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sheds, the threads do not rise and fall alternately, as in plain weaving, nor at intervals as in tweeling. In both sheds the thread A is always raised and the thread B sunk; but in the open shed, Fig. 49, the threads are not crossed, and in the cross shed. Fig. 50, they are. By examining these two figures (19 and 50.) the way of drawing the warp through the headles will become apparent, and this is an important part of every branch of cross weaving. The thread A is drawn through the third leaf, but as it always rises, it is not taken through the clasp, or eye, of the headle, but above it, through what the weavers usually call the upper doup, as at, I* Fig. 49. In like manner the thread B, which always sinks, is drawn through the under doup of the fourth leaf as at Yo Figs. 49 and 50. When this has been done, the thread A is crossed under the thread B, as will appear more plainly in Fig. 53,
which is a horizontal or ground plan. After being drawn through these two leaves, which are generally called the back mounting, it only remains to cross and draw the warp through the fore mounting. Of the half leaves, one is hung from above, and one rises from below. The one hung from above passes through the lower doup of the leaf or standard 2, and that from below through the upper doup of the standard 1. This will appear very plain in Fig. 51. Through the under half leaf connected with the standard 1, the thread A is drawn, (see Fig. 49) and through the upper half leaf connected with the standard 2, the thread B passes, as in Fig. 49. In Figs. 49 and 50, the shaft of the upper half B’, appears as hung between the standards 1 and 2, but this is not the usual praclice; for it is found more convenient to place the two standards to
gether, the under half leaf, A”, in front of the standard 1, and the upper half, B2, behind the standard 2, as in Figs. 51 and 52. By means of the half leaves the alternate crossing of the warp is eflected : for in the open shed (Fig. 19.) the half leaves work in an opposite direction to the standards, and leave room for the warp to rise and sink in the space between the standards, while in the cross shed (Fig. 50) the half leaves rise and sink with their respective standards, and force one thread of warp across the other. Thus, when the warp is direct. the half leaves are crossed, and when the mounting is direct, the warp is crossed. This will plainly appear ly carefully tracing the threads A and B in Figs. 49 and 50. and also in Fig.. 31 and 32. where sectious of the threads are represented by round dots, thus (..) In Fig. 51 the half leaves and standards are crossed as in Fig. 49, and in Fig. 52 the standard 1 is sunkand the standard 2 raised; the mounting will be direct and the warp crossed, as in Fig. 50.
To render the mode of mounting a gauze loom as plain as possible, we shall enter into a more detailed account of the mounting than appears necessary in those kinds of weaving where the horizontal plans of the draught and cording have been long practised and understood by professional men. The novelty of the subject, and its evident utility, should we succeed in our explanation, will, we hope, screen us from the charge of unnecessary prolixity.
It has been already stated, that the gauze mounting consists of two back leaves, two standards, and two half leaves. These are moved by two treadles. The intermediate levers are five top levers or coupers, five long, and five short marches. Tracing the headles in regular succession from the front, the first is the under half leaf, A’, the second the front standard 1. the third the second standard 2, the fourth the upper half leaf, B’, the fifth the first back leaf 3, and the sixth the second back leaf 4 (see Fig. 49.) The two back leaves and the two standards are raised, or sunk, as the case may require, by connecting cords with the marches and treadles, as in other looms. The half leaves have no connection with any treadle, but are lifted, and sunk by the warp, in the open shed Fig. 49; and they are kept tight by weights in the cross shed 50. These weights must, therefore, operate upon the half leaves in the cross shed, and must be relieved in the open.
. It will be proper to trace the connections of the leaves with the coupers and marches in the first place, and then to explain the way in which the weighis are applied to operate upon the half leaves :
1st. The lower half leaf, A, (see Fig. 54,) is attached by a cord below to the first short march: it has no connection above. 2d. The first standard is attached by oblique cords W’ to the first couper above ; the couper, to the first long march ; the standard is connected below with the second short march. 3d. The second standard, to the second couper above ; the couper, to the second long march; the standard, to the third short march below. 4th. The upper half leaf, B, to the third couper above ; the couper, to the third long march: no connection beloro. 5th. The first back leaf 3, to the fourth couper above, the couper, to the fourth long march; the leaf 1 to the fourth short march below. 6th. The second back leaf, to the fifth couper above ; the couper, to the fifth long march ; the leaf, to the fifth short march below. These connections being formed, it only remains to apply the
weights to their respective marches, and to connect the other marches with the treadles. The mode of applying the weights will appear in Fig. 54. This figure is a transverse section of the front part of the mounting of a whip net, of which it will be necessary to treat afterwards. In the mean time, as the cording of a common gauze is exactly the same as that of a whip net, it will serve to illustrate that part of the mounting.
The lower leaf, A2, (as seen in Fig. 49,) is connected with the first short march. (See Fig. 51.)
The upper half leaf, B, with the third couper above, and from thence with the third long march. (See Fig. 54.)
The application of the weights is therefore as follows:
From the first short march tio cords descend, one passing on either side of the first long march, and from these cords the weight is suspended. Above the long march the cords are attached to each end of a piece of wood, Z, (see Fig. 51,) generally a piece sawed or cut from a common spool, by which they are kept asunder to prevent them from rubbing on the long march which works between them. Another piece of the same kind, Y, is fixed below, and from this the other weight is suspended. The same apparatus is applied to the third short march, and passes upon both sides of the third long march, for the upper half leaf.
When the open shed is made, the first standard is pulled down ; this raises the first long march, which consequently lifts the weight, and allows the under half leaf, A', (see Fig. 49,) to rise ; at the same time time the second standard is raised ; this, of course, raises the third short march, and relieves the pressure of the weight from the third long march : the upper half leaf, B’, is thus allowed to sink. In forming this shed, the standards and half leaves merely yield to the warp, for the raising and sinking are entirely produced by the back leaves (marked 3 and 4, Fig. 49.)
From these explanations, and from a careful examination of the Figs. 49, 50, 51, and 52, the general principle of weaving gauze may be pretty well understood.
The connections with the treadles will be found by examining Fig. 53, which is a horizontal plan, similar to those employed to illustrate other branches of weaving, particularly damask, (of which we shall treat in its proper place.) The warp thread A, which is drawn through the upper doup of the first back leaf 3, (see Fig. 53) is distinguished by a black oblong mark, on the left side of the Thread. The thread B, which is drawn through the under doup of the leaf 4, is distinguished by a white oblong mark, on the right side of the thread. The draught of the warp thread A through the upper half leaf, b, is also denoted by a white oblong mark on the right side of the thread; and that through the front half leaf, a, by a black oblong mark on the left of the thread B. The connections for raising the back leaves and standards are indicated by black squares; and those for sinking them, by white squares or blanks, all of which will be evident by examining the extreme left of the plan (Fig. 53.) Where no connection from the marches to the treadles is necessary, the mark X is used. As the half leaves are raised and sunk by the warp, no mark is used for the cording of them. The open shed is formed by pressing down the treadle 1, the cross shed by the treadle 2; the treadle 3 merely reverses the motion of the treadle 2. to enable the weaver to work plain cloth as well as gauze, when he finds it convenient. The alternate motion necessary for plain cloth, is entirely performed by the standards and half leaves, the back leaves remaining stationary in this, as well as in the cross shed. But in this shed it is necessary to connect the marches with the plain treadle, to keep the half leaves tight when the weights are raised, the fore mounting in the plain shed being exactly in the same situation as in the open shed.
From the descriptions now given of gauze weaving. we hope that any weaver of even common perception, who will study them with care and attention, will find little difficulty in mounting a gauze loom for himself.
When the principle of gauze weaving is thoroughly understood, its application to the weaving of fancy nets may be easily acquired. Many varieties of net work are used, but a few which form the groundwork of all the rest, will be sufficient to elucidate the general principle; and, to use the words of a certain learned doctor of bookmaking notoriety," the limits to which it is necessary to restrict this Work, will not admit of more particular details."*
This net takes its name from the warp being wholly of whip, without any other ground. The term whip is used by weavers to denote a species of warp rolled upon a separate beam to form fancy patterns. In this net the whole warp is of this description; and,
* The principal reason why we are thus restricted is, that we have already extracted from the works of others all the valuable or "luminous information which they contained about the manufacture of " textile fabrics." See “ Ure's Dictionary,” and “History of the Cotton manufactures.”