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ing; but of the three hundred and sixty-four in the historical tripos, nine thirty-five who obtained degree certifi- married ; and of the thirty-eight in cates one hundred and twenty-three the medieval and modern language were engaged in teaching, forty-five tripos, one married. The only student were married, two were missionaries, who passed the law tripos has not yet six were in government employment, married. four were engaged in medical work, It appears, therefore, that about one and six were dead.

in ten of those who take honors at Judging from the reports issued Girton marries, as against one in nine by these two Cambridge colleges, the who take honors at Newnham ; while larger proportion of university-edu- about two in every five marry of those cated women do not seem to make who take an ordinary degree at Girton. marriage their career in life. Of the Leaving out theology and law, as to ex-students of Newnham only one which the data are insufficient, the hundred and twenty out of seven hun- order of precedence (matrimonially) dred and twenty have married, and at of the various studies is as follows: Girton forty-six out of three hundred At Girton : Elementary studies, natural and thirty-five.

science, moral science, history, classics, From the report of Girton College mathematics, and last of all medieval we may deduce the following interest and modern languages. At Newnham : ing, and, if I may venture to say so, moral science, history, natural science, amusing particulars.

classics, mathematics, and again last Of the seventy-nine students who mediæval and modern languages. have obtained the certificate for the I am well aware that a large number mathematical tripos, six have married ; of readers will consider these details of the ninety-seven who passed the viz., the percentages of marriages, etc. classical tripos, ten have married ; of - puerile and foolish ; nevertheless the forty-seven who passed the natural many men, and, I venture to think, science tripos, seven have married. some mothers, will cousider them sugThe only student who passed the theo-gestive. logical tripos bas married. Out of the Turning to the reports furnished for thirty who passed the historical tripos, our information by the women's colfour have married. Of the twenty-one leges at Oxford, we find that of the who passed the moral science tripos one hundred and seventy-three students three bave married. But of the forty who left Somerville College between the lady students who have taken the ordi- years 1879 and 1892 seventy-three are nary pass degree, fifteen have married, engaged in teaching, twenty-nine are a much larger proportion, as will be married, and one is an assistant libraseen, than among the students who rian of the Royal Society. Miss Corhave obtained the honors degree cer- nelia Sorabji, a Parsee lady who was tificate.

educated in England, after taking her From the Newpham College report I B.A. degree at Oxford, returned to her have not been able to ascertain the native country, and is now a partner in percentages of marriages among the ex- a solicitor's firm in Bombay, and she students who have taken merely the comes over to London this year in ordinary degree ; but an examination charge of a case that has been unreof the tripos lists gives very much the servedly placed in her hands by one of same result as those of Girton - the ranees of India. Miss Marshall, namely, out of eighty-five who passed another ex-student of Somerville Colthe mathematical tripos, five married ; lege, is on the staff of the National of the sixty-five in the classical tripos, Observer. eight married ; of the thirty-three in The report printed by the principal the moral science tripos, six married ; of Lady Margaret's Hall gives fewer of the seventy-four in the natural statistics, but one gathers that the science tripos, ten married ; of the larger proportion of the ex-students now at work are engaged in teaching. "A kind of university settlement The number of students in residence from Victoria College instructs and at Lady Margaret's Hall averages trains for domestic service destitute thirty-eight. Holloway College has girls at Victoria Homes, Belfast. only been at work for seven years, and These are detached homes, in which there has not been time for much de- there is now room and appliances for velopment in the after-careers of stu- training eighty-eight girls in every kind dents, but of the one hundred and of household work.” uinety-seven who have left seven are Alexandra College, Dublin, is a large married, about sixty-vine are teaching day-school where girls come up to study or preparing to teach, two are nurses, painting, music, and various other subtwo are studying at the School of Med-jects that are not laught at Newnham ; icine for Women, and about forty-seven but of the sixty-one ex-students of the are residing at home.

college who have taken the University From Victoria College, Belfast, Mrs. of Ireland B.A. degree from the colByers sends the following particulars : lege, and who would, therefore, be of

• In addition to over fifteen hundred the same standing as those who have students of Victoria College certificated left Newpham and Girton, forty-one by the Queen's University, Ireland ; are engaged in teaching, six have marTrinity College, Dublin ; Cambridge, ried, one is a medical doctor, one is Edinburgh, and London Universities ; assistant to Sir C. Cameron, city anathe College of Preceptors, London, and lyst, and the remaining eleven are apthe Intermediate Education Board, Ire-parently living at home. land, there are fifty-one graduates of The total number of ex-students from the Royal University, Ireland. These Girton, Newnham, Somerville Hall, include graduates in arts and medicine. Halloway College, and Alexandra Eight .former Victorians are at present College, whose after-careers we have medical undergraduates, with a view to mentioned above amounts to fourteen becoming medical missionaries. hundred and eighty-six ; of these six

“Many have become wives of mis- hundred and eighty are engaged in sionaries, and sixteen unmarried ladies, teaching, two hundred and eight have former Victorians, are at present en- married, eleven are doctors or prepargaged in zenana medical and educa- ing to be doctors and medical missiontional work among the women of Syria, aries, two are nurses, eight or nine are India, and China. Twenty-one former in government employment, one is a students are now principals of flourish- bookbinder, one is a market-gardener, ing middle-class girls' schools in Ire- and one is a lawyer. Besides these land, in most cases of schools founded regular employments, which are enuby themselves, while a large number merated and duly scheduled in these who were engaged as private or other reports, there must be, without doubt, teachers have since married.

a great deal of unpaid work done by “ Twelve are at present head mis- those ex-students who live at home tresses or assistant mistresses in high which it is difficult, indeed impossible, schools and other middle-class schools to put into any list. For instance, in England and the colonies.

some university-educated women are “ Many of our students have suc- engaged in literary work, while others cessfully taken up sick-nursing as a employ themselves with various useful vocation. Some of these hold impor- works connected with philanthropic tant posts as the heads of hospitals and and charitable undertakings around other similar institutions at home and their homes, and are doubtless doing in the colonies.

their business all the better and more “ The entire certificated staff of ladies practically for their university train. at Victoria College, with the exception ing ; but these diverse occupations are of four, has been educated at Victoria hardly of a kind to be called a definite College.

career.

The ladies' settlements in Southwark | less highly educated women is greater and Bethnal Green furnish an impor- than among university-trained maid: tant career for highly educated ladies. ens. In 1887 a women's university settle. It is, of course, in these days of progment was established at 44 Nelson ress an open question, that must be Square, South London, and in 1889 a decided according to each woman's inguild of ladies from Cheltenham Col- dividuality, whether marriage is to be lege followed their example, and took a considered an achievement or a come house in the Old Ford Road, Bethnal dowu ;” but mothers will be prudent Green. In Mansfield the Congregation- if they realize that, on the whole, the alist College also started a settlement; statistics, so far as we can judge at and the influence of the Church settle- present, do not lead one to the conclument of the Oxford House, Bethnal sion that marriage is either desired or Greeu, established a ladies' branch in attained by the majority of very highly St. Margaret's House, Victoria Square, educated women. There are

some E.

American ladies have promptly notable exceptions, which will readily taken up the same type of charitable suggest themselves, and doubtless many work in the United States, for educa- of the other students whose names are tion on university lines has taught upon the list of those who are still "in many women the need for organiza- maiden meditation fancy free" will tion and co-operation in all their char- marry eventually. But it must be reitable undertakings, for few professions membered that education has, in most in this world need more careful and cases, this very valuable result : it correct training than the difficult and does make women more fastidious in complicated one of philanthropy. their choice, and as university training,

In former days marriage, teaching, at any rate, enables many of them to and philanthropy were the principal earn their living more or less by teachprofessions that were open to women. ing, it obviates the necessity of their The careful study of the reports pub- having to rely on matrimony as lished by the women's universities means of support, and therefore prewill, I think, incline parents to ques- vents many early, uncongenial, and tion if a university training has yet improvident marriages. succeeded in opening the doors of any But whereas six hundred and eighty other profession. A few exceptionally of the ex-students are engaged in teachgifted women have entered the medical ing only two hundred and eight can be profession, and a very few (as we can traced as having yet married ; theregather from the statistics published) fore, according to the law of averages, have become workers in other fields, if a mother sends her daughter to one such as book-binding, market-gardening, of the universities she is more likely to etc. But with these very few excep- become a teacher than a wife. Moretions nearly all ex-students are engaged over, it is a question if the kind of in teaching or are preparing to teach, training that girls receive at these uniand therefore it would seem that unless versities does not, ou the whole, make a girl has some special capabilities of them inclined to look upon the prosmind and brain which, combined with pect of married life as a rather dull a power of organization, will place her and unintellectual career. All women at the head of the teaching profession would be glad to marry their ideal after her training at the university is hero; but heroes are scarce, and the completed, she cannot, at present, hope average man who proposes marriage to that the years and the money devoted the average girl can at best offer her no to her bigher education will do very wider prospect than a round of careful much for her in enabling lier to enter housekeeping, motherhood, and thrift; upon a money-earning career in the and it must be doubted if, taking all future.

things into consideration, a university The percentage of marriages among training is adapted for developing LIVING AGE. VOL. VII. 320

a

these homely and prosaic virtues. But and a shrillness in their voices, which, though the development of the higher in any place but a monastery, would education of women has not opened have betokened excitement. They any new profession for women, it has clustered around the open door, and most undoubtedly succeeded in enlarg- scanned with eager glances the bridge ing the sphere of the old ones, aud over the stream that formed the bounteaching, secretarial, and charitable dary of their domains. They cast, too, work must benefit greatly by being un- from time to time, anxious looks at the dertaken by well-educated, instead of carefully guarded entrance of the resuperficially accomplished, women ; and fectory. Well might their pulses beat there is food for reflection in these wise with unusual vigor, for the fates had in words of the principal of Somerville store for them that night a feast kings College, Oxford :

might have envied. Kings? No king “ The wider interests, the larger out- in Europe had a cook who could vie look on life which students gain in with Brother Laurence, when he chose their college life, and the trained in to throw off the sloth that sometimes telligence which they can bring to bear possessed him and gave his genius full on their work, whatever it is, are of play. And there was no fear of fiudunspeakable value in any sphere, smalling him napping when a guest was or large."

expected, and that guest Guyot of ALICE M. GORDON. Provins. “ Guyot will know well

cooked food when he tastes it,” he had remarked that morning. “It's foul

work casting pearls before swine,” he From The National Review.

added a moment later, with a withering GUYOT OF PROVINS, THE FIRST FRENCH glance at the monks who stood around.

Brother Laurence was a privileged IF printing had been invented in personage at Clairvaux; the abbot Guyot of Provins's day, bis writings himself, though arrayed in full canonwould have won for him no doubt great icals, never dared to address him save reputation ; would have wou for him, with deprecative courtesy. As he bad too, a heap of papal fagots, or the use learned to his cost, a word of rebuke of a royal gibbet ; for, when he was meant a lost day – a day without a alive, a matador's calling was less well-cooked dinner is not a day. For fraught with danger than a critic's. Satan and the Angel Gabriel, though But copying by hand is a slow process, working in concert, would have failed and years had passed before his readers to induce Brother Laurence to cook equalled in number his fingers and when his temper was ruffled. There bis toes. There never were but four was high rejoicing among the monks copies of his pamphlets, a fact that when the news came that Guyot of accounts for his dying in his bed. If Provins was on his way to take up his instead of four there had been four abode with them; for, sooth to say, thousand, one of them could hardly time hung somewhat heavily on their have failed to make its way into the hands. The best of feasts is a sorry afVatican; and then Maître Guyot would fair unless savored with piquant stories; soon have taken rank, in the minds of aud brains had not been dealt out to the faithful, as a scarecrow.

Clairvaux too lavishly. The monks

could relish jokes but not make them. Que evening in the autumn of the But Guyot was the wittiest of the trouyear 1192, some twenty monks were badours, the raconteur sans pareil. standing in the entrance hall of the How their old refectory would ring fine old Abbey of Clairvaux. For the with mirth and laughter, now that he once they had cast off their wonted had joined their order. expression of drowsy indifference. This Guyot was a noted man in his There was a brightness in their eyes I day. He was born about the middle of

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the twelfth century at Provins, the have thoroughly enjoyed his position, quaiut little Champenois town which and to have seized eagerly, greedily, Michelet diguifies with the title of the goods the gods gave him. So far * Ville de liberté au moyen âge” as the world could judge, at that time “ Ville de licence” would be perhaps he was a mere courtier, with as little a shade more appropriate. His talents care or thought for others as the rest as a musician and poet attracted the at- of his kind. When next we hear of tention of the Countess of Champagne, him he is startiog, in company with and he passed his childhood in her hus- Thibault, Count of Champagne, for the band's castle, receiving instruction at Holy Land ; though whether he went her hands. He was a bright, hand- as pilgrim, minstrel, or warrior, it some lad, bold and dauntless in his would be hard to decide. From this bearing, with a keen eye even then for time he vanishes from view until that the follies of others. The countess autumn evening, when he made his

to have been a remarkable way slowly and wearily up the stately

; she had been a friend of Abé- avenue to Clairvaux. lard's in her youth, and had perhaps As he crossed the threshold the imbibed some of his notions ; at least monks shrank back. The Guyot they the training she gave to Guyot was of a were there to welcome — they knew milder order than was then in fashion. him well by report — was a man in the

The count was often shocked at the prime of life, with a loud, ringing lack of reverence of his wife's young laugh, and bold, undaunted bearing ; favorite : “ Saucy wits such as thine, one, too, renowned for the richness of my lad, lead to the gallows," he was his raiment. But this Guyot might wont to say. But that was in early have been a hundred, so gaunt was his days, for Guyot was no mere serf con- form, so haggard his face, so otherdemned to spend his life in his lord's worldish his whole appearance. His castle ; he was the son of a kuight, of long white hair fell on his shoulders in one, however, whose pedigree was an unkempt mass, and his dark eyes longer than his

burned with a strange, unearthly fire. When sixteen, he left Provins to He replied to the abbot’s greeting with make his way in the world ; aud for a somewhat surly air; and there was a years we have no record of his doings decided touch of mockery in the keen, beyond a few brief notes which tell sharp glance he gave in turn at each of how a certain Guyot was much sought the portly monks. after for court festivities, there being All the silver vessels were on the no minstrel of equal renown, no not table that night in honor of the new iu all Europe. He travelled through arrival; huge salvers covered with Italy, Austria, Hungary, and north delicate tracery, graceful tankards with Germany; and wherever he went he nymphs and dolphins twining around, was welcomed as an honored guest. diminutive cups, each one of which He was present, as he tells us in his showed the work of a lifetime. This Bible, at the Diet of Mayence which silver had been the cause of endless old Barbarossa summoned in 1181 to strife with heirs-at-law, who denied assist at the coronation of his son the rights of fathers to purchase pardon Henry. At Mayence he received for sins with family plate. Even thus many marks of favor from the emperor, early the spirit of scepticism was who never wearied of listening to the abroad ; so long as men were strong “yarns" he could spin. Guyot was and well they refused to believe that in fact quite the fashion at that time, giving to an abbot was giving to the and mingled upon terms of perfect Lord; when in the throes of death, equality with princes and great nobles, however, they were more amenable to who applauded to the echo his love- priestly influence. Suppers at Clairsongs, and sought in vain to imitate the vaux were things to dream of; the grace of his bons mots. He seems to man who had once been feasted there

purse.

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