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yarns into a box or case, in order to allow of a succession of slices or surfaces being cut off to form napped fabrics. It consists in what may be called a folding machine, whereby a warp of yarns or threads, either all of one colour, or of intermixed colours, accord

ng to the will of the party, and depending on the description of napped fabrics it is desired to produce.

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the case.

a, is a warp roller, on to which the threads or yarns are beamed. b, b, is a table ; and c, part of a box or case in which it is desired to pack a quantity of threads or yarns, and C', is the top or cover of

The warp is made fast to a rod, which is at onc end of the case CC; and is then drawn evenly to the opposite end of a case, and a rod or other suitable intrument is laid across the top of the warp; the warp is then taken evenly back to the other end of the case CC, and another rod laid on, and the warp again brought to the other end of the case and another rod laid on till the warp is folded, and the case is full, the rods being of such a length as to protrude beyond the end of the case C C, and in order to pack the whole closely, the rods are kept pressed down by the weighted instruments D, at each end of the box or case C C, and when a number of layers of the warp have been folded, the lower rods may be successively removed, in order to allow the layers to go more closely together, and by this means a body of threads will be packed in a case or box, from which may be cut a succession of slices, each slice forming the napped surface, or part of the napped surface of a fabric. We

have thus far spoken of the frames or cases into which the threads or yarns are packed as being rectangular, but we would remark, that they may be of other forms, depending on circumstances. By which arrangement, where an extensive surface is desired to be napped, the cases or boxes may be made into such forms as will, when combined together, produce the shapes required, and place the patterns, or parts of the pattern, in the proper place, which arrangement will allow of the patterns or ornamental designs (which require the most time in packing) being worked into separate boxes or cases, and the threads or yarns which are to form the ground may be in separate boxes or cases C.

Whatever be the course pursued in obtaining bodies of yarns or threads in boxes or cases, as abore explained, the fibres at the end of which may prolude, should be carefully shaved or cut off evenly, and India rubber, or other suitable cement, is to be laid on to the surface of fibres and permitted to dry sufficiently before the ram or piston is caused to force a quantity equal to the length of the desired nap from the case C. When sufficiently dry, and on examination the cement appears to be complete over the whole surface, the piston or ram is to force out of the case or box C, a length equal to the length of the nap; when that quantity is to be cut off with a sharp knife, or other suitable instrument, and the ends of the

yarn which is in the case or box, are to be again coated with cement, and so on till the whole is cut up into slices, which may be afterwards applied, by cement, to canvas or other fabrics, or to other surfaces, or in place of cutting when the fibres have been only combined with cement, they may be further combined by cementing on canvass or other fabrics before cutting; and for hats and such like fabrics, where it is desired to have a laid nap,

then this may be accomplished by having the end of the boxes or cases from which the cut is made, on a bevel, and the face of the ram also of a bevel. Hence each slice or surface will be protruded and cut on a bevel or angular direction, and when cemented together will produce a laid nap surface or fabric.

Having now given to the reader a practical description of this novel method of manufacturing carpets, rugs, and other similar fabrics, we would, before dismissing the subject, further remark, that we see nothing to prevent the application of steam or water power, instead of manual labour, in performing all the operations required. By this means, 60 strips of metal, to raise the nap or pile, might easily be inserted per minute ; at the distance of about 2 yards from the scene of action, where the inserting process was going on,



a cementing or soldering apparatus could be at work simultaneously; and at the distance of other two yards from this, another contrivance might be actively engaged in cutting out the strips as fast as they advanced with the cemented fabric ; which would here be quite dry. The distance of this point from the last inserted strip would, of course, be about 4 yards; and, allowing 20 strips to the inch of the piled or napped fabric, only 2850 strips would be required for the 4 yards, from beginning to the end thereof. We think that from 300 to 305, or 306, yards of perfect nap or pile might be produced per day from one machine of this description, working 10 hours, and with the superintendence of a mere child. Should any of the enterprizing individuals, who may chance to embark in such an undertaking, meet with any difficulties, they must not be discouraged: for erery obstacle must vanish, or at least give way, when opposed by the combined powers of body and mind.


The ingenious Alexander Buchannan, of Paisley, Scotland, invented this beautiful fabric, about the year 1820.* It derives its beauty and lustre from the peculiar mode of preparing the west, and the manner in which the colours are afterwards arranged ; in so much, that a pattern which would require a large harness, as an imitation shawl, can be woven without any

other apparatus

than a ground mounting and two treadles.

The west, which is called chenille, is prepared as follows :-A Turkey gauze warp, of net yarn, is woven in a 1200 reed, with a twist or dentful in every fifth interval, the west being either silk, cotton, or worsted, according to the kind of shawls to be manufactured. When this fabric comes from the loom, it is cut up (by a suitable machine) in the centre between the dentfuls of warp; and after receiving a little twist to throw the ends of the cut weft into a spiral

* About this period, Mr. Buchanan exhibited a specimen of his newly invented fabric, to his worthy fellow-lownsman, Robert Farquharson, Esq., then provost of Paisley ; which circumstance is thus alluded to by a local poet :

“Philanthropic Rab,
Sae smooth o’ heart, though rough o' gab,
Soon as he saw the curious wab,

He gaz'd wi' wonner,
And said, it was a genuine job,

L'pon his honour."

direction, it is ready for the weaver. The warp of the shawl is likewise a Turkey gauze, the same as that which is the foundation of the weft, so that when a sufficient quantity of chenille has been produced from a warp, it is customary to make shawls of the remainder. (see Chenille paper, page 511.)

In weaving these shawls, one pick of the chenille is thrown in, and then three of the common weft, whether silk, cotton, or worsted, and the fibres of the chenille, projecting in all directions, give the fabric the appearance of a fine glossy shag, showing the pattern, when figured, alike on both sides.

When the shawls are to be of one uniform colour, only one kind of weft is necessary; but when they are to be figured, different colours are employed, and these are woren in spaces adapted to the different parts of the design; the pattern is painted on design paper, as for an imitation harness; each space of the design, or that which corresponds to a ground lash with its different colours, is again painted on a separate slip of design paper, but two spaces are here coloured, to make them better seen by the weaver, leaving a blank space on each side : thesc slips are all numbered, to prevent confusion.

Supposing a web of trimmings were to be woven, with eight repeats in the breadth of a yard, for the first pick of chenille, we take the slip of paper No. 1; by reading it, as for a sample, there are 2 spaces yellow, 1 white, 4 red, 2 yellow, 1 black, 2 white, &c., the weaver works a space of each of these colours on the warp, agreeably to its respective size on the slip of design paper, which, when finished, must be exactly the breadth of the trimming. For a guide to the weaver, the slip of paper passes through the reed, and is fastened at each end to a piece of tape, by a bit of rosin, the one behind the mounting hanging over the warp roller and kept tight by a small weight, and the other is fastened at the face of the cloth. The weaver then has only to change his shuttles, by shifting the boxes of the lay at the end of each coloured space, as pointed out by the design. The slip marked No. 2 is next put in the reed for the second pick, and the colours woven in the same manner, but in reverse order to the first, as the one is thrown in from the right hand and the other from the left, and so on till the weft for the whole pattern is finished.

The weft is cut in lengths of eight yards, being the quantity usually wound on one bobbin or quill, and this will make eight picks in a yard-wide web; and the bobbins are taken in succession, agreeably to the numbers of the slip of design paper. The more tightly


the chenille is twisted, the thicker and closer the pile becomes. This species of fabric is likewise well adapted to the rug and carpet manufacture.

It appears to us, that no person who is unacquainted with weaving can have any idea of the variety and ingenuity of its processes ; and even some individuals who consider themselves masters of the art, know, comparatively, very little about it. Notwithstanding the apparent perfection of the methods employed in producing some of the fancy textures which we have already described, yet, we have to record iniprovements of immense importance upon screral of them.

The manufacture which we have just been considering (chenille) has recently been adapted to carpets, rugs &c., with great success, by Messrs. Templeton and Quiglay, of Paisley; who obtained a patent, in England, dated 25th July; 1839, für improvements, which we shall now proceed to explain.

The invention consists in weaving fabrics of silk, cotton, woollen, linen, or other fibrous materials, which are to be cut into strips, and used as weft, somewhat in the manner of chenille west, (but with this difference, that the two edges of the strip shall incline more towards each other,) and then weaving such strips on a ground, so that all the fur or cut edges of the strips may be brought to one side of the fabric, while the other side is plain; and is also applicable to the manufacture of carpets, rugs, shawls, mats, covers of stools, chairs, or tables, tapestry, or any cloth or fabric requiring to be raised, so as to have the appearance of velvet, fur, or plush.

A texture or fabric of silk, cotton, woollen, linen, or of a mixture of two or more of these materials, is first woven; having the warp threads spaced or set in the reed at certain equal distances from each other, in the following manner :-One, two, or more dents of the reed are filled with the warp threads, and then a space of the reed, (equal to double the length of the fur required.) is left empty; then one, two, or more dents of the reed are again filled with warp threads, and another space is left empty, as above described (see Fig. 130 ;) and this is repeated until the required number of strips is completed. The warp being thus spaced and arranged in the loom, the west is thrown in, so as to form either a plain or coloured surface, and the warp acts on the west in the manner of gauze or cross-we

veaving (see Figs. 49, 50 and 53:) that is, the warp threads, instead of being lest parallel, as in common weaving, are crossed over each other by each tread on the treadles; and the weft, when thrown in, intersects the warp, and its edges acquire a tendency to

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