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Mr. Fitzpatrick. In taking these tribal funds, do you get the approval of the tribes?
Mr. Dodd. We seek their approval now if they have organized under the Reorganization Act. Previously we did not seek their approval.
Mr. Fitzpatrick. What do they do to evince their approval? Do they vote on it?
Mr. Dodd. Usually, when matters of this sort are presented to the tribes, they are submitted to the tribal council, which is a representative group of the tribe elected by its own people, serving for a given period of time.
Mr. Fitzpatrick. If it is agreeable to them, the funds are used, but, otherwise, you would not take them.
Mr. Dodd. \\ e have not gotten the system thoroughly worked out yet. We have been required to do that only since the passage of the Indian Reorganization Act. That act gives the tribes power to veto the disposition of their tribal assets. In another year's time every request for the use of tribal funds will be supported by a resolution of the tribe, which we will present to the committee, or we will present to the committee the objections of the tribe to the use of the funds.
Mr. Fitzpatrick. Suppose Congress did not givo you that power, would you use it just the same? If they disagreed with you, or did not sanction it, you state that you would then submit it to Congress. Suppose Congress did not take action on it, would you go ahead and use the funds just the same?
Mr. Dodd. Wo would be compelled to follow the action of Congress, because the action of Congress in a way would supersede the 1934 act.
Mr. Fitzpatrick. When this gets underway, the tribes' power of veto will not amount to anything.
Mr. Dodd. We hope that it will mean something. We hope that Congress will take that into consideration in the use of Indian tribal funds. Over a period of years, many millions of dollars of capital funds of Indian tribes havo been used for administrative purposes, and in some cases the tribes have vigorously protested. In one case, the Chippewas of Minnesota filed a suit in the Supreme Court of the District of Columbia, but it was overruled because of the right that Congress had to appropriate those funds. When we went before the Budget Bureau, we had this question before us: We were suggesting the transfer of some of these charges to gratuity appropriations, but the tribes had a balance to their credit, and the Budget disapproved our recommendation.
Mr. Fitzpatrick. Of course, these funds are under your control.
Mr. Dodd. Yes, sir; but we cannot use them without specific authorization of Congress.
Mr. Fitzpatrick. Assume that you do not get that specific authorization.
Mr. Dodd. Then we would have one of two things to do—either transfer the charges to gratuity money or cut off the service, because we could not use the funds without specific appropriation by Congress.
Included in this estimate is an item of $63,750 for tuition of Chippewa Indians in the State of Minnesota, $41,400 for the Menominees, and $207,845 to be used for miscellaneous educational purposes.
EDUCATION OF UNALLOTTED OSAGE INDIAN CHILDREN, OKLAHOMA
Mr. Johnson. On page 159 you have an item for the education o! Osage Indians in Oklahoma.
Mr. Dodd. I submit the following justification for the record:
The Osage Boarding School was established in 1872 and was operated until 1922, when, by reason of availability of public-school facilities, it was closed The Osages pay taxes on their surplus land and other property and the Indiar. children attend public schools with the whites without payment of tuition except for pupils outside of ttie district where they attend. After closing the boardine school, annual appropriations in varying amounts for educational purposes amone this group of Indians were made until the fiscal year 1932. The appropriate. was used for salary and expenses of a dav-school representative who served as s contact man between the Indians and scfiool-district officials, and for education, through contract arrangement, of certain pupils in the St. Louis Mission Boards Schooi. Diminishing revenue, and the unequal advantages enjoyed by sow members of the tribe in having their children educated at the expense of thf tribe, caused the tribal council to refuse to approve the contract for 1931 and in 1932 the appropriate ■ was discontinued.
It later developed that among the tribe there were Indians who did not shire in the distribution of tribal funds, and under date of December 8, 1931, the tribal council adopted a resolution reading in part as follows:
"That the Commissioner of Indian Affairs and Secretary of the Interior be re
Suested and they are hereby requested to authorize the Superintendent of tt" 'sage Indian Agency to pay to the Sisters of Loretto in charge of the St. Louis Mission School such amount or amounts that may be requisitioned by the Osagt Council, or a committee from that body, for education expenses of children of Osage blood in attendance at the said St. Louis school who do not have the funds themselves or their parent to bear such expense, such pupils to be designated by the council or their committee in cooperation with the superintendent.'
Based upon the request of the tribal council, an appropriation of $4,000 was obtained in the second deficiency act, fiscal year 1932. Of this amount $1,530 was obligated for expenditure in i932 in accordance with a resolution of the tribal council dated August 9, 1932.
The council, on August 27, 1932, adopted another resolution requesting the expenditure of not to exceed $2,470 during the fiscal year 1933 for similar purposes and has approved the expenditure of $2,000 for 1937.
It should be noted that the tribal council, or a committee thereof, will cooperate with the local superintendent in selecting the pupils to benefit by this aid.
The council has passed a resolution approving this expenditure for 1938.
Mr. Johnson. These are tribal funds, and I assume, of course, that this expenditure of tribal funds meets with the approval of the tribal council.
Mr. Dodd. Yes, sir; and later on in our justifications there is a com* plete resolution of the Osage Tribe covering the expenditure of this amount.
REIMBURSABLE LOANS TO INDIANS FOR PAYMENT OF TUITION, ETC.
Mr. Johnson. On page 159 there is an item for reimbursable loans to Indians for the payment of tuition, and for other expenses in connection with the education of Indian children in higher educations institutions. ,
Mr. Dodd. The following justification is submitted for the record
Authority.—This appropriation is authorized by section 11 of the India Reorganization Act, approved June 18, 1934, which provides that: ..^
''There is hereby authorized to be appropriated, out of any funds in the Inlt States Treasury not otherwise appropriated, a sum not to exceed $250,000 ann ally together with any unexpended balance of previous appropriations made P suant to this section, for loans to Indians for the payment of tuition and otn expenses in recognized vocational and trade schools: Provided, That no' ro than $50,000 of such sum shall be available for loans to Indian students in high schools and colleges. Such loans shall be reimbursable under rules established by the Commissioner of Indian Affairs."
General.—Taken as a whole, Indians are extremely poor, and it is impossible for the majority of parents to finance long and expensive training for their children. The total annual income for large numbers of Indian families is as low as S50. This means that even high school training is beyond the reach of their children as they cannot provide money for books, noon-day lunches, and clothing. Without aid from the Federal Government in the form of educational loans, professional and vocational training is not available for the average Indian boy and girl. The appropriation for educational loans under the act of June 18, 1934, made possible for the first time a training program adequate to the needs of Indian young people. The opportunity has been appreciated, and loans have been eagerly applied for.
Most of the students receiving educational loans achieved real success both in their school work and in their personal relationships on the campus. Forty-eight students were graduated last year and are returning to the Indian country in various capacities as teachers, housewives, agriculturalists, ministers, craftsmen, and leaders of their tribes. A still greater number will be graduated next year and the year following, while others who are preparing for such professions as law, medicine, and social work will require longer training. The accomplishments of these students is proof that the human material for leadership has existed all the time, the only lack having been encouragement and opportunity.
There has been a definite policy of employment of Indian leadership wherever possible. The greatest handicap has been lack of adequately trained Indians. The program of advanced education is making it possible to select and train Indians to render not only professional and administrative services, but to meet other needs of local communities. An effort is made through the local educational loan committees, Indian Service personnel, and the tribal councils to encourage promising young Indians to take whatever training is necessary to meet the local needs.
We believe that the appropriation of funds for loans for specialized training to selected Indian young people will prove a sound business investment. Repayment of all loans is required.
The first appropriation made pursuant to the Indian Reorganization Act for educational loans was $175,000 for the fiscal year 1936. Only $54,205 was expended, because of limitations imposed by the act and by the Comptroller General. Our estimated expenditures for 1937 are $75,480 from the unexpended balance of the original appropriation. The remaining $45,315 is, by the text of this item, continued available for use in 1938. This amount, added to the $50,000 of new money requested will provide only $95,315 for loans in 1938.
Vie of 1936 funds.—During 1936, under the authorizations then effective, educational loans aggregated $56,274.71 from Treasury appropriations and 56,037.50 from tribal funds. A total of 399 Indian boys and girls were given assistance. Of this number 244 students have returned to school for the year 1936-37; 66 have completed training or accepted employment, 76 have dropped out of school because of illness, marriage, failure, or for other causes. Loans granted during 1936 ranged from $50 to a maximum of $650 per individual.
Use of 1937 appropriations.—There follows a statement showing disposition thus far made of the 1937 appropriation:
Number of loans made from this fund for trace and vocational work (44
renewals and 58 new ones) 102
Number of different trades and vocations represented 18
Total amount of loans made to the 102 students, $18,658.33.
Nurses (21 renewals and 24 new ones) 45
10 girls are training in Philadelphia, Pa., hospitals; the others are in hospitals and university schools of nursing located in various cities throughout the United States. Total amount of loans to 45 nurses in training, $5,099.
Business (25 new ones).. 25
An effort has been made this year to encourage Indian students of the Southwest to take business courses, and we have at the present time several promising Navajos, Pinias, and Pueblos in training for stenographic and clerical positions which may be available in or near their communities. Total amount of loans to 25 business-college students, S5.072.33.
Diesel engineering (3 renewals and 6 new ones) 9
Interest in the operation of various types of Diesel engines is increasing among Indian young men and we are encouraging those who appear to be qualified to train themselves for this work. Total amount of loans to 9 Diesel engineering students, $2,450.
Trade electricity (2 renewals and 4 new ones) 6
These students are taking 1- or 2-year courses in electricity in trade schools and are not to be confused with those enrolled for 4-year electrical engineering courses in colleges. These young men do practical work connected with the installation of electric light plants, mechanical refrigeration units, and house wiring. Total amount of loans to 6 trade electricity students, $2,040.
Because of the revival of Indian crafts, we have made an effort to find suitable Indian girls to train for weaving and had 1 girl train for this work last year. She found employment immediately upon completion of her course. Total amount of loans to 3 weaving students, $160.
Beauty culture 2
We have had some difficulty in placing the 6 girls trained in this work last year, and we have therefore made only 2 loans this year to candidates for training in this field. Total amount of loans to 2 beauty culture students, $500. One student in each of the following trades or vocational courses: Baking, radio sound technician, printing, embalming, teaching, forest ranger, comptometer operator, carpentry, laundry operation, barbering, combined barbering and beauty culture, laboratory technician 12
Total amount of loans to 12 students, $3,337.
Total number of students 102
Total amount loaned for vocational work, $18,658.33.
Use of 1937 appropriation—High schools and colleges
Total number of loans made from this fund for training in colleges and in
universities (171 renewals and 53 new ones) 224
Number of professions and vocations represented 20
Total amount of loans made to the 224 students $46,82
We are continuing to place as many students as possible in State colleges and universities and many of the 224 students are in State institutions:
STATE UNIVERSITIES, 83
North Dakota 2 ! South Dakota
New Mexico 2
New York «
The 20 professions represented by the 224 students are divided as follows:
Engineering (civil, mechanical, electrical, mining, chemical, ceramic) . 20
School administration 5
Public accountant 1
Social service 17
Home economics 14
Business administration 15
Thirty-two jurisdictions located in 18 States and Alaska are represented in the loans made from the college fund. The total amount of college loans by States is as follows:
South Dakota 4,294
Montana 3, 750
New Mexico 1, 810
North Carolina 640
North Dakota 500
Under existing regulations preference in granting educational loans is given to full-bloods and wards of the Government. Sixty-nine full-blood Indians are attending colleges and universities. Applications "are submitted through the educational loan committees to the reservation superintendent and bear his endorsement. Loans are restricted to Indians unable to secure an education without Government aid. Loans covering tuition and subsistence and other reasonable expenses may be granted for postgraduate attendance at special courses offered in Government Indian schools such as the tractor school at Phoenix, advanced secretarial work at Haskell, and in vocational courses which may be opened from time to time in addition to secondary offerings of these schools. Applicants are required to submit reliable recommendations in regard to ability, character, and performance, and they must demonstrate definite aptitude for the training desired and the vocation chosen. They must support their applications by authentic reports from educators and other persons who know of their capacity.
Loans are granted for 1 year only and renewal depends upon proper application and evidence of serious purpose. The total amount of the loan to an individual is not limited by the regulations, but an effort is made to keep under $300 a year and within $1,000 for the entire period for which assistance is rendered. Reasonable security is required.
The reservation superintendent is held responsible for securing prompt repayment; he arranging the terms of repayment with the student. Repayment is expected to begin within 3 months after completion of a 4 years' course at a rate which will insure total repayment within 8 years. Repayment of short courses is expected to be made more promptly. If the borrower fails to carry out the repayment terms of his agreement, general authority is granted the disbursing agent to make payment from individal funds of the borrower or cosigner.
Change in language.—It will be noted that we are proposing a change in language which will permit the use of these funds for apprentice training in recognized institutions or in approved and established firms. We have found that some of the best opportunities for a real and practical educational training program are