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as the weaver continued to work upon one set of treadles, the two webs would still be distinct, except at the selvages, where they would be united by the weft.
It was in this manner that Ichao he-he-bi-ho Quang (nephew to Teling Ouang, emperor of China, who reigned 1079 years before Christ,) manufactured hempen pipes, for conducting water to his uncle's flower gardens. Pipes, woven in the same way, have been lately adapted, in France, to the fire engine, and also as wicks for the patent lamps. It was likewise on this principle that Julius Cesar's great coat was woven.
TWEELING DOUBLE CLOTH.
Although tweeling, however extensively it may be otherwise employed, is seldom applied to double cloth, yet as there is great room here for a display of ingenuity, especially in the manufacture of shawls, plaids, bed covers, &c., it will be necessary to show how the several varieties of this kind of texture may be produced.
It has been already observed that four leaves of headles, two for each set, are required to weave double cloth of the plain texture. If, therefore, one set of tweeling leaves be substituted for each set of plain ones, it will be obvious, that every variety of pattern that can be produced on the plain texture, can likewise be effected on the tweeled one.
For example, take six leaves, enter orange warp in the back three, and red warp in the front three. It is evident that if the back set be worked, a three leaf tweel can be produced by lifting one leaf in regular succession until three picks of weft be thrown into the web, and thus, supposing the weft to be orange, cloth of that colour will be produced, entirely independent of the red warp in the front leaves.
Again, by working the front leaves exclusively of the back ones, a red fabric will be produced, provided the ueft be red; and if these two webs be made to pass through each other at different intervals, various devices and patterns may be produced. (See ingrain carpeting.)
This mounting makes one web entirely orange and the other all red, but if the two colours of weft be different from the warp, then we may throw the greater proportion of either one, or both warps, outward, or inward, and thus a variety of colours may be displayed.
As it would, however, require a great number of leaves of headles, and treadles to weave but a very limited pattern on this principle, this style of work seems to be peculiarly adapted to the draw-loom, under which head the subject of tweeling double cloth will be further illustrated.
THE JUNCTION OF TWO UNEQUAL FABRICS.
This species of double cloth is chiefly confined to quiltings, commonly called Marseilles quiltings, which are also manufactured in considerable quantities in Great Britain, and printed for vestings.
The mounting of a quilt consists of a set of plain headles, usually four for the face, and a number of stitching leaves proportionate to the range of the pattern for the back, and these produce all the variety of figure in the design. The stitching leaves are frequently adapted to diagonal and diamond patterns, although they may be made to produce any other fancy figure at pleasure, and the range of pattern, as in other branches of ornamental weaving, may be enlarged beyond the power of leaves, or until the application of the draw loom becomes necessary.
Quiltings are generally woven in reeds of the Manchester and Bolton count, which contain a certain number of beers or porters in 241 inches. The warp and west of the face are considerably finer than those of the back, and two threads of the face and one of the back are drawn into the same interval or split of the reed. If we take, for example, a No. 36 reed that is 36 beers in 24 inches, the warps and wefts as noted below will make a pretty good quilt :
For the face No. 36.7
back 36. In weaving these fabrics, there are two picks of the fine and two of the coarse weft thrown in alternately. One pick of the fine stitches the back and face together, and one of the coarse is thrown in between the back and the face clear of both fabrics, and this is called the wadding. The other coarse pick goes into one of the sheds that work the back, so that when eight picks of weft are thrown, four go to the face, two for wadding, and two are thrown into the two alternate sheds of the back. The following plan (Fig. 40) will show the construction of a quilt mounting.
* The late Mr. David Anderson, Damask Manufacturer, Glasgow, wove a shirt with a fine frill, double stitched neck, shoulder straps, and wrist bands; also gussets, buttons, button holes, &c. with the Royal Arms emblazoned on the breast.
In the above plan A and B are the two leaves for the face, and 0, V, W, X, the stitching or back leaves. The treadle b, opens one shed of the face, and sinks all the warp of the back, and this treadle works alternately with the treadles, e, f, g, h, which open the other shed of the face and at the same time raise each of the back or stitching leaves. The treadles, a, and c, open the two sheds of the back, while at the same time they raise all the warp of the face above the shuttle. The treadle, d, opens the shed for the wadding, by raising the face and sinking the back.
By tracing over the figures that point out the order of treading it will be found that the first and second picks, which are fine, are thrown into the face, but at the first tread the stitching leaf, x, is raised, by which the back and face are tacked together. The third and fourth picks are coarse, the former goes for wadding and the latter is the first shot of the back. The fifth and sixth picks are fine, which are wrought into the face, but the former has the back leaf, w, raised, by which the back is again stitched to the face. The seventh and eighth picks are coarse, the former goes for wadding, and the latter forms the second pick of the back: and thus any pattern may be woven at pleasure, according to the succession of the draught on the stitching leaves, and the order in which they are raised.
Although the preceding plan is given in the most concise form of which it is susceptible, in order to render the principles of this species of weaving as perspicuous as possible, yet in practice the weaver will find it very awkward to shift his right foot from each of the stitching treadles to the wadding one, while his left is engaged with a different succession with the others. To obviate this, a wadding treadle with the same cording is usually placed alternately with a stitching one, by which arrangement the succession of treading for the right foot will be in a regular or progressive order over the treadles. This arrangement is common in practice, and is therefore adopted in the following examples: Fig. 41 is a
CORDING OF FIGS. 42 AND 43.
23 21 19 17)15 13 11 917 5 3 1
27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47
8 | 2
DOUBLE CLOTH HARNESS.
Having already explained the principle on which double cloth is woven, it only reinains for us to show how that principle is extended to the draw loom.
Suppose we take a shawl for example, the pattern of which is scarlet and the ground blue, the warp of course will be composed of a blue and scarlet thread alternately; and suppose two threads of each colour to be drawn through each mail of the harness. Were the texture to be that of a three leaf tweel, six front leaves, three for the blue and three for the scarlet, would be necessary, and twelve treadles would be required to make the treading alternate. A four leaf tweel, however, would require eight leaves of headles and only eight treadles. The following plans will show the draught and cording of these mountings:
In these plans the crosses X represent sinking cords, and the black squares raising cords.
In wearing these shawls two picks of blue and two of scarlet weft are thrown in alternately, the two former on the fore warp, and the two latter on the back warp.