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nate wire is represented in Fig. 99, as being raised, and this would cause the warp threads passing through their eyes M M to be raised also; and if these wires were raised and depressed alternately with the others, plain cloth might be produced.) “When the weaver lifts his foot from off the foot board or treadle O, the wheels PP (see Fig. 101,) on the axis of the trunk B, are caught by the hooks TT, and these looks cause the trunk to turn one-fourth part of a revolution.” (One of the hooks T may be seen at F? Fig. 101, and the cylinder treadle () is distinctly shown at 0Fig. 100: in Fig. 100, R’ indicates the position of the lever or bar R, and B’ that of the slides E E, for raising and depressing the cylinder B.)
The enlightened patentee. the said A. C., claims, "the exclusive right to make the above specified machine, to suit all kinds of flowered cloth.” He also claims, " the principle of lifting the sheed or shire (not county) with metallic heylds, directly by the pattern apron and trunk (not portmanteau) roll or receiver, or by lowering the heylds into the same, as described.”'
We have quoted above, Mr. C's own words, in order that our readers may judge correctly of his pretensions as a weaver. If he is as ignorant of mechanics as he appears to be of the proper names of the different parts of the common loom, we need not be astonished although he tells us, that a machine, such as that represented in Figs. 99, 100, 101, and 102, "will manufacture all kinds of flowered cloth.”
The patentee, Calderhead, speaks of making "a Scotch imperial three-ply carpet" with his machine; but, let us see how he could accomplish this :-In the first place, suppose a carpet 36 inches in breadth, and containing 1800 threads of warp from selvage to selvage; in this case 1800 needles or headles would be required, and the pattern cards and cylinder B would require to be 36 inches each, in length; suppose each of the holes in the cylinder B to be of an inch in diameter, (as stated by the intelligent patentee;) and after making the necessary allowance for the metal left uncut between the holes, perhaps 3 holes might be got on an inch; then, as there are 12 holes in the row across the cylinder B, there would be 36 holes in one inch of the length of it, and likewise 36 needles on one inch across the web; so that in the whole breadth of the web, (36 inches,) there could only be 1296 needles, and, of course, the same number of threads, instead of 1800. But, some kinds of figured goods contain from 400 to 650 threads of warp per inch; and it often happens that a web has as many as 16,000, or 20,000 threads in it, from selvage to selvage, so that on the above principle, 16,000 or 20,000 needles, and the same number of holes in the cylinder would be required in such a case : besides, a web of this kind is very frequently S0 or 120 inches broad, and would require from 16,000 to 20,000 cards to produce the pattern. We question the applicability of the “ heylds, trunk" and "apron" to webs of this description, unless the needles could be made of wire, at least, as fine as No. 60 or 70; and, moreover, cards 80 or 120 inches long might be found somewhat difficult to manage, at least, this is our opinion. Before dismissing this subject we would mention, that one of the most extraordinary specimens of silk weaving, perhaps, ever executed, was exbibited at Mr. Morrison's late conversazione given to the members of the Institute of British Architects. It was a portrait of Jacquard, representing that extraordinary man in his workshop surrounded by his implements, and planning the construction of that beautiful machinery, which now, in its increased perfection, returns this testimony to the genius of its inventor. This work, worthily entitled "Hommage á J. M. Jacquard," was woven with such truth and delicacy as to resemble a fine line engraving : it was executed by Didier, Petit & Co. There were 1,000 threads in each square inch (French,) in both the warp and the weft; and 24,000 cards were used in the manufacture, each card large enough to receive 1,050 holes.
But, to conclude, we would state, for the information of our readers,
that we, ourself, made a machine on the same principle as that claimed by Mr. Calderhead, as far back as Jan. 1833, (for manufacturing common ingrain carpeting ;) and a patent for which was granted to Claude Marie Helaire Molinard, of Bury Street, St. Mary Axe, in the city of London, merchant, bearing date 9th April 1833; (see vol. 15, Conjoined Series, of the London Journal of Arts and Sciences, for the year 1940, pages 286 and 287,) so that Mr. C's patent is, in point of fact, null and void. We may also remark, that a friend of ours, in London, William Webb, Esq., of the firm of James Jacquier & Co., No. 1 Wood St., Spitalfields, showed us a machine, in the year 1836, differing in no respect from that constructed by Mr. C., and represented in Figs. 99, 100, 101, and 102; and, no doubt, Mr. Webb would be glad to furnish any number of them to order, to whom we would recommend those of our friends who want such articles to make application forth with. Perhaps machines of this description might be found of advantage in the manufacture of horse-blankets. (See Arkite Ghiden Ghelen's loom, Fig. A. Introduction.)
The pattern cards P P P Fig. 97, are cut (in small establish
ments) between two steel plates, like those represented in Figs. 103 and 10.1.
The holes A A, in these plates, correspond to those of the cylinder shown in Figs. 93 or 99. B B (Figs. 103 and 104) are large holes to fit on the knobs M M in Figs. 93 and 94; C C are hinges which connect the plates, and they must be well fitted, so that the plates may present no impediment to the punching of the pasteboard or card paper, when it is placed between them ; D D are handles attached to the upper plate, by which the operator raises or lowers it, when he wishes to take out or put in a card; the large holes B B correspond to those marked O O O Fig. 97.
The method of cutting cards in these plates, from the design paper or pattern, is so well known to all persons having the least knowledge of figured weaving, that we need give no further description of it in this place. We would state, however, that on this plan, an active man can only cut from 100 to 150 cards per day; whereas, on the great French card-cutting apparatus or machine, (to which the reader is referred,) he can cut from 2500 to 3000, with the assistance of a boy, in the same time.*
* We would here mention for the benefit of the manufacturers of this country, that a card-cutting machine of this kind, in its most perfect state, may be purchased from our friend, M. Dioudonnat, No. 12 Rue St. Maur, Paris, for 2100 francs; this includes the copying and stamping machines, the simples and all the other necessary apparatus, as well as the packing or boxing of the whole and its carriage to Havre for shipment. One of these splendid machines would, at least, be sufficient to cut cards for a manufactory containing 300 looms.
The progress of almost any of the arts may be safely taken as an index of civilization. The arts, indeed, are so intimately interwoven, that one of them can scarcely Hourish without giving rise to and receiving support from others. This is particularly the case in regard to the manufacture of carpets; which, like the other branches of weaviny, lias received improvements at every hand, and has lately made important advances. The very fact of the existence of such a manufacture speaks volumes as to the increase of our domestic comforts.
In the superficial texture of the common carpet, nothing appears to distinguish it from an ordinary web; and a first observer is at a loss to imagine by what means its variety of colours can be produced. On examining the figure more narrowly, it appears that the designer has laboured under considerable difficulties : for in many places where purity of colour would have been advantageous, a mixed colour, of the warp and weft, only is to be found, while scarcely any gradual shading of the tints depending on the nature of the figure is to be seen. A still closer examination explains at once the source of these imperfections. The ingrain or double carpet is found to consist of two contiguous webs, intermingled with each other in such a manner as to produce the pattern : each of these webs, if woven singly, would have a striped appearance, being partly coloured in the weft. One set of coloured stripes is thus imposed upon another : and in designing the colours of the pattern, no selection beyond what is afforded by the judicious arrangement of these stripes can be made. The number of full colours is thus very limited ; and these can only be obtained where the west traverses warp of the same colour. To bring up then a part of the figure full red, red warp must be traversed by red weft ; these colours can be immediately concealed by sending the threads to the other web, but were they to remain long there, both webs would iecome monotonous. It is therefore extremely difficult to avoid a strong tendency to striping in the colours, and, except in the principal part of the figure, the colours can hardly be well manigid, the secondary embellishments being almost matters of chance.
This carpet is
Yet, in the face of all these difficulties, patterns of great beauty are being continually formed on the carpet loom.
The invention of the triple carpet, claimed by Jr. Morton, of Kilmarnock, has almost removed these ditficulties. composed of three webs, which interchange their threads in order to produce the pattern. The primary object in the introduction of the third web, appears to have been the obtaining of greater variety and brilliancy of colouring; but another curious effect has followed that the two sides of the carpet are necessarily counterparts to each other. To a certain extent the figure of the under must depend on that of the upper side, since threads may be needed from the under web to produce what is wanted in the chief pattern on the upper side, but there still remains the choice of an interchange of threads between the two inferior webs. It is obvious that the tendency to striping must be much less on this than on the common carpet, and that the designer having a far greater choice of colours, may produce eilects that could not before have been obtained. After the principal figure has been determined on, the skill of the designer is most severely exercised on the wrong side of the carpet. His choice of materials is indeed as great as with the common carpet, but then he is hampered by the restriction in figure, and can only be entirely at ease opposite a piece of plain texture on the other side. The superior beauty of the triple carpet over the common ingrain or tiro-ply is at once acknowledged : it possesses almost all the freedom in colouring of the floor-cloth or paper-hanging, while its great thickness and comparative cheapness bring it into competition with the more expensive kinds of carpeting,
Fig. 105 is a correct representation, in perspective, of an inperial Scotch carpet loom.
The frame of the loom consists of four perpendicular posts A A A A, with capes B B, and cross rails CCCC, to hold them firm at suitable distances apart; these posts are generally 6 feet 4:} inches in height; D is the cloth roller, which must be made of wellseasoned wood of 5. inches in diameter, with an iron gudgeon of aths of an inch in diameter driven into each end of it, in the usual way; on one of these ends a ratchet wheel E is fastened, which is operated upon by two clicks F F, for the purpose of holding the web in its proper place when wound upon the roller by the weaver,
* Mr. M. is one of those sanguine mortals who believe, that if a man could produce a machine which would generate the power by which it was worked, he would become a creator! Oui!!