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and separating them from their parents, and taking them away for 9 months in the year.
Now the child is being educated in a day school, and has the benefit of his home, just the same as a white child has, but when he reaches high-school age, we put him in the boarding schools to take this higher education.
Mr. COLLIER. I do not think that there has been any reversal of policy, except in certain cases. Take a specific case, that of the Blackfeet School: It is clear that we were guilty of an error of judgment there. The President called upon the Departments to turn back money in 1933. A part of our economy at that time consisted in the closing of boarding schools. One of those schools was this school on the Blackfeet Reservation.
Our subsequent experience developed the fact that we could not really dispense with that school. We reexamined the facts, and we have concluded that that school should not have been closed.
That was simply an error of judgment regarding a particular institution, but I do not think that there has been any reversal of policy.
Mr. LAMBERTSON. You say here that you are opening this school and that school that was discontinued or closed. . Mr. COLLIER. We have always insisted that there would be a need for boarding school for the upper-grade pupils for an indefinite time to come. There has never been any question of that proposition.
Mr. Johnson. That policy of closing the schools, as I remember it, was adopted by the former Indian Commissioner.
Mr. COLLIER. And it has been carried forward.
Mr. LAMBERTSON. I have only been on this committee during Mr. Collier's administration.
Mr. COLLIER. The most important reduction was decided upon in May 1933.
Mr. LAMBERTSON. Four years ago?
Mr. COLLIER. Yes; in order to make the cut that we were required to make in expenditures. Most of those actions were actions we would have taken anyhow. Some of them we took without due investigation, or, at least, we did in one case, but I do not think that any administration has ever contemplated closing all boarding schools.
We have always said, for the upper-grade children, and for orphan children, and so forth, that the boarding school was needed.
The only new element of policy that has come in is the one that Mr. Beatty described to us. That is, they extended them as dormitories, to enable the high-school education to be given to those children who did not live near the school. SUPPORT AND EDUCATION OF INDIAN PUPILS AT NON
RESERVATION BOARDING SCHOOLS
PHOENIX, ARIZ., SCHOOL Mr. Johnson. There are a number of paragraphs following for the operation of the so-called nonreservation boarding schools. The first is the Phoenix School in Arizona, for which you are asking $167,000.
Mr. Dond. The following justification is submitted in support of this item:
Support, $142,000.—This estimate is based on 400 pupils at $355 per capita, all pupils to be enrolled in junior and senior high school classes with emphasis on
vocational training. Practically all the Indian children at Phoenix are full bloods; tribes besides the Pimas represented are chiefly Papagos and Hopis.
The enrollment of this school has been reduced during the last few years in conformity with our program of transferring wherever possible the schooling of Indian children back to their home communities. Elementary grades have been eliminated over a period of years, until now no regular grades below the seventh are maintained. For some years one-half or more of the Phoenix enrollment of 900 was from the Pima Reservation. With the expansion of day-school facilities on that reservation in 1933, the development of the former Pima boarding school at Sacaton into a central consolidated school of junior vocational grade, and the increased day-school facilities at Salt River, the Pimas remaining at Phoenix will be mainly those doing specialized work in the upper high-school grades. The appropriation for 1933 was on the basis of 725 pupils, 675 of whom were to be enrolled in the upper grades. For the purpose of meeting economy requirements, only 650 were enrolled. For the present year provision is made for 475 pupils. Because of the development of the Salt River and Sacaton schools; the increase in day-school accommodations for the Navajos and Pueblos; the further development of senior vocational opportunities in existing Navajo boarding schools and the recent development of senior vocational facilities on both the Hopi and Papago Reservations, all in accord with the policy of providing training peculiarly adapted to local reservation needs, it will be difficult to fill this institution without transporting pupils a long distance. We therefore propose a reduction of 75 pupils for 1938.
It should be stated that present plans contemplate the development of specialized training courses for older young men and adults on a tuition basis. Each year there is a growing demand on the part of young adults for loans to attend schools for special training in such fields as Diesel engine operation and repair. Most of the commercial schools require an almost prohibitive tuition rate which, when added to cost of room and board, places an excessive debt burden on the young adult Indian. In response to a united request from agency superintendents and road supervisors a course in Diesel tractor operation and repair is now being conducted at Phoenix to provide special training to meet an immediate need in this field. These men pay a tuition fee of $30 per month which includes room and board. These receipts are then available to meet the costs of this special course. Educational loans are made available to such students on & reimbursable basis and in the opinion of Indian Service officials, constitutes one of the most legitimate uses of this loan fund. It is proposed to expand this program as the need develops. It must be understood, of course, that enroll. ment in these special courses is over and above the regular school enrollment of 400 and is a self-supporting project.
The following comparison of appropriations and the 1938 estimate will be of interest:
Repairs and improvements, $25,000.- The buildings at this plant are principally of brick construction. In all, there are 73 buildings, and the real property: land and buildings, has an approximate valuation of $717,000. A substantial repair fund is necessary for painting, repairing and replacing floors, maintenance of electric, steam, water and sewer lines, and other general upkeep purposes. ? to October 1, 1935, no funds had been provided from emergency sources at this institution, and with the reduction of $4,000 made in this fund in 1935, many repairs of an urgent nature have been postponed. An increase of $1,000 was allowed for 1937. After deducting the pay of superintendent and drayage, only $19,000 remains for actual repair and maintenance purposes. While the enro ment at Phoenix has been reduced and we are proposing a further reduction ne
year, the buildings require the same care and maintenance as if used by a larger number of pupils. Many of the structures are old and a considerable expenditure must be made annually to keep them and the utility service in fair repair.
Indian moneys, proceeds of labor, $4,000.--This money is derived from services rendered by the school and the sale of school products, and is used to supplement the school support appropriation for purposes most needed.
Physical improvements.-A gymnasium is now under construction at this school, the project being financed through an allotment from the public works appropriation.
SHERMAN INSTITUTE, RIVERSIDE, CALIF.
Mr. Johnson. The next item if for Sherman Institute, Riverside, Calif., and you are requesting $244,500 for it.
Mr. Dodd. We submit the following justification in support of that request:
Support, $221,000.—This estimate is based on 650 pupils at $340, all pupils being enrolled above the sixth grade. Sherman is the only Government boarding school for Indians in California. Children from the State are given preference in enrollment, but others are enrolled from Arizona, New Mexico, Nevada, and Utah. In 1932 funds were provided for 1,000 students; the following year, for 900; and for 1934, only 800. Notwithstanding the number authorized in 1934, only 725 were enrolled at Sherman in order to help meet the reductions required by the economy program. A further reduction of 150 for 1935 was considered feasible, in view of the Navajo and Pueblo day school construction and additional facilities available in the State of California.
The present objective of this school is to offer a practical vocational program in the several fields of trades and industry, agriculture and home economics. A training program consisting of vocational guidance, vocational training, placement, and follow-up naturally applies to older students of junior and senior high school level. It may be desirable to admit some few older students who wish to follow a specialized all-day vocational program such as would be offered in an up-to-date trade school. This would enable high school graduates or older students who desire to master a vocation to attend this school for a year or two, and to leave with sufficient training to secure employment in their chosen fields.
There are 21 students living at Sherman who attend junior college in the city of Riverside.
The following statement gives a comparison of appropriations and the 1938 estimate:
Repairs and improvements, $23,500 (increase, $1,500).--This property, consisting of 236 acres of land and 78 buildings, is valued at approximately $510,000. Many of the buildings were constructed years ago and are of wooden, frame and stucco, and brick construction. The interior plaster is of lime mortar which disintegrates after a few years. Because of this type of construction, it is necessary to provide an adequare repair and improvement fund to keep these buildings in good condition.
On the basis of the 1937 appropriation, when the amount of the superintendent's salary and cost of annual estimate supplies are deducted, only $12,830 remains for miscellaneous repairs, which amount is insufficient for the needs of a plant the size of Sherman.
In the past 25 years, with the exception of allotments from the Public Works appropriation for a shop building and a new boiler house, this institution has received as appropriations for buildings approximately $83,000. This is much less than other schools of similar size have received in a few years. For a number of years this school has been allowed less for repair and improvement than a number of similar schools with fewer buildings to maintain.
The superintendent, in analyzing his needs for 1938, specified the following among other items, as needing early attention:
Repairs to sewer system, $1,500,- Since the greater part of the system was put in years ago, it was never designed to carry the present load. Additions which have been made to the load within the past few years will necessitate additional installations in order to relieve the sluggish drainage to many toilets and showers. Approximately 900 feet of new lines are needed.
Cement curb and gutter, $700.-Some 2,000 feet should be installed in one of the main streets, which is now very shabby.
Streets resurfaced, $1,000.-The macadamized streets are very badly in need of resurfacing.
Repaint roofs and buildings, $1,500.- Many of the buildings have not been painted for years. A large amount of paint is necessary adequately to cover the roofs, inside walls, outside walls, floors, finish woodwork, and furniture.
Electrical supplies, $625.—Two of the dormitories still possess an open type of wiring, which is not only unsatisfactory but is a fire hazard as well.
Additional sprinkling system for lawns, $750.—At present the greater part of the lawn area is irrigated with rubber hose and movable sprinklers. This system entails a great deal of hand labor. It is costly because of waste of water and deterioration of rubber hose. A pipe-sprinkling system would soon pay for itself.
The foregoing does not exhaust the needs requiring early attention. The list merely indicates the character of repairs and improvements necessary in this plant. A similar list was presented last year. Some items have been provided for, but much remains to be done to put this plant in satisfactory condition. Some slight help has been obtained during the last year through work relief projects. The results accomplished, while indeed or real value to the school, are insignificant when compared with the needs of this huge and ancient plant. Some of the repair and improvement work is done by students as vocational laboratory training.
Indian moneys, proceeds of labor, $2,300.—This amount, received from the sale of surplus school products, will be utilized to supplement support and repair and improvement funds.
Physical improvements. In October 1935 funds were allotted from the public works appropriation for: Boiler house (F. P. 564)-.-.
$23, 750 Shop building (F. P. 573) ---Total
85,500 Both of these projects are now under construction and will be completed by the end of the present fiscal year.
Mr. LAMBERTSON. That is one that you had recommended to be discontinued.
Mr. Dond. It was in the list several years ago, as one of the doubtful ones, as far as long-time continuation was concerned.
Mr. LAMBERTSON. I remember Mr. Mott coming in here about that.
HASKELL INSTITUTE, LAWRENCE, KANS. Mr. JOHNSON. The next item is for Haskell Institute at Lawrence, Kans.
Mr. Dond. The following justification is submitted in support of this item:
Support, $212,500.-The estimate is based on 625 students at $340 per capita, including the $50 differential, all those now at this school being enrolled in senso high school grades or in vocational courses. Haskell is the most definitely national and intertribal of Government Indian schools, receiving Indian youth from all over the United States, its enrollment representing approximately
tribes. Of the number enrolled, 22 attend Kansas University and 275 take fulltime vocational work.
In developing our educational program the special vocational needs of Indians have been kept uppermost, and courses have been based on employment opportunities, both for men and women, in trades, agriculture and business, as well as in regular high school work. Effort is made to select students who will profit by higher education. Those selected have been permitted to live at Haskell and attend the University of Kansas. In general the opportunities at Haskell are intended to help a few Indian youths with a type of preparation for their work that they would not ordinarily receive in their own communities, either in Indian or public schools.
Attention is invited to the following comparison:
Repairs and improvements, $24,000.-For 1935 a reduction of $7,000 under the base amount allowed for 1934 was made in this fund. This plant, established in 1884, consists of 93 stone, frame, and brick structures, with 994 acres of land in the school campus, farm, and garden. The total valuation is approximately $936,000. There are many items that should receive attention during the next fiscal year, involving sums ranging from $140 to $3,800.
Not more than $19,000 will be available for repair purposes when the salary of the superintendent and drayage expenses are deducted.
This plant is so large, and many of the buildings are so old, that a liberal repair fund is most important.
Printing equipment, $6,500.-For many years Congress has included in the annual appropriation for Haskell authority to print a school paper. The school maintains a printing plant authorized by the Joint Committee on Printing for issuing the paper and otherwise giving instruction to students in printing. The instruction thus provided is of great value as a vocation and as a means of training in English, spelling, journalism, and other subject matter.
The equipment in this plant is old and obsolete, only a very few pieces of machinery having been purchased in the last 12 or 15 years. Some of it was transferred to Haskell from the old Carlisle Boarding School at the time of the closing of that school in 1919. It will be readily recognized that if an adequate vocational training program in printing is to be carried out, it is necessary that the students be familiar with modern printing equipment. At present these students are greatly handicapped, because of the existing obsolete equipment with which they are required to work, in their efforts to secure jobs in commercial concerns in competition with white graduates of schools where equipment is up-to-date.
The following equipment and replacements are the minimum requirements at this time: New Chandler and Price 39-inch automatic power paper cutter -------- $2,200 New no. 2 Kelly automatic cylinder press with feeder, extension delivery, and auxiliary distributor.--
6, 140 One no. 15115 Hamilton steel platen pressroom cabinet complete with 1 no. 15684 imposing surface.---
190 2 no. 15116 Hamilton steel cylinder press roller cabinets..
210 1 new 12 by 18 Chandler and Price 4-roller craftsman press ..
760 1 new Miehle vertical press...
2, 500 Total.----
12, 000 Indian moneys, proceeds of labor, $3,000.-This fund, derived from the sale of school products, is used to supplement any appropriation available for school use.