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this $100,000 frame building that I have in mind would cost three * four hundred thousand dollars, and the cost would be so great that I think it would be better to use slow burning materials—there is» technical name for them which I cannot remember—materials thai will burn, but which are really difficult to burn.

Mr. Fitzpatrick. Has this been recommended by the Bureau d the Budget?

Mr. Dimond. No, sir; so far as I know, it has not yet been recommended by the Bureau of the Budget. We tried to get the money from the Public Works Administration, and after considerable argt ment we found out that there was no money available.

Mr. Fitzpatrick. Has a request been made to the Bureau of tit Budget?

Mr. Dimond. A request was made to the Bureau of the Budget. and I have asked leave to appear before the Bureau of the Budget. Of course, what the Budget will do about it I have no way of knownr I asked one of the assistants at the Bureau if I could appear at tb same time that the Government officials appeared, since I was quit* familiar with the situation, and he said that that was contrary :■ the rules, but that they would be glad to hear me separately, aftf-r the Government officials had appeared.

But whether the Budget approves it or not, this is a thing of su< t outstanding merit that 1 urge it upon the attention and consideration of the committee.

Mr. Leavy. When did the other building burn down, Mr. Dimond'

Mr. Dimond. During the past winter. I think it was in January or February. It was burned only a short time ago, and we immediately set to work, a gentleman from the Indian Office and myself, anu tried to get emergency funds with which to commence construction right away, or to assemble the materials right away, so that they could be sent to Barrow this summer and the construction work coulii be undertaken.

Mr. Lambertson. How do they get around there with the material?

Mr. Dimond. They ship it on boats which go through Bering Strait and into the Arctic, and they probably will not be able to gel into the Arctic until the 20th of July. It may even be August before they can land this material at Barrow and then, of course, it will be a rush to have the building enclosed so that the interior work can hedone during the winter.

Mr. Lambertson. The only direct route is by airplane?

Mr. Dimond. Oh, yes; they fly planes across.

Mr. Lambertson. But that is all?

Mr. Dimond. Yes. It is Arctic tundra, of course. It is like a prairie, except that it is rather softer.

Mr. Lambertson. The hospital, as I recall, was built on a chunk of ice.

Mr. Dimond. Yes, it was built on frozen ground, and there were some layers of ice in the tundra, and they made the mistake in the original hospital of putting their heating plant in the basement without insulating it, and as a consequence the heating plant just about thawed its way down toward the center of the. earth. So it was necessary to come back and prop that up, the building was out of plumb. and they had a terrible time with it. But it was a serviceable building and it did the job for the Eskimos in that region.

It has been only recently that any attempt has been made to furnish e Eskimos any education at all, and medical relief was furnished for long time to the natives of this region only through this Board of issions of the Presbyterian Church; and now, as I have said, the 3ard of Missions finds its resources strained and it is not able to carry i the work.

Mr. O'neal. What was the size of the building, Mr. Dimond? Mr. Dimqnd. I do not remember. It was probably 40 feet by 60, ■ thereabouts.

Mr. Fitzpatrick. How many patients do they plan to care for?

Mr. Dimond. I think they plan to take care of about 50 patients, id that will substantially—after a fashion—take care of the situar>n along the Arctic coast. It will not take care of all that really ?ed hospitalization, but, after all, we realize that Congress is not )ing to appropriate at this time the large amount of money that would B necessary to take care of all of these people.

Mr. Leavy. What do the white people do there? You say there re about a hundred of them.

Mr. Dimond. Of course, in emergencies they are taken care of at the ospital; but they are usually able to pay for the services rendered them.

Mr. Leavy. What is the occasion of their being there?

Mr. Dimond. They are mostly traders; and sometimes ships are ■ozen in there. Traders go up into the Arctic, to sell various kinds of lerchandise to the Eskimos, and occasionally they are frozen in. And ame people just like to stay in the Arctic. Some men go there and tay for several years at a stretch; some of them just over the winter.

Mr. Scrugham. Are they entirely free from many of the diseases hat occur in the more temperate climates?

Mr. Dimond. Most of the diseases. They have tuberculosis, unortunately, and it is extending farther and farther into the Arctic. Some of the families now in that region have tuberculosis, and that is i most distressing thing, because if one member of a family gets it, m account of their living in such contracted and insanitary quarters, t is not very long until every member of the family has it.

Mr. Fitzpatrick. They do not have the proper ventilation? Mr. Dimond. Yes; they have ventilation in all those houses. They lave a little hole in the roof somewhere.

Mr. Fitzpatrick. But not sufficient to protect them from the lisease?

Mr. Dimond. No; it is not sufficient to protect them from the disease, but it is marvelous how little fresh air a man needs in cold weather in the Arctic. Even though these houses of the Indians in the Arctic region appear to have very little means of ventilation, really, on account of the cold weather, they do get quite a lot of air, and I have slept in them and never felt uncomfortable.

Mr. Fitzpatrick. It may be true that you would not feel uncomfortable so far as the cold air is concerned, but nevertheless, ip. a temperature of 20 to 30 below zero, if there were no ventilation there, 3Tou could contract the disease. Mr. Dimond. Certainly.

Mr. Leavy. Tuberculosis is contracted largely, I assume, from not liaving proper advice in the matter of sanitation, and the sputum is spewed forth on the floor, and they contract the disease in that manner? Mr. Dimond. Yes.

l.TOTOt—37—pt. 2 20

There are about 1,500 native children now in Alaska who have w facilities or means of education whatever, and this bill carries an has. on page 251

For day schools and quarters, including remodeling of existing buMrt$119,000; hospitals and quarters, $186,000.

Mr. Scrugham. What you are asking is covered in that S1S6,000'

Mr. Dimond. Yes. All you have to do is to add $110,000 or S100,«C to it, and you have your hospital at Barrow. I suppose that is when it would come in.

This $186,000 is put in there for the purpose principally of haviar a hospital at Bethel. I want to read, if you will let me, two very brie? excerpts. One is from the report of the grand jury at Xome, Alasb And may I interpolate here and call attention to the fact that neitht: one of these cases is going to be taken care of by anything which E now in the appropriation bill or which I am asking to go in the bill fa Point Barrow.

Here is what the grand jury at Nome says:

We find the condition as to handling tubercular cases among the nati.e? absolutely deplorable. No provision is made for the hospitalization of such cv-at Nome, but same are sent to the Government hospital at Kotzebue. The hospital at Kotzebue is filled most of the time; many patients badly needing h* pitalization are unable to get the necessary care and become active spreaders of ux infection.

So much for that; and that is a condition that cannot be taken «it of by anything contemplated in this bill, though I would like to at it done.

This other letter is from Dillingham. It is written by Thomas F Gardiner, who is the Secretary of Dillingham Igloo No. 28, Pioneers >: Alaska. The Pioneers of Alaska is an organization consisting of people who have been in Alaska more than 30 years; otherwise they aft not eligible to join. Mr. Gardiner writes under date of March 13 1937, as follows—and this is a place for which we do not have anything in the bill:

The building being used now as a hospital has one poorly ventilated toilet for the patients. Men, women, and children have to use that one toilet. The building can accommodate 13 beds; yet as many as 25 patients have been housed f one time. There is no chance whatever to isolate any patient. Irrespective of the ailment, they are all thrown together. As an illustration, the so-called women's ward can accommodate four beds, yet there were five beds; two of those beds were occupied by advanced cases of T. B.; the next bed had a recent operative case, and the next two had recent mothers. And as another illustration of eooditions as they exist right now, just recently, in fact 2 days ago, in the men's ward, there were three cases of erysipelas with the other cases and one of the other cases being a pregnant woman, she had to give birth to her baby in the men's ward.

Now, the people in that region, of course, are largely natives. There are more white people in proportion than there are at Barro^. but still they are a small minority, and this little hospital that they have there is absolutely inadequate to give anything that could be called decent care to the people whom we are attempting to serve. And yet there is nothing in this bill for it, though there should be. Both at Nome and Dillingham, as well as at many other placer, hospital are needed, and badly needed.

We ought to have about a million dollars to build the necessary hospitals in Alaska to take care of the natives.

Mr. Leavy. Is the state of health of the natives worse than it is "before the white man came?

Mr. Dimond. Oh, unquestionably. That is, it is not definitely >rse except for tuberculosis, and in some regions syphilis is prevalent. Mr. Lieavy. Venereal disease?

Mr. Dimond. Venereal disease is prevalent in some places. That not such a serious problem, though, as tuberculosis. Tuberculosis the thing that threatens now to decimate, if not wipe out, the itives, unless it is controlled, and it could be controlled without any •ohibitive expense by taking the tubercular patients, who usually Low signs of the disease, and putting them in a hospital or isolating iem in some other fashion and giving them treatment, right in Laska.

Of course, it would not do to take them anywhere else; and they 3 respond to the treatment. I have known cases of tubercular atives who either had sufficient funds of their own or managed to ;t some money out of the Indian Service, and who were placed in ospitals, and 1 know several who apparently got all right. Then, f course, they did not infect the remaining members of the family s they would have, had they stayed in their own environment.

Mr. Chairman and gentlemen of the committee, from what I have aid you will realize my concern that the amounts set up in the bill hould in no event be reduced. There is $119,000 for schools. Even ,-hen that money is spent, there will be at least a thousand children fho will have no facilities for education at all. They cannot even lave a fair opportunity to learn the English language; and if this >186,000 is appropriated for hospitals, we will have a hospital at 3ethel, where hospitalization is needed. And this matter at Point 3arrow presents a situation which is entitled to special consideration, because the building that the Government had has been destroyed Dy fire, and on the ground of humanity it ought to be replaced to take :are of the grown people as well as the children in the arctic regions.

The neglect of the natives of Alaska, particularly as to the treatment of tuberculosis is shameful. The ravages of the disease are terrible, and nothing adequate is being done for the control of this awful affliction. Hospitals for the medical relief of the natives and particularly for the treatment of tuberculosis should be erected not only at Nome and Dillingham, and at Bethel which is provided for in this bill, but also at Ketchikan, at White Mountain, at Kodiak, in the KlawockCraig region, at Unalakleet, at Seldovia, at Seward, at Kotzebue, at Eklutna, and at Nenana. Dr. W. W. Council, the Territorial health officer, reports that 75 out of 107 pupils in the native school at Sitka show some sign of tuberculosis. Dr. Council says that it will be necessary to provide about 1,700 beds altogether in several hospitals at an expense of about $1,200,000 for buildings and equipment. Accordingly, the hospital at Bethel, while most desirable, will make only a modest start on the Indian hospital program for Alaska.

I thank you, Mr. Chairman and gentlemen of the committee, for this further evidence of your courtesy.

Tuesday, April 13, 1937.

Bureau Of Mines



Mr. Dickinson. My name is A. W. Dickinson; mining enginm. representing the American Mining Congress.

The members of the American Mining Congress are deeply interested in the work of the Bureau of Mines and we appear today to speak particularly of the appropriations for the printing of the many unpublished manuscripts of value to the mining industries.


The work of the Bureau of Mines is carried on in studies relating to the health and safety of workmen in the mineral industries, economics of production and distribution of metals and minerals, and scientific and technologic investigations of mining, milling, metallurgical, and fabricating processes. For this work an appropriation of something over $2,000,000 a year is made for the Bureau. TLe results of the Bureau's work, invaluable to the industry, are made available to the public through the medium of printed reports distributed to technical libraries and sold by the Superintendent of Documents.


In order that the industry may use the information developed by the Bureau promptly and to the best advantage it is very essential that the reports be published as soon as the manuscripts are prepared. Such action will give the greatest value for the money expended each year. We find, however, in inquiring for reports requested by our members that many of these reports must be withheld or made available in a limited and unsatisfactory way by publication in abstract or abbreviated form in the technical press, because funds available to the Bureau for printing are not sufficient to meet requirements.


We wish to particularly draw your attention to a work in which the Bureau is making a notable success in advancing not only the conirnercial well being of our Western States but in protecting the Nation in its supply of necessary materials in the event of an emergency. We refer to the electrolytic treatment of low-grade manganese ores whirl! is being constantly improved through the use of the low-cost power of the Boulder Dam. Such manganese ores exist in Nevada, Arizona. South Dakota, and other Western States, and a power line is now under construction from Boulder Dam to Pioche, New, to make possible a manganese recovery plant in that area. This work ties in directiy with the work of the Bureau of Mines on the metallurgy of the ferroalloys which is directly connected with the work of the Bureau on manganese and chromite ores. There is reason to hope that through

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