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DUTIES OF UNITED STATES COMMISSIONER

Mr. SCRUGHAM. What has a United States Commissioner got to do with the park service?

Mr. DEMARAY. The United States Commissioner is appointed by the United States district judge for that district of California, and his salary is appropriated in these items. He is required to live in the park, and acts almost as a clerk employee.

Mr. SCRUGHAM. He performs, in effect, the functions of a justice of the peace?

Mr. DEMARAY. Yes; in all of these parks where exclusive jurisdietion is exercised by the United States.

MESA VERDE NATIONAL PARK, COLO.

Mr. SCRUGHAM. The next item is "Mesa Verde National Park, Colo."

Mr. DEMARAY. The justification in support of this item is as follows: Amount included in the Budget, fiscal year 1938_

$ 35, 510 Regular and deficiency appropriations, fiscal year 1937. $57, 250 Deficiency appropriations for 1937

10, 000

47, 250

Net increase, 1938 over 1937

8. 200 The sum of $10,000, indicated above as a deficiency appropriation, provided for emergency improvements to the water system in Mesa Verde National Park. The net increase of $8,290, plus the sum of $1,070 representing a decrease in the equipment account from $2,600 to $1,530, provides $9,360 additional for other accounts as follows:

Administration and protection; increase, $3,260.-Due to the steadily increasing number of visitors and the need for patrol and game protection along the northern boundary of the park, an increase of $1,670 is recommended to estan lish a permanent ranger position in lieu of the present temporary ranger checker position and for additional seasonal ranger-naturalist services. Thie sum of $190 is required to provide temporary clerical assistance during the summer season and for additional seasonal janitor services to care for the enlarged museum building.

An increase of $1,100 is recommended to provide for additional supplies and materials, rental of horses, travel expenses, communication service, printing. and photographing for the additional ranger service and the enlarged museum activities.

Jlaintenance, repair, and operations; increase, $6,100.—The sum of $300 is required to maintain 10 housekeeping cabins, an addition to the museum building, and several utility buildings constructed during 1936 with Emergency Conservation Work and Public Works funds. The increased sum of $2,.550 is required for the employment of an electrician and temporary labor, for supplies and materials, and light and power for the proper maintenance of the electric and telephone systems. An increase of $200 is recommended for the mainte nance of the new sewer system constructed with Public Works funds.

The sum of $1,500 is necessary to cover the cost of repairs and of electricity for pumping operations at the deep-water well, the spring, seep, and cistern system in the head of Spruce Tree Canyon and from the four catchment reservoirs to the main 6-inch service line. An increase of $300 is recommended for repairs to trucks, necessitated by the heavy demands by Emergency Conservation Works Public Works, and regular operations, and for the additional sanitation work necessary to accommodate the increased number of visitors.

The sum of $50 is recommended to provide for the preservation of the pre historic ruins, the main attraction to visitors. The quarters operation of 10 new housekeeping cabins and 2 Indian hogans will require an additional sum of $. With the increased travel and year-round operation of the park, an increase of $950 is recommended to provide for the full-time employment of the nurse, and for additional hospital supplies.

Mr. SCRUGHAM. You are requesting an increase of $8,290 in this item. Will you explain that?

Mr. DEMARAY. In Mesa Verde National Park we are requesting an increase of $8,290. Of that amount, $3,260 is for administration and protection. We are asking to establish a permanent ranger position in lieu of the temporary ranger-checker position, and for additional seasonal ranger-naturalist services. We are asking $490 for temporary clerical assistance during the summer and additional janitor services. We are asking for $1,100 to provide for additional supplies and materials, rental of horses, travel expenses, communications service, printing, and photographing for the additional ranger service and the enlarged museum activities.

WATER SUPPLY IN MESA VERDE NATIONAL PARK

Mr. ScrUGHAM. As I recall it, you had great difficulty in obtaining a satisfactory water supply in this park a few years ago. Has that difficulty been solved? If so, how, and at what expense?

Mr. DEMARAY. As you will no doubt recall, there was no source of live water on the Mesa Verde, except water which was gathered in a small reservoir and then percolated through a layer of about 900 feet of sandstone, coming out in small springs. That was not adequate. After a study made by the Geological Survey, we drilled a very deep water well. I forget the exact amount of the appropriation for that water well, but it has been drilled, and it is about 4.200 feet in depth. It goes completely through the formation and taps the water-bearing sands which extended out on the plateau below, where they had secured water at Ship Rock for the Indian reservation.

Mr. SCRUGHAM. Has that been satisfactory?

Mr. DEMARAY. The water supply has been satisfactory, but in drilling the well at such a depth, the pipe went on a slant, and in the pumping of the water we have had a great deal of difficulty with the wearing on the sucker rods in this pump. Last year you gave us an additional $10,000. This $10,000 was included in the first deficiency appropriation, and it read, “for the improvement of the water system.” We contemplated the installation of an air lift to bring the water up without the use of sucker rods.

Mr. SCRUGHAM. Why did you not use an air lift to start with?

Mr. DEMARAY. Because of the length of the lift. We have nearly 1,000 feet to lift the water from the level in the well to the surface, and the best engineering advice that we can get at the present time is that an air lift will not be satisfactory.

Mr. SCRUGHAM. On account of the great length of the lift?

Mr. DEMARAY. Yes, sir; because of the length of the lift. Now, we have also had some unfortunate circumstances. Mr. Nusbaum has had a nervous breakdown. He has had to be away from the park, and, therefore, our program of expenditure and study has not resulted in working this problem out, and I would like to ask this committee to add this language if they will do so— that the unexpended balance of the appropriation of $10,000, contained in the first deficiency appropriation act, fiscal year 1937, for improvement of the water system, is continued available for the same purposes for the fiscal year 1938.

Mr. SCRUGHAM. Will you submit to the clerk the language you desire included!

Mr. DEMARAY. Yes, sir.

MOUNT M'KINLEY NATIONAL PARK, ALASKA

nance.

Mr. SCRUGHAM. We will next take up the item on Mount McKinley National Park, Alaska.

Mr. DEMARAY. I submit the following justification: Amount included in the Budget, fiscal year 1938.

$29,000 Appropriation, fiscal year 1937--

25,000 Net increase, 1938 over 1937The language change is recommended to authorize the purchase, maintenance, and operation of an automobile for the official use of the superintendent and employees in connection with general park work.

The net increase of $4,000 is recommended to provide as follows:

Administration and protection; increase, $750.--The additional sum of $750 is recommended for the purchase of feed for 40 dogs and 5 horses. The cost of dog feed has increased greatly and transportation expenses both for freight and personal travel is unusually high in Alaska.

Maintenance, repair, and operation; increase, $1,200.—The rigorous climate of the Arctic regions requires that buildings be kept in first-class condition. consequently the additional sum of $500 is recommended for buildings mainte

An increase of $300 is recommended for necessary repairs to the tele phone, sewage, and water systems. Telephone communication in the park is of major importance and storm damage to the system must be repaired. New garbage and sewage disposal burial pits must be provided and repairs must be made to the reservoir at the spring which supplies water to the park headquarters area. The sum of $200 will be required for the maintenance and operation of the passenger car proposed for purchase in the fiscal year 1938. Au increase of $100 is recommended to provide for the construction of slush beds for the sanitary system, relocation of dry earth toilets, and for pumping out cesspools and septic tanks. The sum of $100 is required to provide sufficient fuel for heating employees' quarters.

Equipment; increase, $50.—The sum of $1,550 is recommended for the purchase of equipment, an increase of $50 over the amount appropriated for 1937. The sum of $750 will be used for the purchase of a passenger car and $800 for the replacement of the present Kohler electric plant, which is 7 years old and inadequate for present requirements.

Radio sistem; inercase, $2,000.--Some means of communication between rangers stationed in outlying districts-often 25 to 30 miles from a telephone line is of vital importance, especially during the long, rigororis winters. The cost of telephone extensions would be prohibitive in these areas. In extreme cold weather cases of frozen hands and feet are quite common and, when such instances occur, medical treatment should be given as soon as possible. In one specific instance a man just north of the park froze his feet. Due to storms weather, it took 1 month before a man could reach a telephone to dispatch a message for aid. As a result of the delay, it was necessary to have his toes amputated. It is proposed to establish a radio system for use of the rangers stationed in the outlying districts. It is estimated that the cost and installation of a suitable system which can be expanded when necessary will amonnt to $2.000.

Mr. SCRUGIAU. There is an increase there of $4,000. Will you explain that, Mr. Demara v?

Mr. DEMARAY. Half of that, or $2,000, is for a radio system. In the wintertime our men up there have to patrol the boundaries of the park because of the value of wildlife skins. Without protection trappers and hunters would come into the park and make tremendous inroads on the game.

These are out there all by themselves. In one specific instance a man froze his feet just north of the park; and due to stormy

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weather, it took 1 month before the man could reach a telephone to dispatch a message for aid.

It is, in our judgment, inhuman to require rangers to perform patrol duties without furnishing them adequate means of communication. We can for this sum provide them with radios to give them that protection.

Mr. Rich. About this radio: You spoke about one man freezing his feet. Doesn't it often happen that men who are out hunting game do the same thing? How many more men outside of this one instance have been in danger of their lives just because you do not have this communication?

Mr. DEM ARAY. I think every time that a ranger goes out on patrol he is in danger of his life without adequate protection. He may not lose his life and he may not become maimed, but there is this potential danger that he has to face.

Mr. Rich. How far does he have to go away from any habitation hy himself?

Mr. DEM ARAY. There are no habitations there at all. It is the most isolated country that you can think of.

Mr. Rich. What I am trying to find out is how far he has to venture away from the nearest fire.

Mr. DEM ARAY. We have patrol stations 25 to 30 miles apart. In the wintertime the men use dog sleds and dog teams for their travel. He may be caught 15 miles, for instance, away from a station in a bad storm. His dogs would probably get him back to the patrol station. Then he could call up and ask that aid be sent to him.

Mr. SCRUGHAM. Are there any further questions on that item? If not, we will turn to the next one.

MT. RAINIER NATIONAL PARK, WASH.

Mr. SCRUGHAM. This next item is for Mt. Rainier National Park, Wash.

Mr. DEMARAY. The justification for that is as follows:

The language change is proposed to provide not exceeding $6,000 for the construction of a utility building to house operating crews and equipment engaged in snow-removal operations to make Paradise Valley accessible for winter sports.

The net increase of $19,680 is recommended to provide as follows:

Administration and protection; increase, $1,570.-A temporary ranger-naturalist for 342 months is needed in the Paradise Valley district to provide adequate service to the public visiting the area. An increase of $520 is recommended for the reestablishment of this position, which was abolished in 1934 due to lack of funds. The reestablishment of three temporary ranger positions will require an additional sum of $1,000. An increase of $50 is proposed for furnishing additional fuel for the Longmire Museum, which is now open the year round.

Maintenance, repair, and operation; increase, $6,500.-An increase of $2,000 is urgently recommended to provide for snow removal on the road from Narada Falls to Paradise Valley to make the valley accessible for winter sports. The sum of $6 000 is included elsewhere in this estimate for the construction of a utility building at Narada Falls, and an amount of $20,000 has been allocated from Public Works funds for the purchase of snow-removal equipment. There has been a tremendous increase in popularity of skiing and other winter sports in the last 2 years, and the ski terrain in Paradise Valley is considered to be the finest in the United States and equal to the famous ski courses of Europe. Open highway accommodations are available to other areas in the Northwest, including Mount Shasta, Mount Hood. Mount Baker, Snoqualmie Pass, and Mount Spokane, but not to Mount Rainier. There it is necessary to hike over steep snow trails on joountainous slopes from Narada Falls to Paradise Valley, a strenuous trip for even the young and hardy. Present funds will not permit

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the additional expenditure necessary to keep this portion of the road open during the winter. It is anticipated that the opening of the road to Paradise Valley, making that area available for winter sports, will increase travel to such an extent that the additional fees to be collected will soon cover the cost of snow removal. This opinion is based on the interest in winter-sports activities shown by the populace of the Northwest.

Six miles of power line from Longmire to Nisqually Entrance were constructed recently with Public Works funds. An additional sum of $1,000 will be required for winter maintenance of the new line and for repair work necessary to keep the Diesel electric-power plant at Yakima in first-class condition. The plant represents an investment of approximately $200,000. An increase of $1,500 is essential for the expansion of communication facilities to meet the demands for adequate service from the various Government activities, the park operator, and the increasing number of visitors. Additional circuits are needed between Longmire, Paradise Valley, and Yakima Park, and a temporary lineman is needed in the White River district, located 135 miles from headquarters. To improve service it is necessary also to reestablish switchboard service at Paradise Valley, so that local business there will not tie up the main trunk circuits to Longmire. The additional sum of $1,000 is included for necessary repairs to trucks, and $1,000 will be needed to cover the cost of sanitation work at the new Yakima Park. Funds for repairs to trucks have not been sufficient in the past few years, and it has been necessary to curtail repair work to a minimum and transfer funds from other accounts, requiring the curtailment of necessary work in other accounts. The Yakima Park development will require the services of temporary camp caretakers and incinerator operator.

Equipment; increase, $5.610.This increase, plus 33,990 in the account, will provide $9,600 for equipment. An amount of $1,200 is proposed for the purchase of two 14-ton pick-up trucks to replace two wornout 1929 vehicles, and the sum of $8.000 will provide for one four-wheel drive 5-ton truck with a rotary shopplow attachment for snow-removal operations. An amount of $40) will be needed for the purchase of new and the replacement of broken and worn-out miscellaneous tools and equipment.

Utility building. Narada Falls; increase, $6,000.— It will be necessary to provide a utility building at Narada Falls for housing equipment and the operating crew engaged in snow-removal work. The cost of the structure is estimated as follows: Cleaning, grubbing, and burningSubstructure_

1,500 Superstructure

2, Fixed equipment-Water-service installation-Sewer-service installation.

SCO Electric-service installation.

100 Engineering

500

$100

6,000

Total Mr. SCRUGHAM. What is the reason for this increase of $19,680?

Mr. DEMARAY. $6,500 of this is for maintenance and operation. An increase of $2,000 is asked for snow removal on the road from Varada Falls to Paradise Valley to make the valley accessible for winter sports.

The sum of $6,000 is included elsewhere in this estimate for the construction of a utility building at Narada Falls. An amount of $20,000 has been allocated from Public Works funds for the purchase of Snow-removal equipment.

There has been a tremendous increase in popularity of skiing and other winter sports in the last 2 years, and the ski terrain in Paradise Valley is considered to be the finest in the United States and equal to the famous ski courses of Europe,

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