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will be served, and the yearling cock- relationship. But, on the other hand, erel is probably in better training and he has neither the savage comfort of better fighting trim than his mature revenge like Hecuba, nor, unless inrival. But it will be a desperate battle deed some merciful biped, acting the

- desperate on both sides, in the strict- part of the deus ex machinâ, trausports est sense of the term — and the young him to fresh pastures, will he have, victor will be punished almost more like Edipus, the chance of redeeming severely than the vanquished.

in old age the misfortunes of youth, Hope for a season bade the world farewell, life and home and all that Theban

and “wholly forgetting his first sad And Freedom shrieked, -as Kosciusko fell.

For the bowstring offered to deposed There is vo patriot in the case now, Oriental sovereigns by their supplantonly a fallen bully and tyrant. And yet, little though he has deserved it, sultan which we encounter in the his

ers, the disappearance of the dethroned we must extend to him some sympathy. tory of Turkey, the violent murder of For neither in the pages of history nor

more than one of our own kings, the those of fiction is pictured quite so lam- lifelong incarceration of ill-starred Rob. entable a fall as this, that must occur ert of Normandy, are so many acts of daily in one or other of the poultry- mercy as contrasted with the fate of yards of the world. For a parallel we this autocrat, reduced to abject and must go to Scripture, and read the story hunted slavery, compelled to see his of Satan being cast out of heaven. wives become the willing prey of the The Greek tragedian was perhaps be

conqueror, condemned to wander unatyond all other writers successful in

tended in the outskirts of the yard, and what we may be allowed to call“ piling to pick up a scanty livelihood from the up the agony,” and it is hard to imag; refuse of his late slave's leavings, ine any reverses of fortune more awful

afraid to answer the challenging crow than those depicted in the cases of of his triumphani enemy. There is no Hecuba or of Edipus. The former, in senublance of chivalry about the victor. summing up her misfortunes, tells us He will neither receive the deposed that “ she had been a queen, but now

monarch into the circle of his intimate was a slave ; that from being a happy friends like a Cyrus, nor treat him roymother she found herself in old age ally as Alexander treated Porus, nor childless, homeless, deserted,

let him retain his title and semblance wretched of mortals.” But to her was of royalty in an Elba. His is rather granted the solace of a bloody if only the motto of the Gallic chieftain, Vee partial revenge. Of Edipus it was victis. Old insults will be repaid with said :

insults, old beatings with beatings ; for By how much from the top of wondrous every degradation that was put on himglory

self in his youth he will heap ten-fold To lowest pitch of abject fortune thou art degradation on his former persecutor, fallen.

and to compass that object he will bring In the day of retribution it may in- into play all the resources of spite that deed rest lightly on the conscience of an ill-regulated nature can invent. fallen chanticleer that he has wittingly It only remains for us to redeem a

- or, as he is only a bird, after all, promise made early in these pages, and shall we say unwittingly ? — committed to quote the only case that has come the same crimes as Edipus, — has very actually within our own ken where probably murdered his father, and if poultry have been kept at a profit. 80, most certainly married his mother ; The proprietors are a limited liability it may well be that the only reason company which may have escaped regwhy he has not cared to call himself, istration owing to the circumstance that like Hecuba, blessed in his children, is all the shares, whether preference or because he has habitually iguored the lordinary, were taken up by the direc


tors, and none were offered to the pub- | contra, any one who is prepared to delic. The directors are three young vote much time, much personal atten. ladies, and a ready market is found for tion, and a little money to a harmless the produce of the poultry-yard — at and withal a very interesting occupahome; it being an understood thing, tion, may derive a vast amount of even if there is no stamped agreement pleasure and not a little instruction to the effect, that the housekeeper - from studying the manners and cusi.e., the mother of these adventur- toms, the virtues and the vices, of his esses -- should buy eggs the whole year feathered friends. round at 1s. 6d. per dozen, and fowls at a trifle over the current poulterer's price, and that no extraneous purchases may be made except by special consent

From The Nineteenth century. of the company. No rent is paid for THE OLD-AGE HOMES IN AUSTRIA. the premises occupied by the poultry ; In the Spitalgasse in Vienna, about and as there are plenty of gardeners, a mile perhaps from the Ring, stands a etc., about the place, the employment great yellow building. There is no of outside labor would be obviously a architectural beauty about the place work of supererogation. Occasionally - artists shake their heads sorrowfully the Market has been reported to con- when its name is mentioned — but it plain that there is a plethora of eggs has a solid, well-built look which prombetween February and June, and that ises much in the way of confort for the supply is wholly inadequate to meet those who live there.

It is in the very the demand at any other time of the healthiest part of the city, too, and is year; or that the chickens are ridicu- a perfect model of cleanliness and lously small, and the especially fattened order; its windows are quite dazzling are abnormally tough. But the answer in their brightness, while as for its to such criticisms is that the directors walls, they are painted and washed really cannot be held responsible for more often than those of the Burg. the capriciousness of laying hens; that The house is built round a great courta provident housekeeper should in the yard, and abuts on the side remote months of plenty store eggs for winter from the street on one of the most consumption ; and that if the same beautiful gardens in all Vienna. It is price is quoted for a four-months as for a real old-fashioned garden, with sweeta six-months chicken, it would be obvi- smelling herbs and shrubs, and great ously false economy to feed the crea- trees that look as if they had been ture for the extra two months. Hens, standing there for centuries. it will be added, who refuse to lay must This house is evidently a popular be got rid of, and it is cheaper to sell resort; even in a morning many a them than to give them away.

visitor makes his way thither, and on “ You need not eat them, mother fine afternoons the garden is often dear, unless you like. You can bury quite crowded. Young

and them if you like, after you have paid women stroll in when their day's work for them."

is done ; and husbands and wives, Hearing such words of wisdom, the with their children. Sometimes Market resignedly accepts her fate. bridal party or a christening may be

Under such circumstances as these, seen there, in all their finery, just as it is easy to imagine that there is a fair they have left the church ; sometimes, margin for profit.

too, sad little groups in deep mourning. But, generally speaking, the poultry- The place is a sort of general rendezyard is by no means an El Dorado, and vous, in fact, where the old and the he who aspires to make money out of young meet together to talk things poultry-farming, either on a large or over. Not that it stands open to all the small scale, is more likely to be disap- world ; it is only the friends and rela. pointed than the reverse. But, per I tives of those who live there who are


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admitted. Stili, whether or not they | He was one of the first formally to ever cross its threshold, the poor of enunciate the doctrine that a man who Vieppa all look upon this building as has worked in the days of his strength their own special property, and take has the right to be supported by his quite a personal pride in its trim, well- fellows when old age comes upon him. kept air. The veriest Ishmael among By the Poor Law which he drew up them, even when things are at the for his subjects, it is enacted that any worst with him, never thinks of grudg- person who is destitute may, at the age ing its inmates their confort. For it of sixty, claim from his commune is an Old-Age Home, one of the six either free board and lodging, or a pengreat refuges which Vienna provides sion equal in amount to one-third of for her worn-out workers.

his previous average annual earnings. These Old-Age Homes are an institu- And this was to be granted to him not tion peculiar to Austria, one that dates as a favor, or as charity, but as a right. back to very early days. The first of The Vienna poor-law regulations of them, the Langhaus as it was called, to-day, in so far as they relate to the was built in the thirteenth century by treatment of the aged, are founded on the citizens of Vienna. Here old men this statute. and women who had no means where- All persons who have a right of setwith to support themselves were lodged tlement in Vienna — i.e., about thirtyand provided with lights and fuel. six per cent. of the inhabitants — may, They were dependent for their food on or after their sixtieth birthday, on chance charity ; but they do not claim either a pension, or admission to seem on that account to have fared the an Old-Age Home, always providing worse, for we are told expressly that they cannot support themselves, and "every day, without exception, they have no relatives who are bound lehad wine with their dinver, and beer in gally to support them. As, however, an evening." The court when in resi- there is room in these institutions for dence used to send them dainties of all only some forty-six hundred persons, kinds ; and the great nobles would give and there are usually more than four them a buck, or a few sheep, from times that number who wish to live time to time. It was the custom, too, there – the pensions are now miseraon high holidays — this is very charac- bly small — the Poor-Law authorities teristic of Vienna — for the rich citi- are vested with a certain discretionary zens and their wives to pay visits to power in deciding who shall, and who the poor old folk and make them pres- shall not, be admitted. And so far as ents.

possible the preference is given to perThe Langhaus was destroyed by the sons of good characters, to hose whose Turks iu 1529 ; but before long another destitution is the result of their misforhome was built in the St. Marx district, tune, not their heedlessness or extravand in this between five and six hun- agance. The great majority of the dred old people were not only housed, inmates of these homes, therefore, but boarded. During the seventeenth belong to the respectable poor class. century several institutions of a similar Thus no disgrace is attached to going kind were founded.

there ; an Austrian would no As time passed, the Old Age Homes think of being ashamed that his father lost, unfortunately, much of their dis- was in an Old-Age Home, than an Entinctive character, and were often used glishman would, that his had rooms in as hospitals, and even as orphan asy- Hampton Court. One reason why old lums. The Emperor Josef the Second, people in England dread going to the however, speedily put an end to this workhouse is the knowledge that, when state of things ; for, if there was one they have once crossed its threshold, work of social reform he had more at they will be regarded as pariabs even heart than another, it was that of bet- by their nearest relatives. tering the condition of the aged poor. Only two of the six Old-Age Homes

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belonging to Vienna are in the city ered in the Prater. Canaries and itself; the others are at some little dis- thrushes, too, are in some parts of the tance away, in the country. One is at house, though only there ou sufferance. Liesing, another at St. Andrä, another Should their singing be objected to, again at Ybbs, and the fourth at they must be reduced to silence or Mauerbach. They are all in healthy banished; for in the Old-Age Homes localities, however, and are fine large there is an inexorable law in force : no buildings with gardens. The cost of one person or his belongings shall inthe home in the Währingerstrasse, terfere with the comfort of another. which is reserved exclusively for free- The corridors, which are furnished men of the city and their wives and with comfortable settees, are well daughters, is defrayed out of the Bür- warned in winter and serve as general gerfond, i.e., the income derived from sitting-rooms. Here, when it is too money and land bequeathed by the cold to be out of doors, the old men charitable as a provision for poor citi- bring their pipes and the old women zens of Vienna. The other homes are their knitting, and there is much talksupported out of the ordinary poor re- ing and cackling and comparing of lief fund, supplemented when neces- notes. Politics are warmly discussed sary by special grants voted by the sometimes, and ministers are weighed municipality. The head of the Poor in the balance and found wanting. All Law Department is responsible for the the latest telegrams are read aloud, on management of them to the burgomas- the very day they are issued, too ; for ter, as the representative of the city. these Austrian paupers are not depenRoughly speaking, these institutions dant ou chance passers-by for their are all organized in the same way as journals. They club together – Enthe one in the Spitalgasse, although in glish Guardians will be startled to hear the Freemen's Home the arrangements of paupers having anything wherewith

a somewhat more generous to club — and subscribe for daily papers, scale.

one for each corridor, and these they Each wing of the Spitalgasse Home receive just as regularly and as puncis divided into a number of large, lofty tually as if they were archdukes. “ It rooms, opening on to a long corridor. would never do, you see,” one old man There are from ten to twenty beds in a informed me gravely, in his quaint room, and very comfortable beds they Wiener dialect, “ for us not to keep up are, with plenty of warm coverlets. with what's going on in the world. By each of them is a sort of “what. These are stirring times." not,” with a cupboard on one side for Although the corridors throughout clothes, and shelves on the other; and the house are regarded as the common there are chairs and tables standing property of the two, all the women about. In spite of the long row of wives as well as widows and spiosters beds there is something homelike about - have their rooms in a wing of the the place, owing, in some degree at building, quite separated from that least, to the fact that the old people are in which the men have theirs. In allowed to take with them there some view of certain discussions which have few of their own belongings. It may been raised in England of late, one of be only a portrait or two, a footstool, a the inmates was asked if he did not few books, or even a monstrosity in think it rather hard that he and his the form of wax flowers ; but almost wife should be thus kept apart in their every inmate has some little treasure old age. or other, which it would have cost him “Kepl apart ?” he replied, with an a pang to part with. Then in summer odd, puzzled look ou his wrinkled old the rooms are gay with flowers; there face. “ We none kept apart. are plants raised perhaps with infinite Why, I see a lot more of the old pains in some poor attic, and little woman now than I ever did in my life posies which have evidently been gath- | before. She's about here from morn






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ing till night, as often as not. Blauer / ment deciding what kinds of food are Himmel ! If that's not enough !” to be provided and at what price. The

The commissariat of this Spitalgasse old people, however, are under no obliHome is organized on very original gation to go there ; they are perfectly lines. The Poor Law Department, free to have their meals elsewhere if instead of providing the inmates with they choose ; but this they rarely do, food, allows them to buy it for them- unless it be as guests, for nowhere else selves, and gives to each of them, can they obtain such good value for for this purpose, twenty-six kreuzers their money. The marvel is, indeed, (about 5d.) a day. To secure them that any caterer can be found willing from exploitation, an arrangement is in to supply good food, and good it cerforce by which a professional caterer tainly is, at the price at which it is sold undertakes to keep for their benefit a in the home restaurant. I subjoin the restaurant in the home itself. This bill of fare for the able-bodied ; there is restaurant is under strict surveillance, another, much

elaborate and a committee appointed by the depart- ) varied, for the invalids.

Half portions.

Whole portions.
Weight or measure.

Weight or measure.

Price. kr.1

kr. “ Einbrenn soup

pint 2 Clear soup

1 with bread crumbs

2 Soup, with rice, etc.

2 minced beef, etc.

4 Beef, cooked, and without bones .

2.8 oz.

3.9 oz.

7 Corn beef with sauce

5 • Beuschl”

* pint Roast veal, lamb, or pork

31 oz. 10

54 oz. 16 Smoked beef .


6 Potatoes, cabbage, turnips, etc.

} pint 2 Peas, etc.

3 Milk puddings

s pint 3

4 Nudeln


4 Boiled puddings

41 oz.

2 Old white wine

•22 pint

•44 pint

8 Red wine


6 Beer


6 Milk

3 Coffee


3 And before any one of these dishes their own hours for their meals ; but may be served, the director of the breakfasts are not served after nine home and one of the doctors must cer- o'clock ; dinners, only between eleven tify that its ingredients are of excellent and two ; and no one is allowed to linquality, and that it is well cooked. ger over his supper later than eight

There is nothing in the appearance of o'clock in winter, or nine in summer. this pauper restaurant to distinguish it They make their way to their dinners from those which artisans and mem- in twos and threes as a rule - a husbers of the lower middle class frequent. band and wife, perhaps, and a friend. It is a large, comfortable room fur- They choose their table and then settle nished with a number of chairs and themselves down to a careful considerlittle round tables ; and everything ation of the menu. The relative merits about it is scrupulously clean. Within of soups and puddings are anxiously certain limits its clients may choose l balanced, and much heart-searching is






2 oz.


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1 Five kreuzers are equal to about one penny.

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