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ingenious contrivance by means of which it is instantly stopped on the breaking of a thread.
A A, Figs. 150 and 151, is the framing of the machine, which being constructed of wood, gives it a heavy appearance in the drawings; B Figs. 151 and 153 are the threads proceeding from the bobbin frame to the iron plate C, where each thread is separated; the plate C being perforated with small holes corresponding to the number of threads to be wound on the beam. Passing the plate C, where all the threads are brought into one horizontal plane, they thence pass over the rods DD: from these through the guide-reed E and on to the beam F, which is represented as containing only the first round of the yarn. The belt pulleys G are on the same shaft with the wheel H, which drives the wheel I; on the same axis with the wheel I, is the drum J, which drives the yarn beam F. The drum J, on which the yarn beam rests, and by which it is moved, is exactly one yard in circumference, and upon one end of its axis, there is a screw working into small geared wheels connected with an index, which indicates the revolutions of the drum during the warping of cach beam, from which the length of yarn on each beam is ascertained, and the attendant is paid accordingly. The axis of the yarn beam rests on two slots of the framing at K, and is pressed down upon the drum J, by the stirrup L I, which is also weighted down by the cross lever M. From the top of the
stirrup L, an arm N extends to the guide reed E, so that as the yarn fills on the beam F, it gradually rises, and the arm N presses up the guide reed with the same gradual motion, so as to keep it always in a proper position in relation to the increasing diameter of
the yarn beam: 0, Fig. 151, is a strap attached to the weight P, and which winds round a sinall shaft, on the end of which the ratchet wheel Q is made fast. When the beam is sufficiently full, the strap 0 is wound up by means of a wrench attached to the ratchet wheel, which thereby lifts the weight P, the lever M and stirrup L, until the hook on the axis of the yarn beam at K, is so far relieved as to be pressed back: the full beam is then removed, and an empty one put in its place-the stirrup is brought forward till the hook is above the axis of the beam-the catch of the ratchet wheel is listed—the strap unwound-and the machine is then ready to warp another beam.
From the foregoing description, it will be seen that this warping machine differs very little from those used in Great Britain. It is however in every respect as simple and efficient, besides having the advantage of the stop-motion; and which will now be described.
As the yarn from the bubbin frame enters the plate C, it passes over the rods DD); but between these rods, there is a drop-wire suspended upon each thread : these drop-wires are pieces of flattened steel wire, about four inches long, from 1 to broad, and it of an inch thick: their weight varies from 4 grains 4 dwts. to 4 grains 10 duts. They are hoked at the top, and suspended by their own weight on each thread. (See RRR, front view, Fig. 150, and R,
. Fig. 153.) When the machine is in operation, the drop-wires are borne up by the tension of the threads, but as soon as any one thread breaks, it slackens, and, of course, the wire drops down till the point of the hook at S, Fig. 154, rests on the plate T T, Fig. 153 ; and it is this dropping down of the wire that stops the ma
The shaft U U extending across the machine, has an eccentric at V, Figs. 150 and 153, which works into the fork of the lever WW. On the top of the lever W W, there is a small tumbler X Y X attached to the steel plate Z, Figs. 150 and 153. The lever W W turns upon a journal at A', Figs. 151 and 153; and in consequence of the eccentric V working into the fork, the top of the lever, and with it the tumbler X Y X, and the plate Z are made to oscillate under the drop-wires ; so when a thread breaks, the wire drops down, and retards the oscillating motion of the plate Z, which immediately depresses either end of the plate XX of the tumbler, which again presses down the lever B'C' at B', and raises the other extremity at C'. By lifting the lever at C', the rod D'D', being then disengaged, is operated upon by the spiral spring E', Fig. 150, which causes it to shift so far as to act upon the upright rod F',
and turn it round as far as to make the belt lever G', shift the belt from the fast, on to the loose pulley. And as these various parts are fitted so as to operate all at once, the machine upon
the breaking of one thread will be instantly stopped.
When the broken threads are all tied, and the machine ready to be put in motion, the girl attending, lays hold of the rail H'H', Fig. 150, and pulls it forward ; I' I' are straps of leather fastened to the wooden frame J'J', containing the drop wires; therefore, by drawing down the rail H'H', the shaft K' K'turns round, and causes the straps L'L', to raise the frame J'J' so far as to lift all the drop-wires above the top of the plate Z, which keep their places by the tension of the yarn, as soon as the machine gets into full operation. In
lifting the drop-wire frame J'J', it also draws up the point M', of the small lever M'N', Figs. 151 and 153, which causes the other extremity V, to operate upon an arm of the upright rod F', and turn it round as fast as to let the belt lever G', shift the driving belt from the loose, on to the fast pulley: at the same time another arm O', of the upright rod F', Fig. 151, also operates upon the rod D'D at P', Fig. 150, and shists it to the right hand, until the point C' of the lever B'C', drops into the square groove seen in Fig. 150 : the lever or catch C', is kept in the groove of the rod D'D', by the sınall spiral spring Q'. Thus by pulling forward the rail H' H', the drop-wires are lifted, and the whole machine is instantly put in operation; and by lifting the catch C', the rod D' D' being operated upon by the spiral spring E', it is instantly stopped.
Figs. 152, 153 & 154.
Fig. 152 is a front view of the guide reed E, seen in Fig. 151, for directing the yarn on the beam F: it consists of a piece of sheet iron cut into a number of slits, corresponding to the number of threads to be warped on the beam. By examining the figure, it will be seen that the slits are so contrived, that a lease may be formed on each beam if necessary.
In looking at the representations given of this machine, those unacquainted with it might be apt to suppose, from the number of levers, springs, die depending upon each other, that it would work inaccurately, and be dificult to keep in order. This, however, is not the case. The warping machines used in Cireat Britain require the utmost attention on the part of the attendant to notice instantly when a threr bireaks: as should her ere be diveried from her work but one moment, the end of a broken thread might wind round the beain so far, as to require five minutes or nore to find it, and put the machine again in motion. But this is not the case with those used in America; for while the machine is in operation, the attendant is frequently behind the bobbin frame, taking out empty spools, and supplying their places with full ones; nor could the cradle warpers of America be used, except by being furnished with a selfacting stop-motion. This motion is, therefore, eminently entitled to the appellation of an important labour-saving improvement.
The above account of the American spooling and warping machines, is principally abridged from the able descriptions given by James Montgomery, Esq., in bis excellent work, entitled, “ The Cotton Manufacture of the United States of America contrasted and compared with that of Great Britain."
We close this part of our subject with a remark or two regarding the warping and beaming of silk webs :
1st. In warping silk webs where the warp is to consist of different grists or colours of yarn, as in stripes, ginghams, pullicates, &c., the bobbins must be arranged in the creel or bank agreeably to the order in which they are indicated in the draught or design.
2d. A silk warp to make taffeta, nust not be put on the same roller or beam with one to make gros de Tours serge, satin, &c., but each must have a separate and distinct roller for itself; and they must be weighted according to the nature of the texture to be produced.
3d. A warp making the same pattern in several places in the web, but double-threaded in one place and single in another, must not be all put on the same roller or beam; because, the different