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ground. Hence, when any shed is to be opened, the weaver pulls down the corresponding lash, thereby drawing the knot cords altached to it, between the teeth of the comb F, as before stated; he then presses down the treadle K with his left foot, keeping it pressed until he has worked over the ground treadles, with his right foot, and given the proper number of picks for that change of the pattern. There is also another guide board, marked L, through which all the perpendicular cords E pass, and it is in all respects like that marked A Fig. S1. The comb F is recovered or counterbalanced to its resting place every time the weaver lifts his foot from off the treadle K, by means of the weight M and cord N, which cord passes into the comb F and is made fast by a knot at 0. There is also another knot P on this cord, for preventing the weight M from sinking the comb F too low under the knot E: all this will be seen to greater advantage in the enlarged section Fig. 94. The cords of the lash bobs D have each a knot, which, when the bob is pulled down, is slipped under a saw cut or groove in the board Q, a more perfect view of which is given in Fig. 83. As many of the simple cords B are connected to each of the bob cords as are required to form one lash or change of the pattern, and of course, there must be as many bobs as there are changes in the figure.

We would remark, that in Fig. 80, only one mail S and one lead T are shown, to avoid confusion ; but the harness does not differ in construction from that represented in Figs. 63 and 85.

SECTION SIXTH.

BARREL OR CYLINDER LOOM.

The next improvement in weaving that merits our attention, is that of the barrel or cylinder loom, the invention of which is claimed by one Thomas Morton, of Kilmarnock, Scotland. This improvement consists in using a barrel or cylinder, on the surface of which, the figure or pattern to be produced in the cloth is arranged in relief, precisely in the same way as tunes are disposed on the barrel of the common organ, or on that of a musical box, by inserting wire staples or wooden pins, and the barrel being placed upon the top of the loom, these staples actuate other suitable mechanism, and thus the pattern is formed upon the cloth.

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Fig. 85 represents a front view of this loom, as it appears when the shed is formed. A is the barrel; B a spur wheel fastened to its end by the screws C C: this wheel, by means of proper catches and other machinery, to be hereinafter described, governs the rolation of the barrel A, so as to give out a line on its surface at each change of the pattern, equal to one line of the design paper, as represented in Fig. So, which figure shows a plan of the barrel A, with the pattern or sprig D drawn upon its surface; E is the slides; F the connecting cords, and G the slide roller ; the latter having a leather strap H nailed to it, in order that the cords F may be fastened thereto, as is shown in Figs. S3 and S6. The slides E work in the slide frame I I, an end view of which frame is given in Fig. 85, and a plan of it in Fig. 86; it is fastened at each side by the

) bolts or screws J J, which hold it in its proper place. Fig. 92 is an end view, in section, of the barrel A, having a few of the pattern staples driven into it, (by way of example :) these staples are of the various sizes or lengths to suit the number of changes required in the different parts of the pattern, as indicated by the sprig D, Fig. 86. The staple No. 1 (see Fig 92) contains three lines, and, of course, will cause the warp thread or threads which it governs, to be lifted three times in regular succession; the two lines which follow this staple, being ground, are missed, and ten lines are taken for the staple No. 2; two lines are missed, and one is taken for No. 3; one line is missed, and one is taken for No. 4; four lines are missed, and six are taken for No. 5; one line is missed, and one is taken for No 6; one line is missed, and four are taken for No. 7 ; one line is missed, and five are taken for No. 8; and the two last lines on the right hand side are missed, being ground or blank.

The neck cords are arranged in a row, (similarly to those of Dr. McLaughlin's machine,) and each passes through a suitable hole in one of the slides E, which holes may be seen at K in the slide frame Fig. 86, and their position is indicated by the dotted line L, Fig. 35. The tail or neck cords are all tied to their respective harness twines immediately above the two wooden rollers M (see Fig. 85:) these rollers keep the selvage warp threads of the same height as those in the centre of the web when the shed is formed. N N is the harness board, which is supported by the framing of the loom at 0 0; PPP P are mails, and QQQQ their respective lead weights, and both these leads and mails are precisely of the same form as those

* This is the greatest number, or length, ever taken for one staple; because, if more were taken, the staple would be liable to bend in its middle, owing to the slides E driving against it in the working of the loom.

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of the draw loom (shown in Fig. 63.) In Fig. S5 there are four harness cords, R RR R. connected to the first tail cord at S, just above the rollers I, which shows that in this example, there are four repeats or parts in the whole tie of the harness. The harness board V is in every respect like that of the draw loom, Fig. 66, in which figure five holes are shown in the breadth of the board : one row, therefore, or five holes, may be supposed to represent five of the slides E, shown in Fig. So.

Now, the operator, in proceeding to tie up a harness of this description, takes the first fiont hole of the board at the commence. ment of each repeat or part; and if it is to contain four repeats, as in Fig. S.7, he comects those four cords to the first or front tail cord, and then proceeds to the second and so on to the fifth or back hole in his harness board, which will, of course, be connected to the tail cord belonging to the fifth slide. For the sake of illustration, we have numbered these five slides in regular succession, Vo. 1 being the first in front and corresponding to the front hole in the harness board NN, and so on to slide No. 5, which corresponds to the last or fifth hole at the back of the harness board. When one row is finished, the operator again commences at the front of the harness board, on the right hand side of each of the first rows, tying the four first cords of the second row of each repeat to the tail cord passing through the sixth slide, and so on until the row be completed, always beginning the rows as at first, and proceeding regularly over them until all the harness is tied.

The pattern must be read off from the design paper on to the barrel A, as represented in Fig. 56; but, previous to this process, however, it is necessary to line ofi the barrel, so as to give its surface the appearance of design paper, and without which preparatory operation, the pattern could not be read on properly : this lining is effected in the following manner:-One of the slides E is sharpened to a point, as represented at T, Fig. 36, which point is kept pressed by the finger of the principal operator against the barrel A, while a second person causes the barrel to revolve, by which means, a mark or line is made round its surface, like those shown in Fig. 86. It may be observed, that none of the slides E are inserted in the frame II until the barrel A has been chequered as shown in the figure; because, if they were, the pointed slide T, could not be moved along from hole to hole in the frame II, as the marking or scoring proceeded. Each of the lines thus made round the barrel A must be directly opposite to the centre of a slide, in order that the slides may afterwards strike fairly on the staples.

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The operator now proceeds to cross-line his barrel (from right to left) by laying a ruler or straight-edge along the length of it, parallel to its axis ; the ends of which ruler rest on each side of the frame of the machine, and perfectly level with the slide frame I I. He affixes to the end of the barrel A a throated pulley V (Sec Fig 35,) around which is adjusted the rope or cord V V, passing over the pulleys WW, and attached to the weights X and X, the latter of these weights being sufficiently heavy to draw round the barrel A one line of the pattern every time one of the catches Y Y (one of which is seen in Fig S9) is elevated from the side of one of the cogs of the spur wheel B. These catches are fixed in the stand or support Z, which is bolted to the frame at A' A' (see Fig. $5;) in this stand the catches are kept in the proper position, by means of a wire pin B' passing through them; a clearer view of one of these catches with its pin B' and recovering weight C' will be had in Fig. 89. The recovering weight C' of each catch merely serves to bring it back to its former position in the spur wheel B after it has been lifted by the arms D'D' of the tumbler E'; this tumbler is distinctly represented in Figs. 85 and 90. On one end of the tumbler shaft is affixed a small pellet F', which works in a gougedout pulley G' (see Fig. 88,) which pulley is loose on the end of the tumbler shaft, and a small spring catch H' is screwed to it, and this catch works against each of the points of the pellet F' alternately (see Fig. 83.) The operation of these parts is as follows :

Every time the barrel treadle cord I' (see Figs. 85 and SS) is depressed, the pulley G' having the spring catch H' screwed to it, will cause the pellet F' to turn to the right, and, if the treadle cord I' be of the proper length, the two points of the pellet F' will exchange positions. The cord I', being connected below to the barrel treadle J', as in Fig 85, when the weaver lifts his (left) foot from off this treadle, the weight R' will recover the pulley G' to its former position, as shown in Fig. 39, the spring catch H slipping over one of the points of the pellet Fl. The whole of the apparatus in Fig. 88 is kept in its proper position by means of the knot L'. The spring M' bears against the tumbler shaft in such a manner that al whatsoever point or place the spring catch H' leaves the pellet F', it will there remain ; and this prevents any part of the apparatus from interfering with the catches Y Y during the operation of the loom. The knot N (see Fig. 88) holds the cord in the throat of the pulley G'.

When the operator proceeds to line off or score his barrel lengthwise, as before stated, he lifts the catches Y Y, each alternately,

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