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This species of manufacture having never been introduced into America, where consequently it can be but little known, some account of it will not, perhaps, be uninteresting to the reader.
In these, as in some other branches of fancy weaving, considerable ingenuity is displayed in the production of patterns, which in general exhibit a variety of flushing or floating peculiar to themselves. This will be obvious from a perusal of the specimens subjoined to these descriptions. The ground, or lac', as it is generally termed, is sometimes plain, and sometimes tweeled. In the former case it is called a tabby or plain back, and in the latter, a jean or Genoa back, and the jeans are single or double, according as they are woven in a three or four leaf tweel mounting. The flushing
, which is afterwards cut up to form the ridges or the pile, is thrown in and interwoven with the ground at various intervals, and upon this depends all the diversity of patterns which we see in these fabrics. A few examples will illustrate these observations. Fig. 17 is a
If we examine this plan we will find that the treadle marked 1, or the first in the order of treading, will raise all the odd threads 1, 3, 5, in the draught, and the treadle marked 4 will raise all the even ones; consequently, these two treadles wrought alternately will produce plain cloth, or in other words, they will work the ground or back. The other three treadles are for the flushing. By tracing over the treading of this figure, it will be found, that there are two picks of the flushing thrown in for each pick of the ground, which are marked 2, 3, 5, 6, in the succession of treading; the treadle 6, being the same as 3, is added merely to keep the treads alternate when both feet are employed on the treadles.
The following plan, Fig 48, is an example of a
When figures are to be formed on velvets, agreeably to any particular pattern, recourse must be had to the Jacquard, or draw loom. See Gilroy's loom mountings.
SIMPLE JEAN BLACK VELVET CORD.
In this plan the treadles on which the figures 1, 3, and 6 are marked, are for wearing the back. it being the single jean, or three leaf tweel: but as each pick of the flushing weft floats over five threads of warp. and is only interwoven with the sixth, two sets of tweeling leaves are necessary in order to extend the draught to that range. In the present example we also find, that there are ten picks of flushing west thrown in for six of the back, and these ten picks are interwoven with the warp threads 3 and 4 in the drauglit, and the flushed space afterwards cut up by the plough or lance.
Plush velvet, or shag, is woven on a principle something different from any of the preceding fabrics. It consists of two warps, one called the main warp or ground, which is commonly made of hard silk, and the other the pile warp. These warps are beamed on separate rollers, the latter being placed below the former.
When the heading or end of the piece is woven, the weaver raises the pile warp, which is drawn on a separate leaf from the ground, and into this shed he introduces a wire which is longer than the breadth of the cloth; a few picks of the ground are woven (generally two) and another wire introduced, and so on with a third wire. In each of these wires is a groove, along which the weaver runs the point of a sharp instrument called a trivet, which cuts the pile, and relieves the wires in succession, and the operation is repeated till the piece is finished. The pile warp is commonly made of softer siik than the main warp, or of a fine kind of goat's hair, and the surface of the shag is afterwards cut evenly and smooth with a pair of shears, or a revolving spiral knife. On this principle
. is woven that fabric of which hats are made.
WEAVING CROSSED WARPS.
The species of ornamental weaving which we have now to investigate, is exclusively adapted to the slightest and most flimsy textures.
Like the other branches of the art, we derived our first knowledge of cross weaving from the East; but, it certainly has been much improved, and a considerable variety of nets have been added, by the invention and ingenuity of European weavers.*
* Of course we include amongst these ingenious men, our very learned brother weaver, Dr. Ure of London, a man who has not only studied the manufacture of " textile fabrics" to perfection, in all its bearings, but who also, we doubt not, is well acquainted with “ Mason on Self-Knowledge.”
We have observed one fact, however, which is not very honorable to this weaving son of Galen. Surely it could not have diminished the Doctor's fame, although he had given to the public the names of those authors, from whose books he extracted whatever little information he furnishes to the ignorant particularly upon weaving. He does not even allude to the work of the late Mr. John Duncan of Glasgow, from which he has taken most of the observations on weaving, contained in the second volume of his “Cotton Manufactures," commencing at page 264. We refer the reader to Duncan's treatise, which was published at Glasgow, in the year 1807. Nearly all the rest of the Doctor's remarks on weaving, he has adapted from Murphy's bed-quilt book, which he (the Dr.) calls “a most luminous work.” We suppose that this puff entitled him to copy indiscriminately from Father Murphy, who could be no Irishman, unless he made some sacrifice in return for such blarney.
On another occasion, the worthy Doctor says, that Sharp, Roberts & Co., are “ the greatest power loom builders in the world, without exception," and that "their patent loom is the best in use." These sweeping assertions, however, may be accounted for, when we know, that these mechanics furnished the Dr. with drawings and specifications of their celebrated loom, no doubt expecting that he would give it a first rate notice. But we in this country, and every experienced weaver in England know, that the power looms of Messrs. Sharp, Roberts & Co. are far inferior to many others, as we shall show in the course of this work, and any practical weaver who has conversed with these makers upon the subject, must acknowledge that they are entirely ignorant of the real principles of weaving. But at present, with regard to the Doctor, we shall
“No further seek his merits to disclose,
Or draw his fraillies from their dread abode."
The first branch of cross wearing, and of which all the others are only varieties. is
In all the branches of Wowing which we are hitherto considered, the threads of the warp. whether raised or sunk, alternately, or at intervals, remain always parallel to each other, and without crossing. But in gauze weaving, the two threads of warp which pass between the same dents of the reed, are crossed over each other, and twined like a cord at every tread. They are twined to the right and to the left, alternatoly and each pick of weft preserves the twine which the warp has received. To produce this effect, it is only necessary that the warp should really be crossed at every second pick, for its return from the crossed to the open or parallel state gives the reversed crossing.
A representation of a mounting peculiar to gauze weaving will be found in Fig. 49, and a section of the web is shown under the same figure at A.*
Fig. 49 represents two threads of warp opened to form the shed, where the warp is not crossed, and Fig. 50,
the shed where it is crossed. The mounting of a gauze loom consists of four leaves, constructed like common clasped headles, and of two half leaves. T'he leaves are raised and sunk, by means of top levers or coupers, and marches, exactly in the same way as in most other ornamental looms. The opened shed of the gauze is formed by the leaves 3 and 4, (see Fig. 49) the cross shed by the leaves 1 and 2, and by the half leaves. 'The leaves 1 and 2 are called standards, and the half leaves pass through them, as is represented more clearly in Figs. 51 and 52.
It is necessary to observe, that in order to produce the twine or gauze twist, as represented at A* under Fig. 49, in forming the