« PreviousContinue »
in a similar manner to that formerly described in section 1st under the head of plain weaving; G G is the lay or batten; H the reed; I the upper shell to hold the reed; J the under shell or sill of the lay; K the rocking tree or cross bar, which connects the lay swords G G above, as in Fig. 9, section 1st (which see :) L the harness, with double necking, connected to each of the Jacquard machines; M the treadles; Na rack or guide which serves to keep the treadles in their proper places; O treadle cords or wires which connect the treadles to their respective levers or lifters, in the usual way; P the harness board; Q the warp roller, with its ratchet wheel R, similarly fixed to that of the cloth roller D, and held in its place by the catch or dog S, as in Fig. 7, section 1st (which see :) T the warp yarn as it proceeds from the warp roller through the harness L, and from thence into the reed H, where it is woven into cloth, then passes over the breast beam l', and on to the cloth roller D; V the cloth; W a strong cord, fastened to the catch or dog S at X, passing over the pulley Y, and attached to the loom frame at Z, on the right hand side of the loom, and convenient io the weaver's hand; on this cord a small wooden bob A' is fixed, which the weaver pulls when he finds it necessary to draw his bore or sink, and he winds the sane length of cloth upon the cloth roller that he draws of warp from off the warp roller; B B' Jacquard machines of the common description, mounted on the top of the loom in the usual way; C'C' the pattern cards, and, D: D' two wooden boxes into which they drop when delivered from the cylinders, as represented more clearly in the description formerly given of the Jacquard machine, and in the drawings Figs. 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, and 98 (which see.)
The introducer of this texture (aIr. Niorton) has conferred on us a very great benefit: he has furnished us with a higher embellishment for the interior of our dwellings, and presented to us another evidence of the active benevolence and social disposition of man. And it is agreeable to reflect, that in the nursing of the idea, and the carrying of it into effect, he must have felt a pleasure mucr. more intense than is likely to be experienced by any of the multitudes who will enjoy the fruits of his abilities.
A desire for something in the interior of a dwelling analogous to the soft clothing of the external world, seems to be generally felt; for in all states of society attempts are made to remove the hardness and unseemliness of the floor. Among the poorer nations, these attempts are confined to the mere dormitories, but, as advances are made in wealth, the mat and carpet begin to appear. The softness of the turf and more than its smoothness having been attained, it was natural to imitate also its embellishments: for this purpose several distinct kinds of carpet texture have been contrived. On one of these (the ingrain) we have already reported an immense improvement, and proceed to describe a no less striking improvement on another.
The Brussels carpet is distinguished from the common one by having a raised pile, and by the circumstance that the figures and colours are entirely produced from the warp. The pile is raised by inserting a wire between the body of the warp and the previously raised colouring threads. These threads descend and are fixed by the west, which is of linen, two picks being given before the insertion of each wire, and these picks are called binders, and after a few repetitions of the process the wires are withdrawn, taking care that the wires be not drawn out too near the face of the cloth : otherwise the looped warp would become stretched, by recovering the position in which it was before the wires were inserted.
The Wilton carpet ditlers only in this, that the pile is made somewhat longer, and cut in the manner of velvet.* Were the coloured warp, however, raised into pile at each stroke, the web would have simply a striped appearance; and if it were raised only at intervals, the figure would be given in relief, but would still be merely striped. In order to produce a properly coloured pattern, several coloured yarns are arranged, so that any one of them may be raised, into pile. Their number is generally five, and these constitute what is called five covers, so that, by their irregular ascent to the surface, the striped appearance is almost broken up. Still, however, the
* The knife or cutter used in England, for cutting the piles of various kinds of fabrics, is a steel rod about 2 feet long and ; ths of an inch thick, having a square handle at one end; the other end is tapered a way to a blade as thin as the edge of a razor. To prevent the point of the knife from turning downwards and injuring the cloth, its under side is covered by a guide, which serves to stiffen it, as well as to prevent its under edge from cutting the fabric during the operation of guttering out the pile. The operative grasps the handle in his right hand, and insinuating the projecting point of the guide under the weit
, pushes the knife smartly forward through the whole breadth of the pile (from selvage to selvage.) This process is repeated upon every line of the pile throughout the web.
An expeditious method of manufacturing common relrets has lately been introduced by our respected friend, M. Tannias Falson, of Lyons, its ingenious inventor. There are two principal features of novelty in this method; the first of which is, the weaving of two webs or pieces of velvet at once, the one above the other, the pile of each turning inward, and the webs being connected together by the pile itself. The second feature consists of a vibratory cutter or knife, which passes between the two pieces of velvet and cuts them asunder, as fast as woven, by the mere operation of the loom; the cutter is, of course, set from the face of the cloth at a sufficient distance to prevent its cutting too near the reed.
This excellent mode of manufacturing velver, might, we think, be intro duced with great advantage in this country: the necessary apparatus may be obtained, by applying to the inventor, at Lyons, or to Messrs. James Jacquier & Co., No. 1 Wood Street, Spitalfields, London.
† Called corers on account of all the colours being covered or hid, except one, which shows on the face of the cloth. In a pattern, for instance, containing five colours, all these may be visible, but only one will show at any particular point, and the sum of all the parts of the coloured yarns which appear on the face, will be only one filth of the whole of the coloured yarns employed. Five colours are commonly used in the manufacture of Prussels carpet: if a web is essentially striped, and though the designer be not nearly so hampered as in the Kidderminster texture, he is yet seriously incommoded in his choice. Let us suppose a board painted in minute coloured stripes. After these have dried, let another coating of coloured stripes be laid on, and so on for five coats, each differing from the preceding: the painter may now form an idea of the difficulties encountered by the carpet designer,-let him set to work, by scraping away the dillerent coats, to produce a pattern. But there is another annoyance; in oriler to produce the smallest speck of any particular colour, a thread of that colour must traverse the whole pattern ; and that thread may displace some other ochic!l would hare been advantageously brought in elsсrchere. On account of the very different rates at which the coloured threads are taken up, these cannot be wound upon one beam, but have to be placed each upon a bobbin by itself.
To remedy the inconvenience of this texture (the Brussels carpet) Mr. Richard Whytock, of Edinburgh, contrived a method of partially dying the yarns; but we cannot fully understand the value of the contrivance till we have glanced at another kind of carpet texture.
The Turkey carpet is the simplest in its texture of all carpets, and at the same time is almost unlimited in the choice of colours. Let us suppose ourselves seated at a common loom, and that immediately after having thrown a pick, we commence to tie on every thread of the warp a small bunch of coloured worsted yarns, varying the colour according to our fancy. This completed, let two or three picks be thrown, and well driven up; and then another row of coloured worsteds tied on. It is clear that in this way we could produce any pattern, and that no more of any particular colour is wanted than is sufficient to produce the required effect: nay more, the colours being put on by hand, we would not be compelled to reiterate the pattern at each stated distance. Here we have every advantage that we can wish for, excepting this important one, rapidity of formation.
Whytock's method supplies to all the advantages of the Tur
greater number were employed, the cloth would have a flimsy appearance. Suppose ten colours to be used, instead of five, as already described, then nine of them would always remain below, while only one would be raised, but this one could not fully conceal the others, so that the pattern on the cloth would be indistinct. Could one-half or two-thirds of the coloured threads he brought to show on the face of the cloth, it is clear that the fabric would have a much more dense and velvely appearance.
key carpet, a rapidity of weaving greater than that of the Brussels fabric. His method may be described thus : If for the five coloured yarns of the Brussels carpet we could substitute one yarn dyed of the requisite colour at different places, we would be able to dispense with all the apparatus for producing the pattern, could make the web with only one body, and work it as a simple velvet. The only difficulty would then be in the dying of the warp threads.
In order to dye the threads, one yarn is wound on the surface of a large drum, of which the circumference is equal to the length required for one copy or length of the pattern. This drum is graduated so that the dyeing roller can be passed across the yarn at any required place. The design, extended on the ordinary ruled paper, enables the workman to discover all the places at which a particular colour is to be applied : that done, he changes the colour box, and so proceeds till the whole colouring is completed. The thread, being now dyed, is then taken off the drum, and submitted to the processes (steaming &c.) for fixing and brightening up the colours. The second thread is then dyed, and so on till the whole warp is finished. The next and most difficult part of the operation is, to place all these yarns side by side upon the beam. For this purpose they are wound upon separate bobbins, and small white spots, purposely left in the dying, enable the workman to arrange the coloured parts properly opposite each other. They are then carefully rolled upon the beam, and the weaving proceeds rapidly, , each thread being brought into the pile upon every successive wire. Whytock uses the grooved wires, and cuts the pile in the manner of the Wilton carpet.
Excepting the necessity for the recurrence of the pattern, this has all the advantages of the Turkey carpet. The coloured spots can be produced at any point, and need not run in rows as in all the other carpets. It need hardly be added, that greatly admired patterns have been produced by this method; and that the manufacture meets with deserved encouragement.
Before concluding this imperfect notice of these two improvements (Morton's and Whytock's) we would draw attention to a subject of great importance to society in general. A strong prejudice, sanctioned by an old proverb,* exists against those who turn their attention to several branches of the arts. Yet it is a fact, that almost every improver has been jack of a good many trades; nay, an ac
* Jack of all trades and master of none."