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In concluding this part of our subject we cannot but express our admiration of those talents which have overcome difficulties in the construction of machinery, as great as any ever conquered by human skill and perseverance. The embroidering machine is not the only invention which Mr. Heilmann has given to the world; for we find, by referring to the records of the " Société Industrielle de Mulhansen," accounts of scieral other inventions of his in different branches of manufactures, particularly in power loom wearing; and among many interesting papers furnished by this gentleman and published in the “ Bulletin" of the "Socie," there is a memoir entitled - Observations Microscopiques sur la forme, la finesse, et la force des filamens de Coton," containing much valuable information. Indeed, we may say of Vir. Heilmann what Lord Jeffrey
* We extract the following characteristic morceau from page 513 of a book entitled, “ Baines's History of the Colton Manufacture," as a specimen of the envious spirit entertained by Englishmen (especially of the middle class) towards the French:
Relative to the Form of the Fibres of Cotton. By James Thomson, F.R.S.
In the first volume of the 'Bulletin de la Société Industrielle de Mulhau sen,' published in 1828, is a memoir, by Mr. Josue Heilmann, entitled Observations Microscopiques sur la forme, la finesse, et la force des filamens de Coton,' in which he ascribes 10 the fibres of Cotton the same form precisely given to them in the drawing of Mr. Bauer, dated Feb. 11, 1822, which accompanies my paper' On Mummy Cloth.'
Mr. Heilmann's 'Observations' are accompanied by a drawing of Mr. Edward Koechlin, of the fibres of cotton. Whoever will take the trouble to compare the two drawings, will detect internal evidence of the one being de rived from the other. Mr. Heilmann's paper being published in 1828, and mine in 1831, renders some explanation necessary.
In 1922 or 1823, Mr. Edward Koechlin was in England, and during a visit he paid to me at Primrose, he saw Mr. Bauer's drawing, and requested permission to copy it, which was readily granted. It is from this drawing and Mr. Koechlin's communication, that Mr. Heilmann's Observations Microscopiques' are derived.
The paltry fraud of appropriating to himself the observations of others, without acknowledgmenų, might have passed unnoticed by me for ever, had not the friends of Mr. Bauer considered this explanation necessary.”
We have the pleasure of being well acquainted with Mr. Heilmann, and know that he is not only an extremely ingenious man, but also a man of sterling honour and strict integrity, and altogether incapable of any thing of this sort. We will venture to assert, that Mr. H. possesses more real inventive talent than Mr. Bauer and all his friends put together. Why do no these gentlemen also lay claim to the embroidering machine which we have just described ? Perhaps they invented it too!
said of James Watt:"Independently of his great attainments in mechanics, he is an extraordinary, and, in many respects a wonder ful man;—possessing infinite quickness of apprehension, a prodigious memory, and a certain rectifying and methodizing power of digesting and arranging in its proper place, that which is really valuable in practice, and of casting aside and rejecting, as it were instinctively, whatever is worthless or immaterial.”
SPOOLING, WARPING AND SIZING BY POWER.
The processes of spooling, warping and sizing having been already thoroughly investigated, as applicable to looms worked by hand (see Section First,) it only remains to show how these various processes may be facilitated, by the application of power instead of manual labour: this subject we shall now endeavour to elucidate.
Were we anıbitious of confusing the wits of the rabble with very learned dissertations on spooling, warping and sizing, we would call in the aid of that mysterious art, known to patent agents and quack doctors by the cognomen of "sau-dusting ;'* but our object is to diffuse light and not darkness.
Fig. 148 represents a common cylindrical shaft, containing 16 drums A, with four spools B B B B, which roll against the drum, by friction of contact; C C represent cast iron arches fixed between each pair of drums, and serving to keep the spools in their places
* A villainous system of trickery or deception, by which a lie is garnished over and made to appear as truth: it is commonly practised by men of no real inventive talent or capacity; but whose impudence is their grand substitute for genius. Such characters often apply to some dishonest patent-agent, or petty lawyer, whose business it is to assist then in their difficulties; which he does by drawing out a long windy rigmarole specification of some 5,000 odd words, purposely to work up the invention or inventions of some ingenious man, under pretence of making improvements thereon; and then gilding the pill over so skilfully in the summing up of the claim, as to be swallowed by the public without a shrug!
(see D D, Fig. 149.) Each spool has suitable iron gudgeons at its ends, serving as an axis on which it revolves (see Fig. 148.) EE are the bobbins from the spinning frame: F Fare cylindrical pieces of iron covered with cloth, lying on the moveable rails GG. Pieces
of cloth are also fastened on the rails beneath the cleaners F F, so that the thread passes through between the two plies of cloth, which partly smooth down the fibres, and clean it from any loose specks that may adhere to it; II are guide pins fastened on the rails GG (Fig. 149.) The pulley J, driven by a band from the cylinder shaft, is connected with a heart motion, which moves the rails GG alternately in a horizontal direction the full length of the spools, and by means of the guide-pins II, causes the yarn to wind on equally from end to end of the spools. Each of the drums A is covered with cloth or leather, and requires to be perfectly true, as otherwise it would give a vibratory motion to the spools while the yarn is winding on.
This machine is extremely light, simple in its construction, and easily kept in order. A machine containing twenty drums may be attended by two girls of twelve years of age, and is capable of winding 3,000 hanks per day of 12 hours.
Instead of winding the yarn off the small bobbins on to others of a larger size, it is common in a number of factories to take the bobbins direct from the spinning frame to the warping machine, which is mounted with a rack or creel suited to the size of the bobbins. This creel, rack, or bobbin frame, is attached to the back of the warping machine, and lies in a horizontal position, but is hollowed in the centre like a cradle; hence it is denominated the cradle warper. The girl who attends this machine stands with her face towards the back of the warper, having the bobbin frame intervening; she thereby has all the bulbins within hier reach, so that whenever she perceives one nearly empty, slie is ready to remove it, replace it with a full one, and tie the two ends of the thread, without stopping the machine. And owing to the number of bobbins in the frame, and the small quantity of yarn contained on each, they are constantly emptying; while the attendant is constantly supplying their places with full ones; but in order to prerent them from running out entirely, she requires to take out a considerable number before the yarn is completely wound off. The yarn, therefore, which is left on the bobbins, if not wound off at some other machine, is liable to be made into waste. Hence the cradle warper has not been generally adopted, as it has been found that the loss from the quantity of waste made by it, is greater than the expense required for spooling, or winding the yarn from small bobbins on to others of a larger size, suited to the common bobbin frame of a warping machine.
The next step preparatory to the operation of weaving is the formation of the warp or chain, that is, the longitudinal threads of the web, which lie parallel to each other through the breadth of the cloth. The bobbins are transferred to the warping machine; and
. though this machine is very simple in its construction, yet it is well worthy our notice.
The species of warping machine which we shall now endeavour to explain is an American invention, and is far superior to those used in Great Britain; for it has the advantage of being provided with an