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TABLE I.-Summary of workers on different levels in distributive occupations in 1930

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Total.-----1 Does not ir:clude farm owners, operators, etc. "To not include managers. officials, supervisors, and foremen on farms. Includes come apprentices, (rast learners emploved by large stores.

Vo namher included because accurate classification is impossible. Cersus reports total 2,046,270, Drobably 1,000,000 of whom have important daily working contacts with customers.

The chart and the table also show there were over 3,000,000 store owners, proprietors, and others on the owning and managing level; that there were about half a million managers and officials, and about three-quarters of a million workers who were local agents with managerial responsibilities. There were over 2,000,000 salespeople and about 400,000 who were called clerks in stores. Just what work they did we do not know. This is an occupational designation used by the


A large number of beginners is needed each year to replace those of the 8 million distributive workers who die or quit this field of employment. Some beginners are needed also to provide for the employment of aciditional distributive workers. The high schools should provide some of the trained beginners needed. But the high schools are preparing very few youth for distributive occupations. In 1933 only 23,000 students were enrolled in salesmanship classes out of a total of 6 million students in high schools. Most of these salesmanship classes Were taught from textbooks by teachers who had had no experience in selling. Such classes cannot be regarded as giving worth-while preparation for selling and other kinds of store work.

Effective vocational preparation for retail store work was given in 1933 to only 9,500 high school youths. The relative contribution of thes classes is shown in chart II; also in table II.

The public school contribution toward preparation for distributive occupations is utterly inadequate when it is realized that about 120,000 beginners at ages 18 and 19, and about 130,000 more at ages between 20 and 24 enter distributive occupations each year. The accompanying table shows that vocational courses to prepare youth while in high school for employment in distributive occupations is needed very badly.

see we have 6,151. You can see that during the depression the rate of growth in number of schools establishing departments of rocational agriculture slowed up considerably. During the depression period there were a good many of our teachers who went over into other activities on account of getting better salaries. Therefore we had fewer schools established as you will note.

But recently there has been a large increase in the number of requests for Federal aid to establish new departments. We had over 600 new departments of vocational agriculture established in the schools last year.

If you look at this chart, you will see that if we receive no more than enough Federal funds to carry the schools that we now have, the curve on this chart will flatten out.

But if we receive the amounts authorized under the George-Iseen Act something in the neighborhood of two or three thousand additional school can be established because there are demands for them. We get word every few days of the increased number of schools de manding departments of vocational agriculture. People have realized what this type of educational training means to the boys in high school and to the adult farmers.

Mr. FITZPATRICK. Let me ask you a question there. I am sorry to interrupt you. You say that the boys with an education used to leave the farm, but that your Department wants to send them back. Would that tend to increase production on the farms?

Mr. LINKE. Not necessarily. Our program does not increase the number of farmers, but provides training for those persons who are going to farm anyway.

Young men trained in vocational agriculture are interested more with economy in production and with proper marketing of the product than they are in increasing total production.

Our prograın encourages crop rotations, conservation of the soul, and a better balanced agriculture including the removal of submar. ginal land from production through reforestation, etc.

Vir. FITZPATRICK. Then according to your argument you would take acreage out of production?

Mr. LINKE. Yes. I believe submarginal lands should be removei from production,

Mr. FITZPATHICK. I know. But you just said that the Office of Education wants to fir up the soil and reforest it and other things If you do that, you will take acreage out of production? l«n't that the idea

Vir. Link: Yes under certain conditions.

Jir. FırzPAIKIO K. How, then, could you say that by sending back educated youth to agriculture they would benefit by it unles they increase the production

Vir LAN I vaid that it would increase the production per unit or acre, but there would be under the soil conservation program le acreage under production

Mr FITZPAIMIO K. That is just what I said. If we increase the production per arre, t'y would have to take acreage out of produr. tion, won't thing, on ari dome not to have a surplus'

Vir LNA S pom

Vr FITZPATRIA * It seems to me that you are putting bach aci are into production

Mr. LINKE. No, not necessarily, Mr. Congressman.

I happen to own a farm, and I know just what the farmer is up against. The idea is that he can produce on less acreage more product per acre. Then he can put some acreage into pasture, forests, and so forth, and be conserving the soil.

Mr. FITZPATRICK. Your experts might show the farmer where he can produce more per acre. But the thing is that you cannot show him where he can find a market for it.

Mr. Rich. Wouldn't you be able to help the farmer a lot if you would prohibit a lot of this importation of farm produce from other nations?

Mr. LINKE. Yes, insofar as they are competing crops or farm produce.



Now, here is something that Dr. Studebaker has already mentioned. We have about 10,000 rural high schools where it might be possible to establish departments of vocational agriculture and where it is really needed.

We have 6,151 rural high schools where departments have already been established under the appropriations given by the Congress. There are 10,000 additional schools which ought to have departments. Of this number 3,000 have already applied for new departments and actually want them. Ohio wrote in just a few days ago and said that the demand for new departments is overwhelming.

I would like to show you another chart on the potential need for extending vocational education in agriculture. This is the question about which you were asking. This chart shows the number of farm boys from 14 to 20 years of age, both in school and out of school in the C'nited States according to the 1930 census.

There was a total of 1,178,000 farm boys in school of which number 203,199 were enrolled in vocational agriculture, which is about 17 percent.

Mr. LEAVY. Is that the figure of 1930, or have you brought it down to date?

Mr. LINKE. We used the 1930 census to indicate the total number of farm boys both in and out of schools, and the number who are taking vocational agriculture was secured from State reports in our files.

Mr. LEAVY. Two hundred three thousand one hundred and ninetynine were the boys taking agriculture?

Mr. LINKE. Yes, farm boys.
Mr. LEAVY. That is in 1936?
Mr. LINKE. Yes; 1936.
Mr. LEAVY. But this figure of 1,178,454 is the figure as of 1930?

Mr. LINKE. Yes; the total number of farm boys in school according to the 1930 census. , Mr. LEAVY. Then the figure would be substantially larger if you had the present number?

Mr. LINKE. Yes; I think so, because there have been a great many farm boys who have been in the city and who have come back on the farms, you know.

Mr. LEAVY. Then that percentage would be lower now?
Mr. LINKE. It would very likely be lower now.

FARM BOYS NOT ATTENDING HIGH SCHOOL Here is a very interesting thing: The 1930 census shows that there are more farm boys of high-school age out of school than there are in school. There were 1,348,000 farm boys of high-school age out of school as against 1,178,000 in school.

Our program provides part-time classes in vocational agriculture for these boys that are on the farm and who are going to be farmers.

Mr. Rich. May I ask you a question right there: What ages are those boys who are out of school?

Mr. Linke. We call it the high-school age, usually 14 to 20 years.

Mr. FITZPATRICK. Have they graduated from the elementary schools?

Mr. L NKE. No, not all of them. Some of them are graduates, The great majority of them are boys who have never gone into high school.

Mr. FITZPATRICK. How about those States which are longest in relation to compulsory education and the vears that the child on to school? What is the age limit in those States?

Vir. LIKI. This varies from 14 to 18 among the different Sintes.

Mr. FirzPARICh. In those Strtes that mane it compulsory for bors to go to school, what is the age limit?

Mr. Link. The age limit varies. In some States it is 18 and in some lower than that.

Mr. FirzPAIRIK. You have 1,345,847 bors out of school?
Vir. Lin. Ypages
Mr. FITZPATRICK. That is, over 16 years of age?
Vir. LINKE. They are between the age of 14 and 20.

Mr. RIH. In other words, they are the bors that are out of her that are over the Pulimit nurul br the Stiefe that they must rol." in riool Therlan d t! Hard they are the one thyo :. Ollestite requran Mr. B ISHLAPI. Vot recerily, but in ritarens the limit in po'

trii'tly enforced. There is no one to the them robh. Mr. Rim!. In Peniana if you were out of srivool 3 or 4 days Vou would see in othecer corries around to get you.

Mr. Lith. What was the eve limit there!
Mr. Rien. Sinterll.

Mr. LINKE But in solle States they are not required to go to school after 11.

Mr. BARSHART They don't enforce it in the rural areas.
Mr. LAMBERT-EX DIN rural area do.
Vr. FirzPATRICK. In New York, it in 16.

Mr. LAMBERT-os, Vobody is required to go to high school in any State, are there

Mr. LINK I think, in some of the State they are if they have not yet reached the compulsory age limit.

Mr. LAURERT ON. I know that some of them have compulsory education in finishing elementary school That was in lieu of a certa" number of venn, having finished a certain number of yeans or finishes: elementary school, that was the end of it.

Mr. LINKE. Yes I think it varies in the different States.

Mr. LAMBERTSOY I didn't think that there were any States requiring anybody to go to high school.

Mr. Fitzpatrick. In our State they go to school until a certain age. Then, when they reach this age, they can receive a certain education as a continuation.

Mr. Linke. Here is an interesting chart to show you what becomes of the boys taking vocational agriculture in the high schools in some communities of certain Southern States. They go into various callings. Some go to college. The chart shows the percentage of those boys who actually go back on the farm, which is 46.2 percent. The number in occupations related to farming, such as milk testers, horticultural inspectors, and many other related occupations, is about 8 percent. The number in agricultural colleges is 2.8 percent. These figures show that practically 60 percent of the farm boys who study vocational agriculture go into farming and related occupations.

Now, if college teaching in agriculture is a good thing, why not put it in local schools where more people can profit from it. That is what vocational agriculture is designed to do, since everj^one cannot go to college.

I want to show you a map of the State of Louisiana.

The green dots on this map represent the local schools where vocational agriculture is already established, and the red dots are those schools that are demanding or applying for departments.

Mr. Johnson. Let me ask you: If this appropriation is not increased, then none of those applications can be approved?

Mr. Linke. No, sir.

Mr. Johnson. You could not establish all of them even if the entire $14,000,000 were appropriated?

Mr. Linke. I don't think so.

Mr. Rich. Do you do any work now in connection with land grant colleges, so far as this Department that is established here in Washington is concerned?

Mr. Linke. The land-grant colleges train our teachers.

Mr. Rich. You brought out one good point there, and that is that the boys that will go to these schools which you establish are the ones that have not completed their academic education; that they are educated in agriculture and they go back to the farms, and they stay on the farms. The ones that are educated at the land-grant colleges are now primarily teachers and do not go back to the farms.

Mr. Linke. They become teachers, they go into county agent work and into many other special lines, such as farm management. Sometimes they go into experiment-station work and come do go back to the farm.

The teachers of agriculture stay on the job the year around. They visit farmers and farm boys while at their work and they help them to solve their farm problems on the job.

Mr. Lambertson. I don't like to disagree with you, but we have a lot of boys finishing agricultural college who are down on the farms in Kansas.

Mr. Linke. That is true. I know there are a good many. Many have also been absorbed in the various governmental emergency agencies.

Mr. Lambertson. But in the last 3 dry years they have taken hundreds of them off the farm and given them jobs.

Mr. Linke. That is true. The emergency agencies of the Government have taken many teachers away from us. In Texas they have

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