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proceed over guide rails m, and being there separated by upright wires, are wound into hanks upon the reels n n.

The hanks must also be carefully numbered, when taken off the reels, each hank forming only one warp thread, the entire length of the piece,—the same numbers being of course employed, as previously marked in the printing; they may then be steamed, washed and dried, or otherwise treated, as in woollen printing

When these hanks are required to form the warp threads of carpets or rugs, they are to be wound again upon bobbins, which are numbered the same as the hanks. The bobbins should then be taken in their numbered order, and in sufficient quantities to make a full warp, as we have already explained in the account of Whytock's carpet.

The bobbins a a, are now to be placed upon spindles and boards b?, as just described, shown in Figs. 116, 117 and 120, beginning with thread No. 1, and passing it through the first space of the sley or reed e, and so on for the entire width ; then the full warp is to be beamed on the roller f? f’ for the loom (see Fig. 121) direct from the bobbins,—which being done, the beam of warp may be removed to a common plain cloth loom (like that shown in Fig. 120) to be woven.

Fig. 120.

Figs. 121 and 122 represent a plan and side view of a slight temporary loom, in which the third part of these improvements is effected.

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A similar creel of bobbins a' a' a' to those before described, are placed upon the boards and spindles 6? b? and contain the warp threads, either single, double, or treble, according to the quality of the intended fabric ; but, instead of beaming them at once for the loom, they are passed over guide or friction rollers c* c* through the headles d' d' and reed or sley e, (see Figs. 121 and 122) and at every inch or more of space, a weft thread o' is thrown, in order to convert the warp thread or yarns into a preparatory gauze-work,

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without weaving any positive or permanent fabric or cloth ; thus a partial wearing is effected with the temporary cross threads o’, by means of the headles d d and sley e ; the gauze is then drawn off the beam f? f?, by means of the tooth gearing g?, and winch or handle h°, and is then ready for printing. (See Figs. 120 and 122.)

MANUFACTURE OF CARPETS, RUGS, &c., BY CEMENTING

A NAP OR PILE ON PLAIN CLOTH. A method of manufacturing carpets, hearth-rugs &c., has lately been discovered, which differs so much from those already described, and at the same time possesses so much merit, that we think our Work would be incomplete, without giving an account of it. This method is, indeed, so unlike the ordinary modes of manufacturing carpets, hearth-rugs &c. that it cannot, properly speaking, be considered under the head of any branch of weaving at all; it will, however, be interesting to both weavers and manufacturers, to have a full explanation of it, as it is likely to supersede many of their present processes.

This remarkable invention attracted considerable notice at the time of its first introduction, in 1838; and several machines are now in operation, upon the principle of it, in England and Belgium. We have made the annexed drawings and description from a machine, while at work in the latter country; and hope that our efforts may prove beneficial to many of our friends.

Fig. 123, represents a perspective view of a machine suitable for carrying out the first part of the invention. a a, is a quadrangular frame having the guides b, b, affixed by screws or other suitable means, allowing of their being readily removed to take out the work.

Fig. 123.

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The frame a, a, is supported by the legs or frame c, c. On the under side of each of the guides is a groove or space between the guide and the frame a, the object of which will be hereafter fully explained. d, d, is a roller or beam (see Figs. 123 and 125) on which is warped a number of yarns or threads of worsted, wool, cotton, silk, or other fibrous materials, or mixtures thereof, in like manner to winding or beaming a warp for a loom, as if the same were to be woven into a fabric, in the ordinary way of weaving with warp and west, and the warp beam or roller d, d, is weighted and has friction cords or bands, as is practised in looms for weaving, and as is shown in the drawing. The ends of the warp threads are made fast to the front rail of thie frame a, in like manner to fastening a warp to the cloth roller of a loom. The workman then proceeds to work in the following manner ; he has a number of strips of thin metal, such as copper, zinc, or other suitable material; the strips being all of the same size; and are to be in width what the depth of the desired nap is to be. and of a length somewhat greater than the width of the fabric to be produced in the machine ; the frame a, (see Fig. 123) and guides b, b, are to have a space between them equal to the width of the intended fabric to be produced. The workman first places one of the strips of metal under the warp, and draws it up to the end, and parallel with the front rail of the frame a, the two ends of the strip being placed under the guides b, b, by which they are prevented rising up; he then places the next strip edgeways on the upper surface of the warp, and depresses the warp evenly between the first and second strip, and he springs or bends the second strip in such a manner as to allow of the two ends thereof entering into the grooves formed between the guides b, b, and the sides of the frame a. He then places another strip under the warp, and raises the same up evenly between the second and third strips, and he bends the strip in such a manner as to cause the two ends to enter the grooves formed between the guides and the sides of the frame a, and then straightens the strip so as to lay the same parallel with the preceding ones; then he takes a fourth strip and places it on the upper surface of the warp, and depresses the threads thereof evenly between the third and fourth strips, and causes the ends of the fourth strip to enter the grooves formed between the guides b, b, and the frame a, and with a straight-edge he presses the strips up evenly from time to time, so that they may each be kept upright on their edges and in straight lines parallel to each other, and when the frame a, a, is full, the yarns or threads composing the warp will be so arranged between the strips of metal

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or other suitable material, as to pass first over, then under, each succeeding strip, as is shown in Fig. 124.

Fig. 121.

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The warp thus arranged should have a smooth surface of metal or other suitable material passed over and pressed on the upper side in order to lay and press the yarns or threads down evenly, and also to cause them to spread out in such manner as to produce a touching of the fibres throughout, so that when a suitable cement shall be placed or spread thereon and dried, the whole will become one sheet of fabric when the strips are removed by cutting, as wil be hereafter more fully explained. The cementing material used by the inventor is India-rubber (caoutchouc :) but other materials, such as shellac, may be employed instead. One or more coats of India-rubber, or other cement, is to be spread over the surface of the warp, arranged and prepared as above explained, and permitted to dry, and in this condition the frame a, a, may be turned over, and then, by a sharp knife or other suitable cutting instrument, the strips may be successively removed by cutting the yarn from side to side of the fabric, in like manner to cutting the warp

when ing velvet, or Wilton carpet; but it is not necessary to have the strips grooved, as is the case with the wires used in making velvet, but they may be grooved, if it is desired to be very correct in the cutting. The fabric thus prepared is then suitable to be applied to woven textures or other surfaces, by cementing it thereto, but it is preferable that the back of the woven fabric should be cemented on to the warp, immediately on the warp or pile having been heated with the cement, and before cutting out the strips of metal (as shown in Figs. 123 and 124) or other suitable material employed, and this may be performed by having first spread a layer of the cement on the warp, and another on to the fabric which is to constitute the back, and then bring the two cemented surfaces together and press them well; and if the surfaces be extensive the pressure may be conveniently performed by means of a smooth iron roller passed over the upper surface, such roller being made hollow, may be heated with an iron heater. In case it be required to make carpets, or rugs, or other fabrics, with patterns, then it will be desirable to print the yarns or threads in the warp, but each pattern in the printing must be so lengthened as to allow of the bending up of the

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