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Mr. Linke. No, not necessarily, Mr. Congressman.
I happen to own a farm, and I know just what the farmer is up against. The idea is that he can produce on less acreage more product per acre. Then he can put some acreage into pasture, forests, and so forth, and be conserving the soil.
Mr. Fitzpatrick. Your experts might show the farmer where he can produce more per acre. But the thing is that you cannot show him where he can find a market for it.
Mr. Rich. "Wouldn't you be able to help the farmer a lot if you would prohibit a lot of this importation of farm produce from other nations?
Mr. Linke. Yes, insofar as they are competing crops or farm produce.
NEED FOR ESTABLISHMENT OF ADDITIONAL DEPARTMENTS OF VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE
Now, here is something that Dr. Studebaker has already mentioned. We have about 10,000 rural high schools where it might be possible to establish departments of vocational agriculture and where it is really needed.
We have 6,151 rural high schools where departments have already been established under the appropriations given by the Congress. There are 10,000 additional schools which ought to have departments. Of this number 3,000 have already applied for new departments and actually want them. Ohio wrote in just a few days ago and said that the demand for new departments is overwhelming.
I would like to show you another chart on the potential need for extending vocational education in agriculture. This is the question about which you were asking. This chart shows the number of farm boys from 14 to 20 years of age, both in school and out of school in the United States according to the 1930 census.
There was a total of 1,178,000 farm boys in school of which number 203,199 were enrolled in vocational agriculture, which is about 17 percent.
Mr. Leavy. Is that the figure of 1930, or have you brought it down to date?
Mr. Linke. We used the 1930 census to indicate the total number of farm boys both in and out of schools, and the number who are taking vocational agriculture was secured from State reports in our files.
Mr. Leav Y. Two hundred three thousand one hundred and ninetynine were the boys taking agriculture?
Mr. Linke. Yes, farm boys.
Mr. Leavy. That is in 1936?
Mr. Linke. Yes; 1936.
Mr. Leavy. But this figure of 1,178,454 is the figure as of 1930?
Mr. Linke. Yes; the total number of farm boys in school according to the 1930 census.
Mr. Leavy. Then the figure would be substantially larger if you had the present number?
Mr. Linke. Yes; I think so, because there have been a great many farm boys who have been in the city and who have come back on the farms, you know.
Mr. Leavy. Then that percentage would be lower now?
Mr. Linke. It would very likely be lower now.
FARM BOYS NOT ATTENDING HIGH SCHOOL Here is a very interesting thing: The 1930 census shows that there are more farm boys of high-school age out of school than there are in school. There were 1,348,000 farm boys of high-school age out of school as against 1,178,000 in school.
Our program provides part-time classes in vocational agriculture for these boys that are on the farm and who are going to be farmers.
Mr. Rich. May I ask you a question right there: What ages are those boys who are out of school?
Mr. Linke. We call it the high-school age, usually 14 to 20 years.
Mr. FITZPATRICK. Have they graduated from the elementary schools?
Mr. L XKE. No, not all of them. Some of them are graduates. The great majority of them are boys who have never gone into high school.
Mr. FitZPATRICK. How about those States which are longest in relation to compulsory education and the years that the child goes to school? What is the age limit in those State?
Vr. LINKŁ. This varies from 14 to 18 among the different States.
Mr. FITZPATRICK. In those states that make it compulsory for boss to go to school, what is the age limit?
Mr. LIKE. The age limit varies. In some States it is 18 und in some lower than that.
Vir. FirZPATRICK. You have 1,319,547 boys out of school?
Vir. RICH. In other words, they are the boys that are out of schools that are over the limit required by the Statet!. utt.43 mu- rv'lida in cool. Theth 1919 t!:nt apard the are the bottlesta? Over tipo Sterlinem
Mr. BARNAP: . Vor recen-grily, but in riral areas the lumit ito so strictly enforceel. There is no one to male them to back.
Vir. Rin In Pennsluna if you were ont of Nihool 3 or 4 CAT, you would enn oflicer comisioun i to prt you.
Vir. LIVE. What is the use lunit there?
Mr LINKE But in some states they are not required to go to school after 14. Mr. BARCHART They don't enforce it in the rural areas. lir. LABHRIOX. Sme rural areas do. Mr. FirzPATRIOK. In New York, it is 16.
Mr. LAMBRION. Nobody is required to go to high school in any State, are ther?
Mr. LINKL. I think, in some of the States they are if they have not yet reached the compulsory age limit.
Mr. LAMBERTSON I know that some of them have compulsory elucation in finishing elementary school. That was in lieu of a certain number of vean, having tinished a certain number of years or finishes: elementary school, that was the end of it.
Mr. LINKE. Yes. I think it varies in the different States.
Mr. LAMBERTNOM I didn't think that there were any States requiring any body to go to high school.
Mr. FITZPATRICK. In our State they go to school until a certain age. Then, when they reach this age, they can receive a certain education as a continuation.
Mr. LINKE. Here is an interesting chart to show you what becomes of the boys taking vocational agriculture in the high schools in some communities of certain Southern States. They go into various callings. Some go to college. The chart shows the percentage of those boys who actually go back on the farm, which is 46.2 percent. The number in occupations related to farming, such as milk testers, horticultural inspectors, and many other related occupations, is about 8 percent. The number in agricultural colleges is 2.8 percent. These figures show that practically 60 percent of the farm boys who study vocational agriculture go into farming and related occupations.
Now, if college teaching in agriculture is a good thing, why not put it in local schools where more people can profit from it. That is what vocational agriculture is designed to do, since everyone cannot go to college.
I want to show you a map of the State of Louisiana.
The green dots on this map represent the local schools where vocational agriculture is already established, and the red dots are those schools that are demanding or applying for departments.
Mr. Johnson. Let me ask you: If this appropriation is not increased, then none of those applications can be approved? Mr. LINKE. No, sir.
Mr. Johnson. You could not establish all of them even if the entire $14,000,000 were appropriated?
Vr. LINKE. I don't think so.
Mr. Rich. Do you do any work now in connection with land grant colleges, so far as this Department that is established here in Washington is concerned?
Mr. LINKE. The land-grant colleges train our teachers.
Mr. Rich. You brought out one good point there, and that is that the boys that will go to these schools which you establish are the ones that have not completed their academic education; that they are educated in agriculture and they go back to the farms, and they stay on the farms. The ones that are educated at the land-grant colleges are now primarily teachers and do not go back to the farms.
Mr. LINKE. They become teachers, they go into county agent work and into many other special lines, such as farm management. Sometimes they go into experiment-station work and come do go back to the farm.
The teachers of agriculture stay on the job the year around. They visit farmers and farm boys while at their work and they help them to solve their farm problems on the job.
Mr. LAMBERTSON. I don't like to disagree with you, but we have a lot of boys finishing agricultural college who are down on the farms in Kansas.
Mr. LINKE. That is true. I know there are a good many. Many have also been absorbed in the various governmental emergency agencies.
Mr. LAMBERTSON. But in the last 3 dry years they have taken hundreds of them off the farm and given them jobs.
Mr. LINKE. That is true. The emergency agencies of the Government have taken many teachers away from us. In Texas they have
ment have to That is true. mind given them ars they have to
taken over a hundred of our teachers because they can pay them better salaries.
We don't have the money to compete with these agencies in keeping those men as teachers. They have taken as high as 40 or 50 out of Oklahoma. They have taken quite a number out of Kansas. It is a real problem. Many of them would come back if better salaries could be paid.
AVERAGE SALARY OF TEACHERS OF AGRICULTURE Mr. FITZPATRICK. What is the average salary that you pay those teachers?
Mr. Linke. The average salary for the entire l'nited States is $1,836.
Mr. FITZPATRICK. Do they get $1,800 in Kansas and $1,800 in Oklahoma?
Mr. LINKE. Salaries vary among the States. The lowest salaries are in the North Central States. They range from $1,800 up to $2,000), as an average among the several States.
Mr. FITZPATRICK. I was wondering if they were getting $1,800 or $2,000 in those States at present whether you could get them down in Texas unless you paid them more money.
Mr. LINKE. The best salaries, I think, are paid in California,
Mr. LAMBERTSON. A salary of $1,800 in our rural sections is a pretty high salary. It is equal to what tbe superintendent of schools gets.
Dr. STUDEBAKER. That figure is a national average. It varies all over the country.
HOME ECONOMICS Mr. Rich. May we have your Home Economics Division now?
Miss FALLGATTER. Mr. Chairman and members of the committee, I would like to call your attention to one point before I take the situation as a whole.
A good case has been made out in behalf of trained workers in industry and on the farm. But to what avail would such training be if they were not able wisely to spend the money that they earned for the upkeep of the home and to support themselves? After all, it is in this field of education that training is so badly needed.
This chart shows that in the country there are over 24 million homes. That means 28 million homemakers are needing some educational help. You will observe that that number is approrimately as much as is represented by both trades and industries and agriculture put together.
Last year in our prent program, out of 2 million homemaker, we were able to reach but 1.53,000.
In addition, in the last few years under the emergency educational program many class have been organized in home conomics. The State are anticipating that there will be a gery great demand on the part of women that the class be taken over by a permanent agency, and education is a permanent agency which is in a position to continue the good work that has been beun
The situation in relation to the high school or the day school program is shown in this chart. The circle represents a total of 21.394 high schools in the country. Out of that number we have so far
through vocational educational programs reached 4,285. That many schools have been encouraged through reimbursement to this form of vocational education.
One-third or 7,355 of this total number of 21,594 high schools have no home economics whatever. I think we must keep in mind that that means approximately one-third of the homes in this country have no benefit of any educational guidance in the educational aspects of home life.
of the other two-thirds, 10,348 or almost half of the total, have some offerings in home economics. Those offerings are of a varied character. They may be merely a course that is offered once a week, or the students may do a semester of work; and the work may be entirely in one area such as cooking or sewing. Such offerings are not what we interpret as a vocational program in homemaking, since in a vocational program, the many responsibilities of home and family life are studied.
Mr. Rich. Even if we were to put in the full program in the 10,348 schools which you have listed there as offering part courses, and also introduced home economics into the other 7,355 schools, what would that necessarily have to increase your appropriation?
Miss FALLGATTER. I haven't estimated that exactly. Estimating average salaries at $1,200 for home economics teachers, however, the addition of something over 17,000 schools would mean more than $10,000,000 if 50 percent of the salaries were reimbursed. This, of course, exceeds the total amount that can be appropriated by $6,000,000.
This red segment of the circle includes 2,643 schools. It represents the number of requests for departments now on file in our office. Some of these requests have come from the area having no home economics, and other requests have come from the area having an inadequate program.
Jir. FITZPATRICK. Can you give us any idea of the percentage of those in your graduating classes who actually use that knowledge later in the home?
Miss FallGATTER. I think that substantially 80 to 85 percent of these women marry.
Mr. FitzPATRICK. I hope they use it.
Miss FallGATTER. Many evidences are reported indicating that they are using the training they are getting.
There are two other charts to which I would like to call your attention.
INCREASE IN HOME ECONOMICS PROGRAM On this map, showing the country as a whole, this dotting in black indicates the spread of the home-economics program throughout the country in the years 1935 and 1936. The red dots indicate the new programs in the present year, 1936 to 1937. The picture would have been much different had all the requests been granted. There was a total of 1,612 requests for departments at the beginning of the present Fear, and only 218 or 18 percent of them could be granted by the States with the funds available.
Mr. FITZPATRICK. Many of the schools without getting any Federal funds for a school in home economics might have set up schools anyway?
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