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other the first sinking march. If the hubs of the rollers f}, were placed the other way (reversed), the first sinking march and the second raising one would be acted on, these being placed under the first roller, and so on. The others are placed in proper order for an eight leaf satin tweel, and need no further illustration. The rollers f?, can be turned on either side, so as to sink or raise the headles, as required; and by drawing out the spindles, the rollers can be so arranged in the cylinder as to form different kinds of tweels, &c.

From the foregoing description it will be evident, that variations may be made; as, for instance, the giving off a less or greater number than eight picks of the west per change of pattern ; and although, in the foregoing description and drawings eight picks of west per card, only, are mentioned, the machinery is not confined to that number; the Jacquard shaft may turn once to five beats of the lay, or once to seven, &c.; which will give four or six picks of west to the card or change of pattern, and four or six leaves of ground headles will be used instead of eight, as in the present instance; all of which any experienced manufacturer or power loom maker will at once perceive.

For very wide textures, two of the cylinders c’, may be used insiead of one set, and also two sets of the coupers u’, the lifting marches y, and the sinking ones 63, one complete set at each side of the loom. The reason of this is obvious, because the headles being very wide, say three yards or more, the strain on one set alone would be very great. We therefore prefer the use of two sets instead of one, on very wide fabrics, and particularly so for the manufacture of linen table cloths, both sets being geared to correspond and to act at the same time on their respective marches, &c. But on the narrower fabrics, say under forty inches wide, one set alone, as herein above specified, will be quite sufficient.

The fourth part of the improvements consists, in a new mode of regulating the warp beam. The warp beam g?; (Figs. 231, 232 and 233) is surrounded at its ends by friction straps h?, each of which descends to a horizontal lever i'; the fulcrum of this lever is supported outside the frame by a projecting iron jä; on the other end of this lever, the friction weight k, is suspended, one weight to each side of the loom, (as in Fig. 233,) to which a connecting rod l?, is attached, that connects it with an upright lever m, (Fig. 231 and 232 :) this lever is made with a slot in its lower end to regulate the distance from the fulcrum 03, of the lever, at which the connecting rod l’, is attached; the fulcrum is about one third its length from the

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top. The upper ends of the levers mo, support the journals of a small roller p', which bear against the warp beam go. When the weaving commences, and the beam is full, the roller p?, is very far from its centre, and the weight ko, is near the end of the lever id; as the size of the warp beam decreases, the roller på, approaches nearer to the centre of it, and the weight lo, is moved towards the friction strap h', thus gradually decreasing the friction on the warp beam and regulating the tension of the warp: the weights k", will be drawn backwards as fast as the warp beam decreases in size; the friction weights may be drawn back by springs, or by some other suitable contrivance, as, for instance, by weights and cords passing over pulleys, &c. as in Figs. 231, 232 and 233; any required degree of tension may be given to the warp yarn, by simply adding cast-iron quoits on the perpendicular spindles, which are screwed into the weights ? for the purpose, as shown in the Figs.

The fifth part of the improrements consists, in a method of stopping the loom directly when the thread of west breaks or becomes expended in the shuttle. This contrivance is applicable to what is called the stop thread motion ; for which motion patents were granted sereral years since to Charles Cunningham, Esq., of Paris; and in England, to Messrs. Wells and Eccles, of Manchester, for another modification thereof, bearing date 5th Jan. 1938 ; and for another modification still, to Moses Poole, Esq., of the Patent Office, bearing date 12th Jay, 1839. Now, in order that the nature of this invention or improvement may be more clearly understood, it is necessary for us to describe so much of the methods employed heretofore, and just referred to, as will enable the reader to see the peculiar advantages of the present modification. Several of the parts of this mechanism are the same as in Poole and Cunningham's patents. In the patent granted to Wells and Eccles (which is described in vol. 13, new series, of London Journal of Arts and Sciences) there are two double acting levers, marked T, and U, being connected together with a small string or wire; these levers vibrate on two stud pins, which serve as their ases, and are riveted or bolted to a plate, secured or made fast to the side of the loom, directly over the threads or cords P, 9; the top set of which cords is connected to that end of one of the double acting levers, niarked T, which projects over them; to the opposite end of the other double acting lever, there is made fast a small knob W', which plays up and down between a piece of iron on the belt shipper, and the front of the lay: all of which will be seen in the account of Wells and Eccles' patent just alluded to. It will at once be perceived, that in this modification, the double ace

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ing lerers T, and U, will be kept on the continual wibble-wabble (shaking-quaker fashion) when the loom is in operation, and thus the knob W, will sometimes pop itself between the shipper and the lay when the west is not broken, or expended on the bobbin. And, if only one of the double levers T, and W, is used, and is at all connected with either the top or the bottom set of threads P, q, by means of the other small connecting threads, as in the foregoing, then, the motion will be quite as uncertain. Sow, to remedy this evil, Poole's patent, of 12th May, 183!), has, instead of the double acting levers, above referred to a small jogred piece of iron, resting on the girth of the loom and connected to the side of the shipper slide (see Fig.2.25); to this jogged piece of iron is attached a set of small corils, which are connected to the under tier of the stop motion strings; by this improvement the double acting levers T, and C', (in Wells and Eccles' patent,) are done away with altogether. Poole's method is thus rendered far more certain than the other, because the jogged piece of iron, resting on the side of the loom, renders the motion more steady.

There is a series of cords 7, (see Figs. 231, 232 and 238) attached to the weights r» (Fig. 231) and passing over the pulleys so, through the headles or endless band 13, (Figs. 230 and 231) under the cumber-board, the headles being worked by the cam shaft-all as described in the patent granted to Moses Poole. The cords q», after passing over the shuttle-race, instead of being all tied to one iron on the breast-beam or front board, are, as shown, half of them, or those passing through the mails in the back headle, affixed to an iron u’, that projects up in front of the breast-beam or front guard board; this iron extends down to the bottom edge of the breastbeam or front board, to which it is attached, and then turns at right angles under it, as at v?(Figs. 231 and 238,) the end terminating in a vertical pin or turned-up part y},(see Fig. 235) a little shorter than the part u’; to the top of this turned-up part yo, which has a number of holes for the purpose, the ends of the cords or cat-guts are attached. On the breast-beam, there is a strong piece of sheet-iron w, screwed or otherwise made fast, that extends inward to the iron just described, and is attached to the breast-beam. On that end of the iron u’, next to the lay, a stud-pin projects, forming a fulcrum for a leverz3, (see Fig. 238 :) this lever curves up from one side of the fulcrum slightly, and thence projects under the upper set of cords q3, which cords are attached to the front end of the iron u’; on the other side of the fulcrum the lever z?, extends out beyond the framing and curves down, its end bearing a knob (Figs. 231 and 238). The

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belt shipper aʻ, and its catch b', (Fig. 238) are of the usual construction. On the handle of the shipper is a projecting piece c', that reaches beyond the upright of the frame. In Fig. 235, the shipper a', is represented off, and consequently the looin stopped. The shuule at each pick passes between the upper and under cords q', and when it enters the box it leaves the weti thread, not broken or exhausted, across the under set; the lower set of cords are then raised, and the upper ones depressed till they meet in the centre of the shed, and are prevented from going farther by the thread of the weft; but if there is no thread left acro-s between the sets of cords 7, they pass each other and the upper ones are brought down low enough to depress the end of the bent lever, which is under them; this elevates the knob , on the other end, and brings it between the lay and the projection c', on the shipper, and throws it off, and consequently causes the loom to stop.

Fig. 239, show's as much of a power loom as will enable us to explain an improved method of taking-up the cloth ; and Fig. 240 represents the apparatus detached from the loom. d', is the driving wheel, on the end of the crank shaft, taking into the wheel e', on the cam shast; on this shaft we place an eccentric fé, surrounded by a collar gỉ, made in two parts and held together by bolts h'; to one side of the collar is connected a rod it, having a screw joint j, for receiving the end of a rod k', which works on the axis pin 7"; this pin may be raised or lowered in the slot m', of the vertical lever which has its fulcrum at n*, to suit the number of picks of weft required per inch of the goods to be produced; the upper end of this lever has also a slot in it, carrying a stud-pin oʻ, and this stud-pin forms the axis of the click or drag på, which draws round the cloth roller as usual. Now, suppose that the loom is put into action, the eccentric f', will cause the lever mo, to oscillate, and thus a continuous rotary motion will be communicated to the cloth roller, through the medium of the click or drag p'.

Having now described the nature of the improvements, and the manner in which the same may be performed, it is to be understood that we do not limit ourself to the particular arrangement of machinery required for a loom to weare figured fabrics, as we are quite aware that different forms and arrangements will be found necessary for effecting the same objects in looms for wearing other fabrics, and to which some of these on improvements may be applied, but they will be such as any experienced workman may at once understand from the description here given, and will be governed by the nature of the loom or looms to which they are to be applied, as well as the

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goods to be produced ; as, for instance, the improred method of stopping the loom when the west thread breaks, may be applied with advantage to any power loom. Nor do we mean to limit the said improvements to looms with Jacquard machinery, as they are also applicable to various other kinds of figured looms; for instance, cylinder or barrel looms, (like that described at page 182.) where a cylinder is used instead of Jacquard machinery.

Firstly, what we more particularly claim as the inventions or inprovements, is the combination of the third shaft.t, with the crank shast and can shast r. the Jacquard and cam shafts being driven by separate pinions on the crank shaft, in the manner and for the purpose above specified.

Secondly, we claim the combination of the double sliding camal, one for each of the shuttle motion treadles c?; which cams slide independently of each other from right to left, and from left to right, in order to give eight regular motions on the right and miss one, then change positions: and in connexion therewith, the two double grooved wheels or drums e’, on the Jacquard shaft r. and the two regulating levers or rods f?, by which the shifting or sliding motion is communicated to the double shifting cams bʻ, constructed and arranged substantially in the manner and for the purpose herein set forth.

Thirdly, we claim the combination of the cylinder co, with the concentric cam wheel t, working the Jacquard, for acting on the marches of the headles, in the manner and for the purpose abore described ; but we do not claim the cylinder c?, as new in itself, the same having been used for other purposes heretofore.

Fourthly, we claim the combination of the endless cord or band c, with the Jacquard cylinder, pullers b, and d, and horizontal levere, in the manner and for the purpose set forth.

Fifthly, we claim the apparatus for decreasing the tension on the friction strap, on the warp roller, as the warp unwinds; that is to say, the combination of the roller p?, and connecting rods 1", with the weights k”, in the manner and for the purpose herein describe.l.

Sixthly, we claim the improvement in the motion to stop the loon when the west thread or threads break or become exhausted in the shuttle, as above specified, viz: the combination of the iron u', ou the breast-beam or front-board of the loom, the turned-up end y', and lever z', constructed and arranged as herrin made known.

The iinproved method of taking up the cloth represented in Figs. 239 and 210, was invented by us in the year 1531. and which we first applied to a musliu loom at the establishment of Messrs. Claude Girdwin & Co. Glasgow, Scotland.

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