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giving in full George Eliot's charming ease, a fact which gave her little care, reply :

though it filled the minds of her friends

November 11, 1859. with grave anxiety. It was ber ardent MY DEAR MADAM, - Only yesterday I wish to die suddenly, in the midst of was wondering that artists, knowing each life, and escape the trials of a lingering other's pains so well, did not help each illness. In the autumn of 1865 she reother more ; and, as usual when I have tired for a short while to a cottage at been talking complainingly or suspiciously, Alton (Hampshire), which she had pursomething has come which serves me as a chased and presented to her husband. reproof.

That something is your letter, which has Her daughter Florence, and her son-inbrought me the only sort of help I care to law, Mr. Crompton, Q.C., accompanied have — an assurance of fellow-feeling, of her. On Sunday afternoon, November thorough, trustful recognition from one of 12, 1865, a day on which she had felt the minds that are capable of judging, as unusually bright and well, she was sitwell as of being moved. You know, with- ting at the tea-table with her children, out my telling you, how much the help is when suddenly her head fell upon her heightened by coming to me afresh now breast, and death was instantaneous. that I have ceased to be a mystery and am To Mr. Crompton fell the sad duty of known as a mere daylight fact. I shall always love to think that one Mr. Gaskell, who, all unconscious of

bearing the message of her death to woman wrote to another such sweet, encouraging words — still more to think that his greatest loss, preached in Cross you were the writer and I the receiver.

Street Chapel on that very Sunday I had indulged the idea that, if my books night. On the following day there was turned out to be much, you would be a meeting of Unitarian ministers at among my willing readers, for I was con- Altrincham, and while there Mr. Gasscious, while the question of my power was kell received a telegram asking him to still undecided for me, that my feelings come home, where Mr. Crompton was towards life and art had some affinity with waiting to speak with him. He seemed the feelings which had inspired “Cran- at once to divine the cause of this sudford” and the earlier chapters of “Mary den visit, and asking his friend and Barton." That idea was brought the nearer to me because I had the pleasure of colleague, the Rev. S. A. Steinthal, to reading “ Cranford” for the first time in accompany him, he went home to re1857, when I was writing the “Scenes of ceive the sad confirmation of his suspiClerical Life ;' and going up the Rhine cion. Though fated to die away from one dim, wet day in the spring of the year, her beloved Lancashire, her body was when I was writing “ Adam Bede," I satis- brought home, and she lies buried fied myself for the lack of a prospect by by the quiet Presbyterian church at reading over again those early chapters of Knutsford, where some thirty years be“Mary Barton.” I like to tell you all the fore she had given her hand in marslight details, because they will prove to riage to the good husband, who was you that your letter must have a peculiar destined to live to a ripe old age. For value for me, and that I am not expressing twenty more years he discharged his vague gratitude towards a writer whom I only remember vaguely as one who charmed duties ou earth, and then was laid by me in the past. And I cannot believe that ber side. A memorial tablet has been such details are indifferent to you, even placed in Cross Street Chapel, Man. after you have been so long used to hear chester. That kindly spirit, excellent them. I fancy, as long as we live, we all common sense, and bright intelligence, need to know as much as we can of the that keen appreciation of the high and good our life has been to others. Ever, noble, which breathe on every page my dear madam, yours with high regard, she has written, had their roots deep

MARIAN EVANS LEWES. down in the heart of the woman. She And now, alas ! we near the end of not only “dreamt of noble deeds, but this heroic life, that had been so much did them all day long," and far beyond good to others. Mrs. Gaskell bad beeu her private circle of friends, hundreds suffering for some time from heart dis- 1 of poor, suffering men and women


breathed the name of Mrs. Gaskell winter snow and summer sun. We with blessings on their lips.

have been surprised to find a room of MAT HOMPES. south aspect perfectly cool in the dog

days, for the sun, being high in the heavens, does not penetrate below the

spreading eaves. This seems to show From The Cornhill Magazine. ingenuity on the part of the builder, IN CHALET LAND.

for the same room in winter, when the THERE is probably no better change sun is low, will catch every ray of to tired dwellers in cities, and no such warmth. Much taste is shown in the rest to overstrained nerves the dis- decoration of the exterior, where the ease of these wild nineteenth-century skill of the native artist asserts itself days — than may be obtained from a in telling bits of colored carving - red, temporary residence in one of the blue, green, and violet, set off somemountain valleys of Switzerland. But times by a white background. There the valley should be far enough from are, of course, the unfailing green shutthe trammels of civilization to allow of ters (the pastor's house is marked al. perfect freedom, and the stay should, ways by green-and-white shutters) and if possible, be a long one, for the the large, roomy, square balcony, well charms of the mountain life do not re- protected from wind and rain, affording veal themselves all at once. The first accommodation for the whole family, thing apt loudly to assert itself is the and serving often both as dining and absence of those " comforts" to which sitting room. How one longs to see we poor creatures of habit are so ac- this friendly adjunct shared by the customed, but which, in a few days, we houses of our English poor! Our find to be quite upnecessary. Given much-maligned climate would not pregood air, a glorious mountain view on vent the enjoyment of a balcony, which every side, perfect cleanliness, suffi- is a real promoter both of health and cient eatable food, and good beds (al- pleasure. Yet, as a rule, it is the rich ways to be found in the simplest Swiss who enjoy this simple luxury, which, bome), it is astonishing how little else with a little enlarging of the mind (or is really required.

shall we say the heart ?) of the archiLast year, in a mountain walk in the tect, might so easily be accorded also Canton of Vaud, twenty-five miles from io the poor. Invariably there is a prothe railway line, I passed, on the out-jecting shelf with a carefully tended skirts of a large mountain village what row of flowers, and much effect is seemed to me a perfect example of the gained by this one row of brilliant 6. Chalet Suisse." To my sorrow it color. was let to a French family, upon whom In course of years the outside of the we stole a march the following spring house is dyed by the sun, first yellow, by securing it for ourselves at an early then a golden brown, and finally it bedate.

comes almost black.

A few are These chalets are all built of plain tirely grey. The latter shade, the white wood (there are, by the way, a peasauts say, is the work of the setting few stone houses, but they look glaring sun, but I confess to finding this theory and awkward, as if conscious they had difficult to credit. The blending of the no right to be there), and are capable many shades on the undulating green of being washed, inside and out, with of the mountain slope makes a most honest soap and water.

harmonious whole. The poorer sort have their staircase Each chalet has its store of wood for on the outside, which adds much to fuel, neatly stacked on the outside – their picturesque appearance ; all have for theft is unknown in this honest valsombre overhanging eaves, from three ley - and each bears a record, burnt or to nine feet in depth. These are a painted on the front, of the name of wonderful protection both from the the builders, followed usually by the


date of building and a touching prayer all his devotion. Be merciful, kind or invocation for the blessing of God on reader. It is his special temptation (I the house and its inmates, with some know it is not yours). My sympathy times an exhortation to lead pious and is with him, but with sorrow I own God-fearing lives to those who come that my Protestant peasant of to-day is after. The following inscriptions I more upright both in word and deed. copy from houses in our immediate The most scrupulous truth and honesty ueighborhood. The French is at times prevail. A low, unvarying market old and difficult to decipher, at others price, a just weight, a fair wage. If a too illiterate to copy at all.

stranger try to bargain, he is looked at 1701. Dieu bénie cette maison, et tous with contempt, not to say distrust, and ceux qui la posséderont. O Eternel, sois le a quiet “On n'a pas l'habitude de surconducteur de leurs saisons en paix, et leur faire, Monsieur,” teaches him, we donner bonheur, et puis la vie éternelle. hope, his mistake. It is edifying to Amen.

see the whole village turn out for 1792. (On a cattle shed.) Dieu nous con- church at nine o'clock on Sunday serve nos bêtes. R. M. A. F.

morning, climbing cheerfully a very (On a house for summer only.) Etre Su

steep bill — for, as usual, the ancient prême ! Dieu de toute puissance ! protège church is built on the highest available ceux qui l'habiteront en été.

Par la grâce de Dieu, Pierre et Jehan natural eminence, from which it picRossier frères ont fait bâtir cette maison, turesquely dominates the whole village Dieu l'ayant IIIe béni, et en chacune saison

- but the ascent is hard work for the en paix.

sick and aged, who seem not to have 1819. Par le secours divin, Jean Brincod been considered in the days of its cona fait bâtir cette maison par Maître Moïse struction. The children assemble in Henchoz. Oh ! mortel véritablement l'ami the afternoon for a “Catéchisme," or de ton Dieu et de l'homme, garde ses com- children's service, which is obligatory mandemens ; alors le temps fera ton bon- till the age of sixteen. The Holy heur et l'Eternel ta félicitè.

Communion is celebrated four times a Les possédeurs du présent bâtiment sont exortés très-sérieusement à craindre Dieu, when every soul in the district who

year, on two consecutive Sundays, garder soigneusement tous ses status et saints commandemens, pour avec lui vivre has been confirmed attends, all attired éternellement, car la vie est un chemin de in black, so that the effect is that of a justice, et la voie du sentier de celle-ci ne

funeral. The sexes

are divided tend point à la mort. J. R. H. S. M. H. men on one side and women on the

1886. Que la bénédiction de Dieu et other - and when the time for comsa paix reposent sur cette maison. 1. R. muvion arrives the men file one behind E. R.

the other in long procession to the This brings me to the religion of “table” at which they_reverently these mountain people. The stern stand with bowed head. The women Calvinism of Protestant Switzerland, follow, and the whole time the Bible so hard and unattractive in the plains, is read aloud from the pulpit by the is here much tempered and modified ; schoolmaster. The effect on a stranger and the simple villager, who has no is impressive and devotional. One outside distractions, lives so near to may well be shocked by the bare ugliGod and heaven that one is constantly ness of the interior of the church, and reminded of the extraordinary faith especially by the huge black pipe of and devotion of the Roman Catholic the stove, which passes, without any peasantry of Tyrol and Bavaria. In ceremony, clean through the east this connection a saying attributed to window. But the good Calvinist mind John Bright often occurs to me, “ All requires evidently no external aid to good people are of the same religion.” devotion, just as the Calvinist body is But the peasant of Tyrol from a long satisfied with the hardest of deal seats, residence in his sunlit land, I am much which often bave no backs at all. In attached to him - will lie and steal, for the churchyard we found one English

grave, quite overgrown with nettles. (ing, come upon a chance mountain It is that of a young orphan girl, who chalet. A huge bowl of cream is prodied here seventy years ago, at the age duced, and to each of the party is given of twenty-one. This poor little grave a quaint woodeu spoou, with which scems always to appeal to us, aud we they all dip into the same dish. These carefully tend it and plant it with spoons are well carved, and are often flowers, and ask ourselves what was heirloonis in the family. As often as the sad history of “Rose Hopkins," not payment is altogether refused, and what brought her to die so far which drives one to the conclusion that, from her English home.

allowing for a large-hearted generosity, Agriculture is naturally the chief these “ montagnards are not as poor industry of these mountain folk. as they look. Neither the vine, corn, nor any edible Milk is carried to be sold at the vil. grain will grow at this allitude lage laiterie in a sort of flat tin case, thirty-seven hundred feel - and ap- called a “ boille,'' strapped to the back ples, pears, currants, gooseberries, and of the seller. The large flat cheeses wild strawberries and raspberries are he carries on his head iu a quaiut tray, the only fruit, but the crops of hay are with arms and legs, called “ un oiseau." superabundant. The process of hay I use the patois of the country, which making, is, owing to the dryness of the does not, we hope, aspire to be French. climate, much shorter than with us. The elder women, besides the privilege The whole family turn out with the of koitting socks and stockings for the first ray of light to mow, the womeu entire family, have an industry all also using the scythe, and there is little their own. They receive willingly the hired help. The next process is to oldest dresses, petticoats, old linen “fener” (throw the hay high into the rags — in fact every kind of “chiffon” air with a fork), and by the next day, with which they weave an admirable with the help of a broiling sun, it is sort of washing carpet, which is very ready to be put into cock, and carried durable. The colors are well blended, at once to the barn.

and even at home this carpet would not A large net, called a filard,” is be despised for what Maple & Co. call spread on the ground, and an enor- secondary bedrooms." It is sold for mous amount of hay put into it. This about two francs a yard. I have not is securely tied by the ropes of thc yet tried, but I am sure I should have net ; then hoisted on to the shoulders much satisfaction in thus treading of the head of the family. Like a tot- under foot my discarded town gartering hay-cock he struggles to the meuts. Here one's dress is of the very barn - often a considerable distance - simplest, and it is a question whether,

and then reappears for another load. in course of time, one might not, in

The production of cream, butter, and that respect, become quite a peasant. cheese is very abundant. One pities Walking skirts and washing blouses the poor cows, who, once or twice a are the staple dress for a summer visit, year, are taken higher in the mountains with something very warm and very or into the fields to graze, but who woollen for the few days of excessive spend the rest of their lives in cramped cold and wet which will occasionally little cowsheds, with no air save the drive us shivering indoors even in opening of a window, which is consid- midsummer. We certainly cannot preered amply sufficient for a supply of tend to an equable climate.

As the cow, however, is of a The native refinement of the peasgigantic build and gives excellent milk, antry is wonderful, though of what we I presume no harm is done by this life understand by the degraded term of seclusion.

“gentlepeople" there is absolutely Cream and eggs are usually the only none. Of Nature's gentlefolk there refreshment to be obtained by weary are indeed many. I wish I could intravellers, who, after hours of climb. Itroduce my reader to our friendly old


landlord, who, with his worthy wife, mountain Switzerland is "thrift.” If lives in the lower part of our chalet. our driver can execute the commission I took him at first for a gardener - a it will save certainly a stamp, and pertall, spare old mau, working in his haps the expense of a special messenshirt-sleeves, who received me with a ger. So it is uo uncommon thing for a gentle dignity and courtesy which woman to stop our coachman : “My would not disgrace an archbishop. He sister lives in the last house in suchand his wife have no servants ; they and-such a village. Will you please do their own work, and gather their give her ny best love, and tell her, own crops with but little help. Yet etc., etc. ?" or some errand of a like there is no more important person in nature. A boy pursued the carriage the whole neighborhood than “ Mon- some distance one day with a watch to sieur Durieu père.” He owns a fair be given to his brother in some place amount of land, is president of the which was on our way. Our leave is village, treasurer of the infirmary, head never asked, but we are expected to of the workhouse, and general reliev- wait (and let us admit that we do wait) ing officer, so to speak. All these uu- in the village street till the errand is paid responsibilities call him much satisfactorily executed. On the whole away, and are looked upon by his wife it does us no harm to have our insular with mingled pride and sorrow. She notions upset, and we hope to return is much alone in consequence, and yet to England two wiser and less exacting there is the consolation “Mais oui, women. mon mari est indispensable au village.Not to give too couleur de rose an Then there is the portly young banker account, I will frankly own that one

married to the richest heiress of the must go through a good deal to set up place — who milks his own cow and even the semblance of a comfortable makes his own hay. The business of English home under the circumstances. banking does not, apparently, absorb Our chalet, standing with a quaint either his time or his energy, and it is little dignity in its little plot of whiteamusing to see him, three times a day, railed garden, where peas, cabbages, patiently going, “ vers sa vache,” at- lettuces, and old-fashioned garden tending himself to the immured and flowers smile away in queer little rows solitary beast, who gives forth excel in front of our sitting-room windows, lent milk, quite worthy of a lengthy our creeper-covered balcony, and inside inscription under which she lives. the dainty spotlessness of our wooden The banker's quiverful of sturdy little walls, look most inviting ; but there is boys are an excellent testimony to the more to do, we find, than simply to quality of the milk; and their manners, lie down in our soft white beds. In like those of every little urchin in the twenty-four hours we discover that our place, are delightful. Their interest in two Swiss maidens think “civiliza

ces dames” is sincere and keen, and tion" the English for “ bêtise.” They they never fail to take off their hats know how to scrub and clean - in fact, with the hearty “adieu” which is the the everlasting cleaning vecessitated a common salutation both for meeting strike on our part ; for we could stand and parting. Their bearing generally it no longer. But, in everything conwell couveys their own idea of a cerning the niceties of life, one comes friendly equality not devoid of respect. to a blank wall of ignorance very hard Very upsetting to English ideas are the to break down. number of commissions given to our The laying of the table and waiting driver whenever we hire a carriage for thereat are a mystery, which even now, a distant drive. We set out, of course, after twelve weeks' trial, is scarcely with a feeble notion that a carriage and fathomed. A friend, who laid her own driver, hired and paid for by ourselves, table with some care, told me it was was, for the time being, all our own. considered so mysterious a work of art But no! An iperadicable principle of that she used to hear her maid bringing

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