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rod i, having made the mark, is replaced in its former position on a stud or rest, by the action of a spiral spring o (Fig. 5,) the mark on the warp, indicating a uniform and equal amount of warp placed on the beam W. The distance of the notches on the disc e (Fig. 5,) are calculated to compensate for the increasing diameter of the warp on the beam W, during the filling process. The varying taking up of the warp on to these beams W', according to their increased circumference, is compensated for by traversing the driving strap to a larger diameter of the cone S (Figs. 5 and 6,) and the relocity must depend on the nature of the work and the judgment of the operator. By tracing the action of this warping machine, it will be obvious that the beams W, may be multiplied to any convenient extent, and consequently the length of the warp, which necessarily effects a great saving in joining or twisting in, as practised in the ordinary warp.

In Fig. 6, it will easily be perceived, that motion is transferred from the cone drum S, to the yarn beams W, by the spur wheels Tand U. The notched disc e, is left out in the plan view (Fig. 6) to avoid confusion, and more clearly to show the levers e' and d, weight m, and marker i. Should the marking apparatus shown in Figs. 5 and 6, be considered too complicated, one of those in common use may be easily substituted in stead.

We now pass on to describe Messrs. Hornby and Kennyworthy's machine for sizing and preparing warps for the loom; which, from its neatness, the regularity of its motions and the work which it is capable of performing, is well worthy our attention in this place.

The improvements in this machine, consist in a novel and particular arrangement of mechanism for sizing and preparing warps from “beam or machine warping."

The principal feature of novelty and improvement in Messrs. H. and K's. method of sizing or dressing warps, consists in a peculiar mode of distributing or laying out of the threads, so that they shall be dressed or sized in parallel strips or breadths, laid in even and close contact, side by side, and usually termed “ beers or half beers” in the ordinary warping mill. (See common warping mill, Section First.)

This new method of dividing and laying out the warp threads into strips, bands, or beers and half beers, during the process of sizing and preparing them for the loom, possesses many advanlages, which will be evident to persons conversant with the ordinary modes of conducting such operations. As the threads are divided into certain numbers, forming a beer or half beer, and in that

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breadth passed through the sizing substance, tney retain the form of bands or strips, and are slightly attached to each other by the adhesion of the size, thus forming narrow tapes or breadths of warp threads, and consequently rendering them more tenacious than if passed through the sizing and preparing process in single threads, as commonly done, and allowing them to be more easily conducted through the machinery. The warps may be thus extended to a much greater length than usual, and the process of taking the "lease" and winding on to the warp beam ready for " looming," can be effected by the arrangement of one and the same machine, with more expedition than by the ordinary method now in use.

One of the improvements connected with the working of the machinery, is a new arrangement of the leadles for obtaining the lease or cross shed of the warps, previously to the dressing, sizing, or drying of the same, that is placing the headles, for dividing the shed of the warps, at the entrance end of the machine, or at the commencement of the operation; and the further improvements in the machinery for sizing and preparing warps, consist in a novel form of ravel or comb, for allowing the lease band to pass through the warps without the necessity of having the whole of the half beers or breadth relaid each time of taking such lease or cross shed; and also in the application of a revolving self-acting marker, for marking off any required length of warps, as they are wound on to the warp beam. ready for looming.

In Plate IV, Fig. 1 represents a plan or horizontal view of the machinery in which these improvements are shown; Fig. 2, is a side elevation ; and Fig. 3, a vertical section of the same, taken lon

1 gitudinally through the middle of the machine. The main and side framings of the machinery are shown at a, a, a, a, which support the beams of warp or yarn b, b, b, b, b, previously wound and prepared by the warping machine: these main side frames also support the various ravels or combs, headles, sizing or dressing trough, the drying cylinders, tension and guide rollers, and also the driving apparatus for giving motion to the mechanism.

It will be perceived, that as the unsized warps proceed from their respective beams b, b, b, b, b, they are guided on to, and passed through an ordinary ravel or comb c, c, and thus divided equally, prior to their being passed through the headles d, d, situated at the entrance of the machine, for the purpose of effecting the cross shed, and thereby taking the lease previously to the yarns being submitted to the sizing process. The lease now being taken, and the cross band or threads introduced, for the purpose of looming or drawing

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in of the warp through the headles, as is well understood, the yarns or warps are passed through a ravel or comb e, (see Figs. 1 and 2) formed by a rack of teeth or pins and intervening spaces, for the purpose of dividing and laying the warps in parallel breadths, side by side, and forming each division, strip or band of warps, (of any required number,) into separate and distinct tapes or sheets, (of any desired width,) each thread being laid parallel, side by side; and thus, in close lateral contact, the ravel or comb e, either being allowed to vibrate or oscillate freely as the warps proceed over it, or it may be caused to revolve, if found more desirable.

The continuous warps being thus made or separated into breadths or bands A, are now passed over a conducting roller, and immersed into the trough or vessel f (see Fig. 3.) which contains the sizing material, and is to be kept in a heated state, by steam passing through the pipeg, s, or otherwise, and thus boiled into the warps as they pass through it, and under the tension rollers h, h, (see Figs. 1 and 3): it will be observed that these tension rollers h, h, may be adjusted to any degree of tension, or raised up entirely out of the troughs, to be cleaned or otherwise, by turning the winch handle 11 (see Figs. 1 and 2.) which, by means of the worms and wheels 12, and pinions 13, 13, take into the racks 14, 14, in connection with which the pivots of the rollers h, h, are mounted. The warps are then to be passed forward through a pair of squeezing rollers, i, i, (Figs. 2 and 3) and again immersed in the trough or vessel j (see Fig. 3,) containing a similar sizing preparation, to finish the yarns; from thence the warp is passed around the drying cylinders k, k, (Figs. 2 and 3) also heated by steam through the pipe y, and discharged by the pipes 1, l, or by any other convenient means. The yarn or warps, as they pass around these drying cylinders, will now be found to assume the form of tapes or bands, as the sizing material will cause the parallel threads, as they lay side by side, to adhere slightly together, and thus proceed in a tape-like form, being of course much stronger, more regular, and less likely to be broken or disarranged, than in the ordinary mode of sizing.

A brush 15 (Figs. 1, 2 and 3,) is placed over the yarns as they proceed over the cylinders h, for the purpose of dressing and laying the fibres of the threads, and making the tapes or bands more compact and even : it is caused to revolve very slowly by means of the small band 16 (Fig. 2,) proceeding upon the axis of the guide roller m, (Figs. 1 and 2 ;) the warps now proceed in a sized, dried, and finished state, conducted by the rollers m, m, through a similier ravel or comb n, n, (Figs. 1 and 2,) but of a finer rake or pitch than the ravel e, e, and by passing through or orer which, the strips or bands are turned edgewise, and again similarly dividing by the Oscillating or vibratory action of this comb n, n, and laid over the tension roller 0, 0, (Figs. 1, 2 and 3,) in a proper state to be received and wound upon the warp beam p, ready to be removed and taken to the loomer or drawer in. The continuous operation of the machinery is effected by means of a strap passing around the driving pulley 9, (see Figs. 1, 2 and 3,) upon the end of the transverse shaft r (Fig. 1,) being traversed from the loose pulley by the setting on rod s. Upon the shalt r, is also a conical drum t, having a driving strap passing around it, and the corresponding cone u, (Figs. I and 2,) mounted also upon a transverse shaft r, at one end of which there is a 100thed pinion w, (Fig. 1,) driving the train of spur wheels X, Y, Z, which gives rotary motion to the warp beam p. causing it to wind on the yarn or warps as required. The yarn is kept distended and even, by means of weighted friction bands being passed around the ends of the warp beams b, b, and the pressure of the squeezers or presser rollers, is similarly adjusted, by means of the weighted lever 2 (Fig. 2.) The self-acting marking apparatus is shown in Fig. 1; upon the end of the revolving guide roller 0, 0, is a small worm 3, taking into a worm wheel upon the end of the shaft 4, at the reverse end of which is the mitre wheel 5, driving a corresponding wheel 6, upon the small shaft 7, which carries the revolving marker S, which from time to time dips into a colour box, and marks the warp threads with a patch of colour as it revolves, any length for the pieces intended to be woven, and allowing the warp beam to contain accurate lengths, without waste in the looming.

In the detached Figs. 4, 5 and 6, are shown three varieties of the improved ravel or comb, (upon a large scale,) for dividing or separating the warp, as they pass through the machine. Fig. 4 shows one description, being that preferred to be used with a pendulous or oscillating motion ; Fig. 5, another, which is preferred to be used as a rotary comb, and it will be perceived, that one set or rake of teeth will always be entering and dividing the warps, as those on the opposite leave them; Fig. 6 shows another modification of the same, which may either be used with a rotary or any other required motion.

If our manufacturing friends shall derive any real benefit from the description just given of these improved machines for preparing warps for the loom, we will not grudge the expense incurred on our part in rendering all the particulars as plain as possible.

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SECTION TENTH.

PLAIN WEAVING BY POWER.

Now the steam begins to blow;
Girl, haste, your loom attend;
Do not always be so slow,
Or your web will have no end.

Stay no longer idly singing:
You're a pretty girl, indeed!
Hark! the factory bell is ringing!
Mary, to your loom with speed !
See the shafts begin to move,
Driven by the power of steam;
Wheels below and wheels above
Turn correctly every beam.
Force is constantly supplied,
Brought by straps of leather strong;
Levers play on every side,
While the shuttle shoots along.

See how fast the lay is driven;
See the treadles sink and rise;
See how well the cloth is woven;
Gracious! how the shuttle flies !

BRIEN DAO O'FARRELL

We shall not in this place give any repetition of the old hacknied story regarding the origin of the power loom (in Europe),* by Mr. Edmund Cartwright, of Marnham, Nottinghamshire; and for which he obtained a patent, bearing date 4th April, 1785. It is certain that this machine would have long since passed into oblivion, had it not been for the improvements made upon it by other men of genius. It was not until the year 1901 that power loom weaving began to be extensively introduced for the manufacture of plain goods; and not until the years 1830 to 1834 that it was successfully applied to light fancy fabrics, with small patterns, (say, of from 10 to

* For the true origin of power loom weaving (plain, tweeled and figured, of every description) see introduction to this work, page 5, 20 to 37, and 64.

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