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be understood as an addition to Roldan's name, but merely as a participle, expreffing that he was enchanted, or made invulnerable by enchantment.
But this is a small matter. And perhaps encantador may be an error of the press for encantado. From this digression Dr. W. returns 10 the subject of the old romances in the following manner. This driving the Saracens out of France and Spnin, was, as we say, the subject of the elder romances, And the first that was printed in Spairu was the famous Amadis de Gaula. According to all common rules of construâion, I think the latter sentence must be understood to imply, that Amadis de Gaula was one of the elder romances, and that the subje& of it was the driving of the Saracens out of France and Spain : whereas, for the reasons already given, Amadis, in coinparison with many other romances, must be considered as a very modern one; and the fubjcd of it has not the least connedion with any driving of the Saracen's whatsoever. But what follows is still more extraordinary. " When this subje&t was well exhausted, the affairs of Europe afforded them another of the same nature.
For after that the western parts had pretty well cleared themselves of these inhofpitable guests; by the excitements of the popes, they carried their arms against them into Greece and Asia, to support the Byzantine empire, and recover the holy Sepulchre. This gave birth to a new tribe of romances, which we may call of the second race or class. And as Amadis de Gaula was at the head of the first, fo, correspondently to the subject, Amadis de Græcia was at the head of the latter.". It is impoffible I apprehend, to refer this subjet to any antecedent but that in the paragraph last quoted, viz. the driving of the Saracens out of France and Spain. So that, according to one part of the hypothesis here laid down, the subje& of the driving the Saracens out of France arde Spain, was well exhausted by the old romances (with Amadis de Gaula at the head of them) before the Crusades; the first of which is generally placed in the year 1095: and, according to the latter part, the crusacies happened in the interval between Amadis de Gaula, and Amadis de Gracia; a space of twenty, thirty, or at molt fifty years, to be reckoned backwards from the year 1532, in which year an edition of Amadis de Græcia is mentioned by Du Fresnox. What induced Dr. W. 10 place Amadis de Gracia at ihe head of his fecond race or class of romances, I cannot guess. The fa&i is, that Amadis de Græcia is no more concerned in supporting the Byzantine empire, and recovering the holy Sepulchre, thao Amadis de Gaula in driving the Saracens out of France and Spain. And a ftill more pleasant circumstance is, that Amadis de Gracia, through more than nine tentlis of his history, is himself a declared Pagan.
And here ends Dr. W.'s account of the old romances of chivalry, which he supposes to have had their ground-work in Turpin's life tory. Before he proceeds to the others, which had their ground. work in our Geoffry, he interposes a curious solution of a puzzling
question concerning the origin of lying in romances.
16 Not were the monstrous einbellishments of enchantments, ''c. the invention of the
but formed upon eastern i ales, brought thence by travellers from their crusades and piigrimages; which indeed have a caft peculiar to the wild imagination of the eastern people. We have a proof of this in the Travels of Sir J. Maunderile. He then gives us a story of an enchanted dragon in the idle of Cos, from Sir J. Maundevile, who wrote his Travels in 1356 ; by way of proof, that the tales of enchantments, &c. which had been current here in romances of chivalıy for above two hundred years before, were brought by travellers from the Eaft! 'lle proof is certainly not conclufive. On ihe other hand, I believe it would be easy to show, that, at the time when romances of chivalry began, our Europe had a very suiticieni ftock of lies of her own growth, to furnish materials for every variety of monfti ous embellifi.ment. At most times, I conceive, and in most countries, imported lies are rather for luxury than neceflity.
Dr. W.comes now to that other ground work of the old romances, our Geoffry of Monmouth. And him he dispatches very shortly, bea cause, as has been observed before, it is impoflible to find any thing in bim to the purpose of crusades, or Saracenis. Tudeed, in treating of Spanish romances, it must be quite unnecessary to say much of Geotry, as, whatever they have of " the British Arthur and his cone jurer Merlin," is of so late a fabrick, that, in all probability, they took it froin the more modern Italian romances, and not from Geoffry's own book. As to the doubt, " Whether it was by blunder or dehgn that they changed the Saxons to Saracens," I should wish to poftpone the confideration of it, till we have some Spanish romance beiore us, in which king Arthur is introduced carrying on a war against Saracens.
And thus, I think, I have gone through the several fa&s and arguments which Dr. W. has advanced in support of his third pofition. In support of liis two first positions, as I have observed already, he has said nothing; and indeed nothing can be said. The remainder of his note contains another hypothesis concerning the ftrange jumble of nonsense and religion in the old romances, which I shall not examine. The reader, I presume, by this iime is well aware, that Dr. W.'s information upon this subjeđ is to be received with caution. I shall only take a little notice of one or two fa&s, with which he sets out. ---"In these old romances there was much religious superftition mixed with their other extravagancies; as appears even from their very names and titles. The first romance of Lancelot of the Lake and King Arthur and his Knights, is called the History of Saint Greal. - So another is called Kyrie eleison of Montauban. For in those days Deuteronomy and Paralipomenon were supposed to be the names of holy men. - I believe no one, who has ever looked into the common romance of king Arthur, will be of opinion, that the part relating to the Suint Greal was the first romance of Lancelot of the
Lake and King Arthur and his Knights. And as to the other supposed
Don Belianis ; le miroir de chevalerie; Tirante le Blanc, &
He might as well have made La Demoiselle Plaisir-de-mavie and La Veuve reposée the names of separate romances. All three are merely characters in the romance of Tirante le Blanc. And so much for Dr. W.'s account of the origin and nature of romances of chivalry. TYRWHITI.
No future editor of Shakspeare will, I believe, readily consent to omit the disertation here examined, though it certainly has no more relation to the play before us, than to any other of our author's dramas. Mr. Tyrwhitt's judicious observations upon it have given it a value which it certainly had not before ; and, I think, I. may venture to foretell, that Dr. Warburton's futile performance, like the pismire which Martial tells us was accidentally incrusted with amber, will be ever preserve it, for the sake of the admirable comment in which it is now enjhrined.
quæ fuerat vità contempta manente,
Aqui está Don Quiriele;fon, &c. HERE, i. e. in the romance of Tirante el
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