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DROPPED NETS. The whip and mail nets are frequently ornamented with a variety of figures, which are formed on the cloth merely by preventing the crossings of certain portions of the whip, for one or more picks of weft, which leaves open spaces in the ground larger than the common meshes of the net; this may be effected either by preventing part of the upper bead lam whip from sinking, or of the under bead lam whip from rising, in the open shed, by means of additional back leaves applied for that purpose.

These examples, it is presumed, will be sufficient to explain the nature and process of net weaving, and to show that by changing the order of the draught, cording and treading, considerable variety may be produced in these fabrics.



We've heard of labyrinths and gordian knots,
And other things which try your men of skill;
But here we for a time shall turn our thoughts
To something even more complicated still.

Having described in the preceding sections the elementary principles of weaving, and developed some of their most useful combinations, with the necessary illustrations to make them perfectly understood, it now devolves upon us to show how these principles may be extended beyond the scope of leaves of headles, by aid of the draw loom.

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is a front elevation of the common draw loom. The frame AA is called the carriage, from its use in supporting the harness; and rests on the capes of the loom, which are seen in section at A’A”. On the top of this frame is fixed the pulley box Ewhich contains the pulleys over which the tail cords run when any part of the harness is raised to form a shed, or sheds.

This box, a horizontal view of which is given in Fig. 64,

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is placed in a slanting position sufficient to allow the tail cords BB to sink in opening the sheds, without obstruction from the frame or pulleys below.

The harness is composed of the following parts; namely, the neck twines, which extend from the neck of the harness, as pointed out by the figures of reference 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10, to the knots at EE; the sleepers,* which connect the neck twines with the mails at DD; the mails, which are the substitutes for the eyes of headles, through which the warp threads are drawn, and of which a more distinct view will be found in Fig. 65;

Fig. 65.

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* The name usually given to that part of the cords or mountings which passes through the board CC, commencing at the knots EE, and ending at the mails DD.

the twines, that connect the mails and leads or weights at XX, called hangers, to sink the mails after they have been raised to form the shed or sheds.

CC is the hole board," through which the sleepers pass; and this regulates the distance of the mails and the fineness of the harness. The face of this board is represented in Fig. 66.

Fig. 66.




in which it will be observed that the holes for the harness twines run in oblique lines, that the mails may have sufficient room to stand directly opposite to their respective intervals of the reed, without being too much crowded together. The reed and harness board, therefore, must be of the same set or fineness ; or should a harness board of a finer set than the reed be at any time employed, the supernumerary holes must be left empty at regular intervals and in complete rows, as in the method followed by weavers in setting their headles. It may be observed, however, that although the sets of reeds in America be calculated on 37 inches, yet the sets of the harness board are comprised in 36, so that in 37 inches of the harness board there will be the number of dents contained in one inch of any given set more than in the same breadth of the reed. As each part or division into which the harness is tied begins always with a complete row of the harness board, this addition is made as an allowance for any holes that may be left empty at the ends of such parts as are not multiples of five. Thus were the harness to be tied into such parts as 100, 105, 110, 115, &c., mails, every part would exactly fill a certain number of rows in the harness board when there were five in each row: but in a tie of 102, for instance,

* Called hole board from the fact of its being pierced with a great number of holes; a clearer view of which will be had in Fig. 66. Scotch weavers often call it by the name of "holy brod;" but the words holy and righteous being almost synonymous, we think the latter of these terms quite as applicable as the former; however, we shall excuse these broad Scotchmen, as they are, no doubt, a very holy people. Among Yorkshiremen, the appellation of "cumber boord” is used for this part of the loom, from the circumstance of its being much encumbered with strings, &c.: but, for our part, we would prefer the Yankee name of "harness board.":

there would be three holes left empty at the end of each part; which, consequently, would make the harness considerably broader than the reed, were it not for the above allowance. It may be further remarked, that, although in the present example there are only five holes in cach oblique row in the board, which is the number appropriated to four thread harnesses, yet in dent and full harnesses, where a greater number of mails must necessarily occupy the same space, the number of holes in each row is extended to ten, and in French shawl looms even sometimes to thirty-two." From these observations it will evidently appear, that two mails will stand opposite to one interval of the reed in a full harness; one in a split or dent harness; and in a four thread harness, one mail will occupy the space of two dents or splits of the reed.

From the tail at W descends the simple cords FF, or as they are termed collectively the simple, down to the floor at Z, where they are fastened. It is on this part of the draw loom that the pattern is read on from the design paper. The twines at III are termed the lashes, and are necessary for separating the simples of any shed which is to be opened from those that remain stationary ; NNN are the heads to which the lashes are attached, and are made to run or slide with a noose on the gut cord L, at pleasure. The gut cord commonly extends from the roof of the shop to the floor, (as shown in Fig. 63,) parallel to the simple. KK are the bridles, which being connected with the lashes at equal distances, draw them down in succession as they are wanted by the draw boy.

The number of mails necessary to produce one set of a pattern, make what is denominated a part, or the tie of the harness ; and as every mail in one part must rise independently of the others, each must have its respective cord both in the tail and simple ; so that the greater the range of the pattern, the greater will be the number of simple cords. Hence it is evident, that were a harness to be tied in one part only, there would be a tail and simple cord for each mail in the width of the web. But as patterns of this extent are not very common, it is usual to divide the harness into such a number of parts as may be most suitable to that species of goods on which it is to be employed, and these parts are repeated to make up the full width.

By this means the number of tail and simple cords, together with

* Our friend, Monsieur Dioudonnat, of No. 12 Rue St. Maur, Paris, (France) generally pierces his harness boards with thirty-two holes in the row (in breadth.)

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