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sion staff on a reservation is not adequate to cope with the additional work that is required.

It is much like having a school district with teachers provided to take care of a given number of students and then for some reason there is a sudden moving in of outside people to where the school population is increased several times. The school without additional teachers and equipment is not able to take care of the increase. This is the condition in which the Extension Division finds itself.

This new development has been worth while. In fact my own opinion is that we are probably 50 years ahead in the development of many reservations than we would have been at the rate we were traveling when the present administration came in. I think you men will agree that unless we have an adequate field staff to follow up these new developments on the reservation, that can work daily with the Indian people in the solution of their problems, and help them to appreciate the value of the work that has been done, many of the benefits will be lost to them.

Mr. Leavy. Do these Indians, both men and women, take these suggestions and ideas?

Mr. Cooley. Yes; it is really surprising how the Indians respond to extension work.

CONDITIONS PREVAILING AMONG INDIANS OF THE FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES

Mr. Leavy. You are quite familiar with the situation as it exists today, I assume, out on the reservations?

Mr. Cooley. Yes, sir.

Mr. Leavy. Your work has been in the field?

Mr. Cooley. Yes, I am from the West; I have lived near Indians all my life.

Mr. Leavy. You are familiar with conditions prevailing in the Five Civilized Tribes?

Mr. Cooley. Yes, sir.

Mr. Leavy. Is it your judgment that with intelligent cooperation that they can be taught to live upon a reasonable American standard of living with the natural assets that they have there?

Mr. Cooley. I do not believe there are enough assets and resources available in the Cherokee country to make that population selfsupporting, but certainly with the development of the lands that they have in the way of garden tracts and other industries it will go a long way toward improving their economic status.

Mr. Leavy'. Is the population on the increase, or otherwise?

Mr. Cooley. les; it. is on the increase.

Mr. Leavy. In the Five Civilized Tribes?

Mr. Cooley. Yes, sir.

Mr. Leavy. Are they still living in a fairly primitive state or have they improved their conditions in a material extent?

Mr. Cooley. They are in all degrees of development, but there is much poverty existing among the Cherokee Indians, the worst I have seen, and I have been all over the Indian country.

Mr. Leavy. Is there illiteracy among the children, or the people as a whole?

Mr. Cooley. Well, I would say they compare favorably with the whites in those communities.

Mr. Leavy. The children attend the schools of the whites? You have no Indian schools?

Mr. Coolet. Yes; where "they do attend. Many do not attend any school. Mr. Leavy. I was trying to get an idea of the school situation. Mr. Collier. I will tell you what the income was 2 years ago of those people. At first we eliminated the rich Indians, and there were a few hundred of them. Mr. Leavy. Those were the ones who had oil and gas royalties. Mr. Collier. Yes; after those were eliminated it showed the annual income was $47 and a few cents per capita. Now the intent of that study was to take into account the actual income. Now they seemed to be getting along, but they were very poor. I have been among them in the hills where everybody who goes among them gets a heartache from it. Their poverty is terrible.

Mr. Cooley. I have seen as many as 17 people living in a 1-room shack. That does not seem possible, and you wonder how they get in there. Mr. Rich. All at the same time?

Mr. Cooley. Yes; all at the same time; they are related but not
of the same parentage.
Mr. Rich. Men and women and boys and girls assembled there?
Mr. Cooley. Absolutely.

Mr. Rich. And they use that for sleeping quarters?
Mr. Cooley. They do not have any other.

Mr. Leavy. Weren't they creating a serious local problem for the locnl and State authorities? Mr. Collier. They are law abiding.

Mr. Rich. But you have bad health conditions and criminal conditions? Mr. Collier. Bad living conditions, but not much crime. Mr. Leavy. Don't they use liquor when they can get it? Mr. Collier. Yes; but they don't have any.

Mr. Leavy. My understanding is that you virtually have no medical service up there.

Mr. Collier. We are getting some now. They have asked for aid so that they can be given medical attention.

Mr. Rich. The transfer of these Indians is all the work that you are doing through the various agencies. You are trying to take the Indian out of his natural habitat and put him into the habitation and life of standard American families. Is that what you are trying to do with the Indian?

Mr. Collier. Consider these Indians; you can if you wish go back and take the Cherokees 100 years ago when they were prosperous farmers. Cherokees who remained in North Carolina are still doing well as farmers. If we could get them back to the standard of living they had 100 years ago we would be well satisfied.

Mr. Rich. With ail the money that the Government spends and what you are going with it, you are going backward instead of forward. Mr. Collier. The Government removed them forcibly from their homes in the eastern United States and repeatedly moved them until they finally dumped them into the Indian Territory and they had hardly got settled when the Government started alloting their lands and cut their land holdings from 15 million to 12}« million acres; then the Government stepped out and did not do anything that they ought to do and the Indians were just abandoned.

Now we are making a tardy and a might modest effort to do the square thing by them. It is very little. The record is a shameful one and anybody who goes in there and comes out is just boiling.

Mr. Rich. Why wouldn't it be a good thing to take the families up to Alaska? If the land in Oklahoma is not satisfactory, why wouldn't it be a good idea to take the Indians up to Alaska?

Mr. Collier. Well, it is hard to move Indians, and they have moved so much that they are sick of moving. There is plenty of land in Oklahoma.

Mr. Rich. Have you got any good land where you could put them in Oklahoma?

Mr. Collier. I would say we have.

Mr. Johnson. Oklahoma has a lot of rich land, but too much is nontaxable.

Mr. Collier. Of course, during this drought you had the streams dry up and the fish dying, and of course all the green vegetation was killed out there.

Mr. Rich. I understand that some of the tribes are on pretty good land.

Mr. Collier. The good land is pretty nearly all gone.

Mr. Rich. If they are on that kind of land, they certainly should be glad to be moved to something better.

Where I can find a better place than Woolrich, Pa., I will want to move to it.

Mr. Collier. They are all settled there and they love that area; they love Oklahoma. The white folk are good to them.

ESTABLISHMENT OP SHEEP BREEDING STATION AT FORT WINGATK

Mr. Johnson. If I remember correctly the Indian Office last year asked for and was provided with $60,000 to establish a sheep-breeding station at Fort Wingate. Was that station ever established?

Mr. Dodd. That station was established, Mr. Johnson, and we carried out the construction proposed. That is, a laboratory and two houses, water system, sewer system and a light plant. Through the ability of the foreman we had on the job and the use of Indian labor we were able to save about $12,000 which could have been used had not June 30 come upon us so fast. We were planning to build some quarters needed for other than two head men of the station.

We would like to take advantage of that $12,000, if it is at all possible, and have it reappropriated and made available for building these much-needed quarters. I have an amendment that I would like to offer for the consideration of the committee.

Mr. Johnson. I suggest you read it.

Mr. Dodd. At the end of the item on page 101 change the period to a comma and insert the following [reading]:

/Vwiifof, That the unexpended balance of the appropriation of $60,000 eontainod in the Interior Department Appropriation Act, fiscal year 1936, for the establishment of a sheep-breeding station on the Navajo Reservation, is hereby reappropriated and made available for the construction of quarters for employees assigned to such station.

Mr. JoHNSON, Have you been satisfied with the results obtained in tlic establishment of that station, Mr. Cooley?

[graphic]

Mr. Cooley. Up to date; yes. It is of course just getting started and the work organized. It is research work, and we are making progress.

Mr. Johnson. Are there any further statements in connection with this item? Mr. Rich. Let me make this suggestion:

You want to take this money, the unexpended balance, and construct quarters for the employees. In other words, how much of that money do you have left?

Mr. DODD. We have $12,000 left. You appropriated $60,000 for this work, and we spent $48,000 for these other facilities that I have just mentioned, and if June 30 had not come along so fast we would have used the $12,000 for these quarters. The money actually lapsed.

Mr. Rich. Why don't you ask for the continuance of the fund without specifying what it is to be used for? If you just ask to have it continued you can use it on it for the particular purpose for which it was intended.

Mr. Johnson. It will have to be reappropriated.

Mr. Dodd. My purpose in putting it in this item was to let the committee know what we intended to do with it.

Mr. Rich. Then if that is the case you can state that this is to be used for the same purpose for which the loan was intended.

Mr. Dods. I would say so because the original appropriation was wide open. It provided.

Not to exceed $60,000 may be used for the establishment of a sheep-breeding station on the Navajo reservation.

We are simply telling you in this amendment that we will build quarters with that $12,000, and we did build two houses in our building operations.

INDUSTRY AMONG INDIANS The CHAIRMAN. Are there any further questions? If not, we will pass to page 103.

Mr. Dond. The following justification is submitted for the record: Regular appropriation, 1937 act.-----

-- $165, 000 Base for 1938.

165, 000 Increase requested for 1938: Disposition of Navajo sheep and goats... 225, 000 Total estimate, 1938.

------- 390, 000 This is a continuation of an appropriation begun in 1912. It makes funds available for assisting Indians in establishing themselves in self-supporting enterprises, including farming, stockraising, and other like industries conducted on their allotments or on the reservation, and to assist old and indigent Indians who have land they cannot use. Such assistance has made it possible for a large number of Indians, who otherwise would probably have spent much of their time in enforced idleness, to become established in self-supporting endeavors. The amount requested is needed to assist numerous individual Indians, members of tribes who have failed to accept the Indian Reorganization Act, and therefore are not eligible to participate in the $10,000,000 revolving loan fund authorized by that act.

An important factor in the use of this fund is its educational value to the Indians generally in teaching them proper use of credit and the importance of respecting agreements and obligations when once made. On the whole, the results obtained and the way in which the Indians are paying off their loans is encouraging.

The appropriation for 1937 was $165,000, of which $15,000 was set aside for educational loans. As may be noted by the following distribution of the $150,000 for industrial purposes, $76,350 has been allotted and $49,650 hypothecated.

This leaves a balance of $24,000 for distribution according to the demands for agricultural activities in the spring. Special emphasis is being given to the investment of these funds in enterprises which will enable Indians to realize a return in the quickest possible time. Individually planned agricultural and livestock programs assist the Indians to make wise use of this loan fund.

Sixty-one students have received loans totaling $10,669 from the funds set aside for educational purposes. The balance of $4,331 probably will be used before the beginning of the second semester of the school year 1936-37.

Industry among Indians, 1937

[graphic][table]

Industry among Indians (education), 1937 Jurisdiction:

Carson $1, 140

Coeur d'Alene 245

Colville 800

Crow 350

Fort Peck 1, 150

Fort Totten 270

Mission 650

Navajo 1, 100

New York 1,893

Sacramento 260

Salem 288

Sisseton 218

Turtle Mountain 1, 895

Yakima 410

Total 10,669

Balance Aug. 21, 1936 --. 4,331

Total 15.000

The appropriation for the fiscal year 1936 was $150,000. The use of $21,146.64 for expenses, exclusive of freight, covering the distribution of 6,890 cattle obtained from the New Mexico Rural Rehabilitation Corporation through the Resettlement Administration undoubtedly will net large returns to the Indians. Many Indians having facilities to care for cattle obtained foundation herds at a nominal expense.

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