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Director and assistant director of education, $825.—For the fiscal year 1937 the amount allotted for traveling expenses of the director and assistant director of education was $2,500. The duties of the director require him to travel throughout the Territory at least 6 months of the year. Most of this travel must be by airplane and is expensive. The new director, since arriving in Alaska in March 1936, has visited most of the stations throughout the Territory, but has not been able to visit stations on the Aleutian Islands because of pressure of work and lack of travel money. It has not been possible for the assistant director to do much traveling because of lack of funds. During the past few years isolated outlying stations have not received any supervision and have not been visited by the director because of difficulty of access and cost of transportation. Each station should be visited by the director or the assistant director at least once a year. Additional travel funds must be appropriated if this is to be accomplished. This would also enable the director to spend a longer time at each station, assisting the local employees, and at the same time familiarizing himself with conditions at the station.

Supervisor of elementary education, central district, $200.—-The amount allotted to this supervisor for 1937 was $2,500. During 1936 the amount actually expended was $3,301. He is on a per-diem travel basis most of the time, and much of the supervision of the district must be by airplane, which is timesaving but expensive. Because of lack of supervision in some portions of Alaska it is occasionally necessary to send this supervisor outside his district to make special investigations. For these reasons, a larger amount is required for his traveling expenses than for the supervisors of the other districts.

Supervisor of elementary education, southeastern district, $100.—We are asking for an increase of $100 for the supervisor of the southeastern district. It is our plan to send this supervisor into other districts in addition to territory traveled in previous years. No supervision has been given to the schools along the Arctic and Bering Sea coasts.

Supervisor of elementary education, northwestern district, $100.—We are asking for an increase of $100 in the travel allowance for the supervisor of the northwestern district. This is a new position established during 1936-37, and the amount allowed is sufficient for the supervision necessary in this district.

Supervisor of social welfare, $100.—We have only one supervisor of social welfare in our Alaska service, with no assistants or other subordinate employees engaged in this work. It is, therefore, necessary for him to endeavor to cover as much of the Territory each year as time and money will permit. The amount of $1,200 which hitherto has been allotted for his traveling expenses is insufficient to cover his expenses in visiting many native villages where his services are urgently needed. It is our plan that he visit more isolated and inland stations in 1938, which will require more money.

Appointment travel of three new appointees, $375.—The additional amount requested is required to cover traveling expenses from Seattle, Wash., to destination in Alaska of the three new employees for positions heretofore discussed. All of these stations are isolated, and, in addition to traveling expenses from Seattle to Alaska on commercial boats and on the North Star it is necessary to provide for transportation from points of debarkation from ocean steamer to destination, involving high rates for available transportation—usually airplane and small boat. The amount requested is the minimum amount required.

Expenses of students to and from boarding schools ($500).—Wrangell Institute closes the latter part of May, and the students return to their homes to visit with their families during the summer months and to obtain employment in the fishing industry. In some cases it is necessary to pay the traveling expenses of students from the schools to their homes and back to school in the fall. We anticipate an increase of about 50 pupils in the enrollment at Wrangell Institute and si Eklutna during 1938. The amount requested is necessary to cover this item.

Expenses for returning destitute Indians to their homes ($300).—We are constantly receiving requests for transportation of destitute natives to their homes. Also natives released from Federal jails must be furnished transportation to their homes. The Department of Justice has no difficulty in covering the expenses of bringing prisoners to jail, but they have no funds for their return and such travel costi must be borne by the Indian Service. It is more economical to the Government to return destitute Alaska natives to their homes where they can be self-supporting than it is to care for them in Seattle and in the larger towns of Alaska. The demand for such transportation is increasing year by year. The amount request*] is small and will doubtless have to be supplemented from other sources.

Expense of attendance at summer schools and institutes ($1,000).—It is planned to hold a summer demonstration school for Alaska teachers at the University oi Alaska in cooperation with the university during 1938. The expense of proceeding from Alaska to the States for summer-school study each year is prohibitive and many of the courses provided at the summer schools do not offer the kind of instruction and assistance needed by Alaska teachers in their work with the Indians and Eskimos. It is believed that a specially planned course at the University of Alaska, in cooperation with the president and instructors at the university, would be most helpful to the teachers in our schools. The teacher! would be required to bear a portion of their expenses in attending such a demonstration school, but in some instances the distance and the cost of airplane travel would be so great that they would be unable to attend unless the Government bore a portion of the cost. For the expense of attendance at this summer school at least $1,000 should be provided. The amount requested is comparatively small in comparison with the advantages which would accrue to our Ataski school service.

Supplies and equipment, $9,200.—This increase consists of:

Additional required for existing stations, regular SI, 000

Additional required for 6 existing stations, where new construction is

J>roposed 4,800 ditional required for 3 new stations 3,400

Total increase 9,200

Existing stations, regular ($1,000).—At some of our stations we have well-trained teachers who have practically nothing to work with. We are operating approximately 100 community schools and 2 boarding schools. In order to maintain them in a satisfactory manner, new books, desks, and other supplies and equipment are required each year. Many of our schools are now lighted by kerosene or gasoline lamps, which are unsatisfactory and dangerous. They should be replaced by electric lighting system, which can be operated at practically the same cost. Electric-fighting plants are required at the following stations:

Alitak Fort Yukon Karluk

Barrow Galena King Island

Beaver Gambell Kipnuk

Buckland Goodnews Bay Kivalina

Diomcde Hamilton Klukwan

Eagle Hooper Bay Selawik

Eck Igloo Unalakleet

Egegik Ivake Umnak

Ekwak Kalskag

Elim Kanatak

At some stations where electric plants have been installed it has been possible, in cooperation with the Territory, to install radio-telephone equipment, which has enabled our educational medical services to function much more efficiently. The additional amount requested for regular equipment at existing stations is very small and is absolutely essential.

Existing stations where new construction is proposed ($4,800).—New cquipmeJit and supplies will be required for new school buildings and teachers' residences at the following stations:

1. GambeU... $800

2. Teller ._ 800

3. Hooper Bay 800

4. Nonapitchuk 800

5. Pilot Point 800

6. Nondalton 800

Total 4,800

New stations where construction is proposed ($3,400).

1. Mekovruk $900

2. Colville 900

3. English Bay 800

4. Kwiguk 800

Total 3,400

The amounts requested are to provide school furniture, such as desks, chairs, tables, bookcases, books, paper, pencils, ink, and blackboards for the schoolroom, and furniture and equipment for the teachers' quarters, as well as fuel for both school and quarters. The amount requested is very small when the items to be purchased are taken into consideration. The fuel bill alone will probably average $250 or $300 for each school.

Relief of destitution, $7,920.—The amount allotted for 1937 is $25,000. During the past few years it has been possible to furnish some relief of destitution from emergency funds which will no longer be available, and to secure assistance for natives from outside sources. We have been severely criticized, however, for not taking proper care of destitute natives, who, for various reasons, have not been able to care for themselves. The liquor situation in many Alaskan native villages has become worse and has resulted in greater demands upon the Federal Government for relief. The amount requested is to be distributed over a native population over 30,000, and averages a little more than 1 dollar for each native of the Territory. Additional provision is being made each year for the care of whites, and natives of Alaska are denied the benefit of Territorial assistance for the reason that the Territory feels that it is financially unable to care for natives who are properly wards of the Government and should be cared for from Federal funds.

The following is taken from a report submitted by the Director of Education in Alaska:

"During the past year our supervisor of social welfare made a careful study of destitution, handicapped persons, and neglected children that came to his attention. However, he has covered only a small portion of the Territory and we are constantly receiving requests for relief from stations not yet visited by the supervisor. We have, therefore, listed each known case that requires relief funds and have also estimated a small amount under each heading to be used in case of emergency and also for cases that liave not, as yet, been reported to this office.

"During the past year the following amounts were expended for destitution, but a large number of deserving cases had to be denied and the amounts necessarily had to be small where they were allowed. Many villages having deserving cases received nothing.

"We are compelled to cover all destitution for the natives form the indigent relief fund, since the Territory has a clause in its law providing for help to indigent children and payment to mothers as follows: '* * * excepting native children who are eligible for provision by the Department of Interior.'

"The Attorney General has ruled that this is applicable to all cases covering dependent children, mothers' allowances, board of childrens' guardians, needy and indigent relief, old-age pensions and all destitution relief. The population in the Territory is divided approximately one-half natives and one-half whites. The Territory during the last fiscal year, ending June 30, 1936, expended the following amounts:

Old-age pensions $145, 547

Dependent children and mothers 49, 854

Needy and indigent, and institutions 65, 000

Total 260,401

"It can be seen from the above that we are supposed to take care of approximately the same number of people on $25,000 while the Territory spent during the last fiscal year $260,401.

"In the table below we show a comparison of the amounts allowed in each type of case by the Territory and by the Bureau of Indian Affairs:


The following amounts are estimated as needed to take care of cases not yet reported to this office and also emergencies:

For care of dependent children under 14 years of age $3, 500

For care of handicapped individuals 1, 000

For care of destitution 5, 000

Total estimated for indigent relief during fiscal year, 1937-38 50, 420

Our request is for only $32,920. A careful study of old-age pensions and social security is being made by our representatives in Alaska in cooperation with Territorial officials and representatives of the Social Security Board. It will no! be possible to do a satisfactory job in furnishing needed relief to destitute and handicapped natives with a smaller amount than that requested.

Operation and repair of vessels and freight, $7,000.—The amount appropriated for freight for 1935-36 was $63,000. This was inadequate to meet the total obligations incurred for freight and operation of vessels, which amounted to $74,774. This was an excess of $11,774, and was caused in part by delay in the passage of the appropriation by Congress, making it necessary to use both the Boxer and the North Star to secure delivery of freight to all of our stations in Alaska. The weather in Alaskan waters was the worst experienced in many years, resulting in delays aggregating nearly 50 days in the delivery of supplies. A portion of the deficiency has been taken care of by the transfer of $6,300 from available balances in other allotments; but the balance of $5,444 due the Alaska Railroad remains unpaid.


Mr. Dodd. Mr. Thomas has been handling the Alaskan work for a number of years. I do not know whether the committee wants a general statement in connection with this item or not.

I think a brief statement outlining the number of schools we have there and the number of pupils in the schools, and other points, might be helpful to you.

Mr. Johnson. I think the committee would like to know the number of schools and the number of children in the schools, and what you consider a native Alaskan, and what you consider an Indian, and whether or not you have boarding schools, and day schools, and just a few things like that. We do not want any long-drawn-out statement.

Mr. Thomas. I will be glad to make such a brief statement, and will try to cover the items that the chairman mentioned.

In the first place, as to what is a native in Alaska, the aborginal races are always referred to as natives and not as Indians, and that term includes the Eskimos in the northwestern part of the territory.

Mr. Johnson. How many Eskimos are there?

Mr. Thomas. There are about 19,000, according to the 1930 census. That includes about 1,500 Aleuts in the Aleutian Islands, who are also classed in the Eskimo group.

There are also about 11,000 Indians. Eskimos and Indians are all treated as Indians.

Mr. Johnson. But actually there are only about 11,000 Indians?

Mr. Thomas. There are about 11,000 Indians and 19,000 Eskimos and Aleuts.

Mr. Johnson. What makes up the balance of the population? You have more than 60,000 people in Alaska, have you not?

Mr. Thomas. The balance is white; there are about 30,000 white people and about 30,000 natives.

Mr. Johnson. Yes.

Mr. Thomas. We class as natives anyone having any aboriginal blood, no matter how small the amount may be.

We have never had any treaties of any kind with the Indians or the Eskimos. We have never had any reservations, as such, unless the Annette Islands may be so considered.


According to the 1930 census, there are 8,554 natives of school age. Of this number, 4,464 were enrolled in the schools conducted by the Indian Office during the fiscal year 1936, and about 1,800 were enrolled in schools conducted by the Territory of Alaska. Included in this 1,800 are about 300 children of a quarter or more native blood, and about 1,500 of less than a quarter native blood.

There are also about 1,000 children enrolled in the missionary schools conducted by the various religious denominations, and there are about 1,290 native children who are not enrolled in any schools in Alaska.


Mr. Johnson. How many children are not enrolled in any school in Alaska?

Mr. Thomas. One thousand two hundred and ninety.

Mr. Johnson. Why are they not in school?

Mr. Thomas. Because we have not been able to get sufficient money to establish schools for them. The population is small and scattered. We have secured reports from our supervisors in Alaska with reference to where about 900 of these children are located, and they are in places where the children of school age are sufficient in number to warrant the establishment of a school. The following table lists these villages and gives the number of children of school age in each.


There are in Alaska some 25 or 30 Indian villages with 20 or more children of school age who are without any educational facilities whatever. The following is a partial list of these villages:

Village and number of children

1. Aniak 40

2. Apokak 29

3. Cutoff 40

4. Egevik 36

5. Fish Village 24

6. Gasigluk 32

7. Gulkana 20

8. Kialek. 34

9. Komogamute 34

10. Kotmute 37

11. Napaimute 28

12. Oliklok 25

13. Savanuska 24

14. Safanak 26

15. Skammon Bay 33

16. Tagiaiak 24

17. Valdez Creek... 29

18. Iliamna 31

19. Mekorvok 30

20. English Bav 60

21. Cape Halkett 50

22. Colville 60

23. Barter Island 60

24. Chandalar 20

25. Kwiguk 70

26. Tukchuk 30

Total 926

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