. This is not a matter to be neglected or slighted. Those to whom the training of our youth is to be committed, should possess such a character as will inspire confidence in the rectitude of their principles and the propriety of their conduct : and it is to be understood as a positive regulation of the department, that no license is to be granted, without entire satisfaction on this point. This must be understood to relate to moral character—to the reputation of the applicants as good citizens, free from the reproach of crime or immoral conduct. It does not extend to their belief, religious or political; but it may apply to their manner of expressing such belief or maintaining it. If that manner is, in itself, boisterous and disorderly, intemperate and offensive, it may well be supposed to indicate ungoverned passions, or want of sound principles of conduct, which would render its possessor obnoxious to the inhabitants of the district, and unfit for the sacred duties of a teacher of youth, who should instruct as well by example as by provept.