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Obviously what the great majority of the unemployed youths of the Nation need is a chance to work at some job, a chance to develop skills and techniques.

The desirability of continuing this program and correlating it with existing and contemplated services to workers in the general program of economic security, we believe to be most urgent. Respectfully,


Dean, Louisiana Delegation. J. O. FERNANDEZ, M. C.,

First District, Louisian. Paul H. MALONEY, M. C.,

Second District, Louisiana. Rob't L. MOUTON, M. C.,

Third District, Louisiana. OVERTON BROOKS, M. C.,

Fourth District, Louisiana. NEWT V. Mills, M. C.,

Fifth District, Louisiana, JNO. K. GRIFFITH, M. C.,

Sixth District, Louisiana. A. LEONARD ALLEN, M. C.,

Eighth District, Louisiana.

Mr. FULLER. I present next Mr. Mills, of Louisiana. STATEMENT OF HON. NEWT V. MILLS, A REPRESENTATIVE IN

CONGRESS FROM THE STATE OF LOUISIANA Mr. Mills. Mr. Chairman and gentlemen of the committee, I taught school for 12 years in a rural section of Louisiana, and I am well acquainted with the many advantages derived from vocational education, and I believe the total of $14,200,000 should be appropriated that the full educational advantages may be given. Agriculture in the public high schools of Louisiana is reaching large numbers of those among the rural population that is in need of this aid.

At the present Louisiana has 186 vocational agricultural schools, of which 126 are white and 60 are colored. During the session of 1936–37, 34 new departments were established, and it is now proposed that 149 additional vocational schools in the State will be established. Those schools will be established provided the full allocation of funds now asked for is appropriated.

The farm boys in school, the boys out of school, and adult farmers are receiving through the 200 vocational agricultural teachers in Louisiana scientific principles and practice of agriculture based on the individual needs of the various communities. Agricultural practices are improved by teaching efficient farm organization; the adjustment of crops and livestock according to the agricultural outlook; low-cost production practices; efficiency with labor; control of waste; standardization of products and proper preparation for the market; orderly marketing; sound financing; conservation of natural resources; long, time planning; and improved practices are carried out on the form of the student who is taught to farm in a businesslike manner. In addition, the Future Farmers of America organization teaches confidence. citizenship, leadership, thrift, cooperation, and other practices tant develop high standing in rural living.

It is our desire to give to the farm boys and farmers, notes Louisiana but the entire country, opportunity to learn how


ficient in farming, developing natural resources, raising the standard of living, and with funds that are now appropriated only one-third of the rural population of Louisiana are receiving the benefits of this type of teaching.

I beseech this honorable committee to allocate the total funds that are now being asked.

Mr. FULLER. I now take pleasure in presenting to the committee Mr. Murdock, of Arizona. STATEMENT OF HON. JOHN R. MURDOCK, A REPRESENTATIVE


Mr. MURDOCK. Mr. Chairman and gentlemen of the committe, let me at the outset express appreciation also for this opportunity to appear before the committee.

I have listened with interest to the testimony of the gentlemen on my right and on the left, and in elongating my “amen”, let me say that I agree with both of them that we should educate and train the oncoming generation rather than pauperize our people. I am reluctant to compare appropriations. I would not take one cent from needed relief, but I certainly believe in putting first things first. Proper and effective training of youth comes first.

Your committee is faced with this difficulty that we are asking you to go beyond the Budget recommendation. I dislike to ask the committee to exceed the Budget but, in this case, I feel that it is not only justifiable but imperative. The superintendent of the public instruction in my State informs me that the Budget quota, divided into five parts as it must be under the George-Deen Act, will be so small as greatly to handicap this educational work in Arizona.

Federal funds have heretofore been divided into three parts, and our school plans in Arizona have been organized on that basis. The former lines of education could not possibly carry on with the decreased allotment. Furthermore, many school districts in Arizona have counted on the appropriation authorized by the George-Deen Act in making out their school budgets and will be left in a precarious situation if there is a failure to make sufficient appropriation. In a sense, Mr. Chairman, it is a matter of “keeping faith” that the Budget quota should be exceeded and a sufficiently enlarged appropriation be made.

Numerically, Arizona doesn't count for so much in the House, but, for purposes of the record, I want to follow the practice of the other gentlemen here this morning, and specify that the entire House congressional delegation from Arizona to the extent of 100 percent is urging this appropriation.

As a college man, it might be expected that I would lean toward the classical in higher education. I am of that school maintaining that "utilitarian" education is the most 'cultural" kind of education. I speak from personal observation when I say that, in our far Southwestern community which I represent, a great value has accrued to society through this type of vocational training.

We have agriculture in Arizona, but it is of a highly technical kind, even more so than in the old farming communities. Successfu agriculture, or horticulture, with us requires a high degree of intelligence and scientific training. If time permitted, I should like to point out to the committee the unique and splendid work done in Arizona through the formal training and in the practical 4-H Club work equipping young boys and girls and developing agricultural leadership among young college people. These results justify any funds which Congress has granted or may later see fit to grant.

From personal knowledge and observation, I know that hundreds of young men and women are going out of the vocational departments of our schools in Arizona well equipped for the battle of life in this technical stage of our society. For instance, young men who are trained as school teachers have more than a bookish learning, I could name dozens of them who have such a practical knowledge and skill that men in middle life and in the industries might covet. One such young man recently went to teach in the high school in the reopened mining camp of Ajo, Ariz., and before being there 4 weeks, was frequently consulted by the engineers operating in that great mining plant.

Educational leaders have often declared that the training received by the modern young woman as a schoolteacher is a valuable acquisition which would enrich her life even though she might not become : classroom teacher. I could name dozens, and probably a hundred such young women majoring in domestic science, including a niece of mine who graduates this June, all of whom will be better as wives and mothers because of the special vocational training they have received along with the classical education.

Without contrasting this appropriation with that of any otherbut I do want to see the CCC camps continued and a more definite educational program provided for them-I urge an adequate appropriation for this educational program, and feel, as my colleagues do, that such is not only the wish of the common people of the Nation but the act is in the direction of wise public policy.

Mr. FULLER. Mr. Barden, of North Carolina, will now present a statement to the committee.



Mr. BARDEN. Mr. Chairman and Gentlemen of the Committee, during the time the Deen-George bill for vocational training was before the House Agricultural Committee, I became very much interested in this program and supported the bill for the full amount of the appropriation shown. I felt that the very fine program outlined by the people carrying on this work justified the expenditure of approximately $14,000,000. This to my mind is a step in the right direction and one that will do a great deal toward cutting down the number of unemployed.

With particular reference to my section, which is eastern North Carolina, I will say to you that this work is of vital interest to them and is being carried on in a very successful manner. The people are interested; the agricultural people are especially interested; and it has been my pleasure to visit some of the schools and inspect the work being done by the teachers employed in this work and by the pupils

s receiving instruction. It is one of the most encouraging sights that i I have seen in quite a while.

The work in North Carolina is handicapped on account of lack of funds, but, even with the handicap they have and are still experiencing, they are doing a wonderful job and one that the general public appreciates and is showing considerable interest in. Should the committee be inclined to reduce the amount mentioned in the bill, I certainly hope under no circumstances will they reduce the amount below the $10,000,000 mark; as to do so would be stifling a program of national importance.

Mr. FULLER. The next statement will be by Hon. Paul Brown, of Georgia.


CONGRESS FROM THE STATE OF GEORGIA Mr. BROWN. Mr. Chairman and gentlemen of the committee, I see only two propositions confronting us here: One is “Do the American people want this $14,000,000 for vocational education?" and the next question is “Will Congress be justified in allotting this amount for this type of training?

As for the first, I think at least 95 percent of all people of our country want the $14,000,000, and in answer to the second question, I think the Government certainly would be justified in the grant of this amount in view of the fact that we spend large amounts for many other things, none of which is as important to the school children as this.

One of the outstanding achievements of this administration has been the training given the young men in C. C. C. camps. I have nothing but praise for this type of training in the C. C. C. camps, but I do not think it can be compared to the training the youth get in the vocational schools.

I think this committee will be entirely justified in recommending to the full committee the appropriation of $14,000,000. We have made out a good case, representatives of more than 30 States appearing before this committee asking that this full amount be recommended. A favorable report from you would place us in better position in the House to sustain this amount, and should the Members of Congress desire to whittle this amount down they will have an opportunity to do so. I think $14,000,000 is small enough for this type of splendid training of the young people of our country.

I wish to state that Congressmen Owen, Peterson, and Pace, of Georgia, were all here at the beginning of the hearing but had to leave on account of hearings before their own committees. They, together with the entire delegation, are in favor of the appropriation of $14,000,000 for the vocational schools. STATEMENT OF HON. JOHN M. COFFEE, A REPRESENTATIVE IN

CONGRESS FROM THE STATE OF WASHINGTON Mr. COFFEE. Mr. Chairman, I thank you for your courtesy in allowing me to appear before the committee at this time.

I desire to commend Representatives Fuller and Deen for having arranged for this hearing to urge the adoption of what I believe to be one of the most salutary measures designed to improve the condition of needy youths of America.

I am here to speak in behalf of the entire delegation of the State of Washington. All six Members of the Washington delegation in the Lower House are unanimous in their request that you take favor. able action on the appropriation of the larger amount.

One member of the Committee on Appropriations is from the State of Washington, and I do not want to embarrass him by committing him officially. I have a great many expressions here in letters from officials of the State of Washington, but the time is short and I will simply refer briefly to some of them by telling you who they are.

There is the president of the Washington Industrial Educational Association, who requests that the full $14,000,000 authorized by the act which was refused by the budget be appropriated.

Hon. J. W. Kelly, State supervisor of trade and industrial education, urgently requests that the full appropriation be recommended by this committee.

Mr. Elmer Breckner, superintendent of schools of the city of Tacoma, Wash., and a member of the State board of vocational education, and also a member of the board of trustees of the National Education Association, also favors the full amount.

Charles 0. Rayl, director of vocational education in Wenatchee; C. J. Powell, superintendent of schools of Aberdeen, Wasb.; and Carl Stahlberg, the regional chairman of the Southwestern Washington Industrial Education Association at Longview, have requested that you favor the full amount of the appropriation.

The Washington Educational Association, Arthur L. Marsh, executive secretary, consisting of public-school teachers of the State of Washington, unanimously have requested the Washington delegation to appear before this committee and ask for the full appropriation. Stanley Atwood, superintendent of public instruction of the State of Washington, and the Washington Industrial Educational Association have unanimously requested that the full appropriation be granted.

I could go on and give you the names of a number of others, but I think what I have already given you will be an indication of the universal expression of feeling on the part of educators and those interested in the problem in our State. I can only echo the sentiment so ably expressed by my colleague, Mr. Ford of Mississippi, and add that the same conditions apply to my State as apply to Mississippi. I feel that the full appropriation should be made, realizing, too, the necessity for watching our expenses. But it seems to me this is one expenditure which would be justified on the ground of the great good the money has been doing in the past and can do in the future. STATEMENT OF HON. NAN W. HONEYMAN, A REPRESENTATIVE

IN CONGRESS FROM THE STATE OF OREGON Mrs. HONEYMAN. Mr. Chairman, I thank you very much for the courtesy of allowing me to speak at this time.

I think we are agreed that our entire educational program is of great importance, but this vocational school department of the educational program seems to me to be a very vital part of the entire system.

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