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therefore, only one beam or roll is required. The mounting of the whip net, like that of the common gauze, as already described, (see Figs. 49 and 50,) consists of two back leaves, two standards, and two bead lams or half leares. The two back leaves are placed behind the reed in the usual way, and the bread lams with their standards are placed in front of the lay, between the race board and the reed, as formerly mentioned. But as glass beads are frequently used instead of eyes in the back leaves also, and these mountings are generally constructed to weave dropped as well as plain nets, the back headles are usually divided into four leaves; by which the friction is avoided that would be occasioned by the beads being too much crowded together.

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is a plan of the whip net mounting, with a specimen of the cloth annexed, both when it is woven plain, and when it is dropped. A and B are the two back leaves, each of which being divided into the other two parts marked 1 and 2 ; C and D are the standards; and 1 and 2, the half leaves or bead lams, corresponding with the doups and standards of the full gauze mounting, (see Figs. 49 and 50.) The reed, which shows also the position of the lay, is here seen between the back and front mountings. Let the dots on the leaves C and D represent sections of the twine of which the headles

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are made, and they will point out the position of the standards. The upper bead lams with their beads, through which the whip threads are drawn, will then appear as passing through the headles or standards on the leaf C, the beads being in front at v; and the under bead lams will be seen as if rising through their standards on the leaf D, crossing below the others towards the front at I. The marks on the treadles will point out the raising and sinking cords, as in the plain gauze.

But the manner in which the bead lams cross in front of the standards will appear to more advantage in Fig. 56.

Fig. 56.

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Here the upper bead lam shaft is marked 1, and its standard C; the under lam 2, and its standard D, as in Fig. 55. When the open shed is formed, the bead lams assume the position represented in Fig. 56 at 1, and v, that is, the bead lam z, on the shaft 2, crosses in front of a standard on the shaft C, and rises on the left of the bead lam v, while the bead lam v, on the shaft 1, crosses in front of a standard on the shaft D, and sinks on the right of r : the threads passing through these two beads, being on the same interval of the reed, this forms the open shed; which is pointed out by the pick 2 in Fig. 55. Again, in forming the cross shed, the bead v, is drawn close to its standard at u, and the bead r, is drawn back to its standard at a, (see Fig. 56,) while the standard D is raised, and C sunk, as in the cross shed of the common gauze, (this shed is marked by the pick 1 in Fig. 55,) and thus the crossings of the whip are effected.

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It was formerly observed that the back and front mountings of the gauze are placed at about three and a half or four inches apart, that the warp may have sufficient room to twist between them in opening the cross shed. In nets, however, the corresponding crossing of the whip takes place in front of the standards, where it is forced nearly into a vertical position. It is therefore necessary that the whip should be slackened more in the cross shed than any other kind of warp, so as to yield freely to the pressure of the cross treadles ; otherwise it would be almost impossible to obtain a shed. The method usually employed for this purpose, both for this and the other nets, is as follows: a o, Fig. 57,

Fig. 57.

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is a couper suspended from the ceiling of the weaving room, or from the top of the loom, from the end a, of which a cord descends to the end of a long march n, which is again connected to the cross treadlet. To the other end o, of the lever or couper is tied the cord i, which after taking two turns round the whip roll 2, suspends the pace weight u. Sometimes a thong or strap of leather is used for that part which goes round the roll, and a little chalk rubbed upon it to prevent it from slipping. Now, it is plain that when the cross 1, is pressed down, it sinks the long march n, and consequently the end a, of the couper, by which the other end o, will be raised, and turn the roll round on its axis by the cord i. By this means the whip is slackened, and a greater or smaller range is given to it, to suit any given pattern, merely by shifting the fulcrum or centre of motion farther from, or nearer to the end o, of the couper.

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There is another circumstance which requires particular attention in the manufacture of nets, that does not occur in gauze. In the gauze mounting the two threads of each dent of the reed rise and sink between their respective standards and in the cross shed the doups or half leaves are drawn tight by the weights, so as to pass each other without any friction ; especially if the web be properly mounted. In the whip net, however, see Fig. 56, the bead lams project beyond their opposite standards; and, therefore, were the weights allowed to act upon them with their whole force, they would be drawn so tight or close to their standards, as to prevent the beads from tumbling, as it is termed; or the cross shed from opening freely. On the other hand, were the bead lams too slack, the friction occasioned by the tumbling of the beads would soon prore destructive to the standards, besides being liable to get frequently entangled among the warp. To prevent both of these inconveniences,

. each bead lam shaft is connected at each end to the opposite shaft of its respective standard, by a piece of twine called a bridle, as represented at, m, n, in Fig. 56. By means of these bridles the weaver can temper the front mounting as he pleases, as they are made with snitches, the same as those on the treadle cords of looms for tweeling. Sometimes the under bead lam shaft is bridled to the end of the couper of the front standard, by which method the bridles are kept clear of the shuttle. In general the bead lams project through their standards, when the mounting is stationary, about a quarter of an inch; but every weaver tempers his bridles to such a degree of tension as may best suit the state of his mounting.

It may be further observed of nets in general, that the weaving motions should be very slow, uniform, and steady. The sheds are opened by a gradual pressure of the foot upon the treadles, without any sudden jerks, which would cut the whip, and in a short time ruin the mounting. At the same time, the lay is worked with a steady motion, while the shed is opening. The shuttle is driven through the sheds with equal caution, lest it should dip or get entangled among the bead lams or standards. This, however, is in a great measure prevented by pins of brass wire driven into the lay, immediately behind the race board, along which the shuttle runs, instead of the reed as in other kinds of weaving. After the pick has been thrown into the shed, the treadle is relieved in the same gentle way, by which the weights have sufficient time to act upon the bead lams, and keep them in a uniform degree of tension, while the lay is brought forward with the same steady motion to the face of the cloth.

It is also of the greatest importance that all the cordings be properly tempered ; which, with due attention, will be easily effected by means of the snitch knot,* which must be well known to every practical weaver.

As the crossing of the whip in net weaving necessarily produces considerable friction, a greater power is requisite to be exerted on the cross treadle than in any other species of light fabrics : for this reason, the treadles are placed below the warp roll, and the weaver works on the ends towards him, by which he gains the whole of the lever power.

SPIDER AND MAIL NETS.

These two nets are woven in the same mounting, and have the same relation to each other as the gauze and lino.

The mounting is merely that of the common gauze, which is here called the ground, combined with that of the whip net, with which the ground is interwoven.

The gauze part of the mounting, and the back leaves of the net, are placed behind the reed; and the two bead lams and their standards are before it, as in the preceding mounting, (Fig. 55.) Either of the methods for reducing the number of leaves, formerly explained, may be adopted for the ground; although the full mounting is generally preferred : for, with the full mounting only two warp rolls are necessary, one for the ground and the other for the whip, while either of the former methods require two for the ground, that one-half of the warp may yield a little more than the other while the cross shed is forming.

The Spider net is woven with two treadles which produce the texture of plain gauze, interwoven with the whip: the mail net requires only the addition of a plain treadle on which every fourth pick of weft is thrown, as in Fig. 58.

* This is merely a modification of the slip knot, known to Irishmen under the name of O'Doherty's, or the hangman's noose.

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