Page images

shown below have been determined. It has been necessary to refuse mans applications for this fund. We have also approved use of $2,200 from tribal funds.

Special services
Colorado River.


2, 01) Phoenix

650 California: Mission agencyColorado: Consolidated Ute.

240 Idaho:

Coeur d'Alene..
Fort Hall..

3, 375 Minnesota: Consolidated Chippewa.

130 Montana: Blackfeet.

445 Flathead..

500 Fort Belknap

5, 900 Nebraska: Winnebago.. Nevada: Carson.

320 New Mexico: United Pueblos.

200 Oklahoma; Kiowa.

1, 000 Pawnee. Shawnee

200 Sac and Fox. Utah: Uintah and Ouray..

200 Wisconsin: Great Lakes.

3. 100 Tomah for use in Michigan

3, 600


25, 520 Assistance of the kind indicated is necessary if large numbers of Indian children are to attend public school.

Indian parents are pleased as a general thing with the plan of placing their children in public schools where they can live at home and attend as day students instead of being separated from their parents to attend hoarding schools. It is nevertheless true that many of the families are so poor that they cannot provide schoolbooks or lunches for the children, nor can they clothe them comfortabir and decently. We are sometimes informed that the noon-day lunch at the school is the only food the child receives. In the Federal day schools the Government meets these needs. Some public schools are able to give assistance, and we do not overlook the need for family relief. There nevertheless remain large numbers of children who can be placed in public schools if a little assistance is given. A little extra assistance often means the difference between irregular attendance during cold weather and regular attendance when warm clothing and a warm meal can be provided. Many of the families live in isolated districts on poor land and can do little in the way of helping their children.

We are convinced that where there are good public schools and Indian children are well received it is a great advantage for them to attend. Even as a matter of economy, however, it is an advantage as without payment of tuition and the small amount usually allowed for help to the individual child needing assistance, many would be placed in boarding schools at a cost of approximately $300 each a year,

11. Supervision, local reservation, $176,980 increase, $3,920).- Under this heading are included numerous miscellaneous school employees, not properly chargeable to any other of the foregoing activities. Most of these employees are in a travel status, and devote their time to local supervision of reservation-school business.

INCREASES Education field agent (Cheyenne River). There are nearly 1,000 Indian children of school age on the Cheyenne River Reservation. Many of these are in public schools, Some are in the reservation boarding school and others are in Federal day schools scattered over the jurisdietion, which is a large one composed of a great deal of range land and the day schools are quite widely scattered. For several years we have felt the urgent need of an educational worker who would be

responsible for the day and the public school porgrams. We are asking for a net salary of $2,060 with expenses of $600 for the employment of a competent education field agent to give general supervision to the educational program on this reservation.

Instructor of agriculture (Choctaw).:--There is urgent need for an agricultural instructor to serve the two one-room day schools, four two-room day schools, and one three-room day school of this jurisdiction. There is at the present time an instructor of home economics and in order to balance the program and serve the agricultural needs of the various communities, there is need for the appointment of this instructor of agriculture. The Choctaw land is largely farming in character, and if we are to train these Indian boys and girls to be self-supporting agriculturalists, it will be necessary that they have such training opportunities. We are asking for $2,060 net salary and $600 for expenses.

Education field agent (Flathead).—Government quarters are not available for for the employee, and it is necessary to pay him gross salary. We are requesting an increase in this item of $240 to care for this additional expense.

Instructor home economics (Mescalero).—This position has been established at $2,000. The appropriations have been allowed for only $1,800, and we are asking for an increase of $200 to care for this difference.

Education, field agent (Osage).—This position had previously been established at a net salary of $1,820. The size of the territory covered, the number of children involved, and the importance of the position justifies the position at $2,060, and we are accordingly requesting $240 to care for this increased salary. The Civil Service Commission has approved this classification.

Carpenter (Pine Ridge). On the Pine Ridge jurisdiction there are more than 20 day schools scattered throughout the entire reservation. For proper maintenance and upkeep of these various day schools it is necessary to maintain a small maintenance force. The position of carpenter has previously been allowed but no funds were provided to cover his expenses in traveling from one day school to another. We are requesting $300 for this purpose.

Education, field agent (Quapaw).—Government quarters are not available for this employee, and it is necessary to pay his gross salary. We are requesting $240 for this purpose.

Carpenter (Rosebud).—The justification for this item is identical with that submitted for the carpenter at Pine Ridge.

Instructor, home economics (Seminole). —Government quarters are not available for this employee and it is necessary to pay her gross salary. $180 is requested for this purpose.

Instructor, shop, and agriculture (Seminole).- For years the Seminole Indians have strongly resisted any attempt on the part of the Government to provide educational opportunities for them. They are scattered in various groups, many of them living back in the Everglades. Several intensive surveys have been made of the Seminole group and all are agreed that an employee capable of giving assistance to these indians in general shop work and agriculture would be the best approach to the situation. It is planned that this employee will travel from group to group, remaining for a considerable period of time with each group and attempting to develop interest in these fields. This employee will include adults in the program as well as children.

We are requesting $2,000 for salary and $600 expenses.

Education, field agent (Sisseton).-During the past year there has been transferred to the Sisseton Reservation an education field agent at a salary of $2,300. This position had previously been established at $2,000, and we are requesting an increase of $300 to care for the added salary.

Education, field agent (Turtle Mountain).- This position had previously been established at a net salary of $1,820. The size of the territory covered, the number of children involved, and the importance of the position justifies the position at $2,060, and we are accordingly requesting $240 to care for this increased salary. The Civil Service Commission has approved this classification.

Education, field agent (Yakima).-This position had previously been established at a net salary of $1,820. The size of the territory covered, the number of children involved, and the importance of the position justifies the position at $2,060, and we are accordingly requesting $240 to care for this increased salary. The Civil Service Commission has approved this classification.


Superintendent of education (Pine Ridge).—We are asking for the transfer of the salary and expenses of this position from the field roll at Pine Ridge to the item for “General supervision.' The territory and the responsibilities of this

superintendent of education have been enlarged to include the Sioux area, and it is considered appropriate that his salary should be carried under the “General supervision” item.

Assistant (Indian-C) (Pine Ridge).--This assistant clerk has been serving as stenographer to the superintendent of education mentioned above. We are requesting the abolishment of this position and proposing a reduction in this item of that amount. Under “General supervision" we are requesting the establishment of a regular clerk for the superintendent of education for the Sioux area in order that someone competent to assist the superintendent in carrying his enlarged responsibilities may be employed.

15. Supervision, general, $212,880 (increase, $23,160).-—To this appropriation is charged all of the supervisory expenses connected with the total Indian educational program. Appropriations for nonreservation boarding schools are based on a limited amount per capita, and consequently cannot contribute to general expenses of administration. Extending as it does into 20 or more States and involving the responsibility for the education of more than 80,000 Indian boys and girls, the field of Indian education requires an extensive supervisory force. Considering the magnitude of the field, and the varying types of instruction involved, the amount here requested is considered the minimum for which proper supervision can be furnished. This estimate covers the following:

[blocks in formation]

Supervisors of Indian education.- We are requesting a change in designation for six employees classed as supervisors of elementary education, secondary education, trades and industries, social work, boys' activities, and health education.

Superintendent of Indian education (Sioux area).---This position has previously been carried on the field roll at Pine Ridge under the item for local reservation supervision. At that time the responsibilities of the position were restricted largely to the Pine Ridge and Rosebud jurisdictions. These responsibilities, however, have since been enlarged to include all of the Sioux area which takes in the States of North and South Dakota and the Winnebago, Nebr., jurisdiction. It is considered appropriate that this position should be carried under this item.

Superintendent of Indian education (California).-With the continued operation of the State contract with California for the education of Indian children of that State, it is essential that the Government have a representative in that area to guide and direct the educational program and safeguard the expenditure of funds under the contract. We have proposed a reduction in the amount of the California State contract in the amount of $6,100 to care for the salary of this position and its transfer to this item.

Superintendent of Indian education (eastern tribes). - In line with the development of a policy to establish area superintendents of Indian education who may keep much closer contact with the field than is possible from the Washington office, we have detailed one of our supervisory staff to serve as superintendent of Indian education for eastern tribes, which include the Cherokees of North Carolina, Choctaws in Mississippi, Seminoles of Florida, and the scattered Eastern Bands of Indians. This item merely represents a change in the designation of

one of the supervisory positions to the position of superintendent of Indian education.

Superintendent of Indian education (Oklahoma).-Through inadvertence this position was not included in the 1937 estimate although the position has been established for a number of years. This was called to the attention of the subcommittee of the House Committee on Appropriations but was not included in the 1937 appropriations. We were instructed, however, to continue this position and attempt to meet the salary thereof within existing appropriations for the current fiscal year. This position has been and must be continued. We are asking for an allowance of $6,100 to care for the salary and expenses of the position for 1938.

Associate supervisor of Indian education. This item merely represents a change in derignation of two associate supervisors, trade and industries; three associate supervisors, home economics; and seven associate supervisors, elementary education, to the new titles of associate supervisors of Indian education.

Assistant clerks.—This item represents an increase of three assistant clerks at $1,620 each to be of assistance to the superintendent of education (Sioux area), superintendent of Indian education (eastern tribes), and superintendent of Indian education (Montana). These superintendents of Indian education positions are largely administrative positions and it is essential that adequate clerical assistance be available for these employees if they are to function properly. It is obviously poor business to expect individuals of this kind to do clerical and stenographic work that can well be done by $1,620 employees.

16. Miscellaneous, $42,090.-This amount includes miscellaneous expenses not chargeable to any of the foregoing items, or to any type of supervision." The sum requested is to be used for the following charges now being met from our present appropriation and is the same as allowed for 1937: Fort Belknap: Bus drivers.

$2, 610 Gas, oil repairs.

1, 500

$4, 110 Fort Hall: 3 bus drivers for public-school children -

1, 800 Gas, oil, supplies, fuel...

4, 500

6, 300 Hoopa Valley: Humboldt County tuberculosis contract (half)

2, 000 Potawatomi: Fuel, water, light (education field agent cottage)

500 Standing Rock: Fuel, water, light (education field agent house)

500 Taholah: Fuel, water, light (education field agent house) -

500 Western Shoshone: Bus drivers (irregular labor) public-school children.

1, 000 Winnebago: Fuel, water, and light (quarters for educational personnel) 2, 000 Fort Peck: Dormitory facilities.

15, 000 Consolidated Ute: Blanding dormitory facilities.

6, 000 Colorado River: Cook, laborer, dairy

2, 370 Coeur d'Alene: Bonners Ferry project.

1, 810 Total...

42, 090 It will be necessary to continue these expenditures during the next year.

17. Summer subsistence, $60,000 (increase, $15,000).-Heretofore money used for subsistence of students in boarding schools during the summer period has been provided under a specific appropriation with the title "Indian schools, subsistence summer months." In 1937 this item was transferred to the "Indian schools, support” appropriation. We propose an increase of $15,000 in this item for 1938.

The entire amount appropriated for 1937 has been granted to the boarding schools, and we have had to deny requests for additional amounts. The increased demands on the fund are due in part to our boarding schools having developed & selective basis for enrollment of students. They are now receiving a class of children who are particularly needy, some of whom have no homes or who come from homes to which it is considered inadvisable to return them during the summer.

The increased demands are also due to the eduational programs which are being developed on the reservations which make it necessary to retain a number of children in the vocational departments on a 12-month basis instead of the usual 9-month school term. We believe there will be twice the number of children retained in school hereafter. An illustration of this type of program is the attention give the cattle industry in the Sioux country, with the idea that the children will be trained to go out on their own land on completion of the course at the local schools. For at least the last 2 years of the courses contemplated students will

have to be in school the year round to attend the cattle; otherwise there would be loss from freezing during the winter and starvation during the summer, as responsibility will be placed very heavily upon the students.

18. Apprentice teachers, $10,000 (new item, increase, $10,000).–Our present requirements for teachers specify 2 years of experience in addition to certain types of training. Since Congress has established an educational loan fund for Indian youth, a number of promising Indian young men and women are attending colleges and universities to fit themselves as advisers, teachers, social workers, or other positions for service to their people. We propose to use this amount for the establishment of a number of apprentice positions to which the most promising of these graduates will be assigned.

Our proposal further contemplates assigning these young graduates to work under the direction and guidance of our most successful and competent Indian Service instructors. It will be necessary to provide these apprentices with a small remuneration during their period of training to care for their living expenses. A salary of $660 a year net is proposed.

Language changes.-We have incorporated a number of proposed changes in the text of this appropriation in order to clarify the purposes for which the funds may be used.

For many years there has been language in the annual appropriation act exempting this Service from the requirement for formal contracts for compliance with section 3744 of the Revised Statutes (U. S. C., title 41, sec. 16), in connection with payment of tuition for Indian pupils attending public schools, higher educational institutions, or schools for the deaf and dumb, blind, physically handicapped or mentally deficient. Nevertheless, the General Accounting Office has required us to submit informal agreements bearing contract numbers and has disallowed pavments for public-school attendance or other services included in the exemption for any period prior to the date of the authority for expenditure issued by the Indian Service. This frequently works an injustice as it is possible for the issuing of authorities to be delayed until after the date the service begins, through no fault of the public school or institution receiving the child. This sometimes occurs when correspondence is necessary over important details. The child is received in the school or institution but there is delay in reaching an exact agreement which enables us to issue a definite authority for expenditure of the money: Relief from this requirement is important to retain the goodwill of public-school systems and institutions cooperating with the Indian Service in care and education of Indian children.

Ability to care for feeble-minded children is of utmost importance. These cases are sometimes presented as requiring urgent and immediate attention, the young person having become a menace to himself or herself, and to society. Under a requirement of the Comptroller General's Office, no payments for publicschool tuition nor for care and education of children in institutions may be made prior to the date of the authority for expenditure of funds involved. It has been necessary to put boys in institutions for the feeble-minded without securing prior authority as they showed criminal tendencies and a major infraction of law seemed imminent. Sometimes a social worker or other field worker has found deaf, blind, or crippled children who could have been placed in school if they could have taken the child along. By the time authority for incurring the expense involved was secured the parents had lost interest or the family had moved. It is essential to a humane handling of the welfare of this class of unfortunate children that the local superintendent have some leeway. Without training the children are deprived of the occupations and pleasures common to normal individuals. They hold back the social and economic life of their families when they do not become actual social liabilities.

In the past when poverty, communicable disease in the home, lack of care, and oversight of the children or other conditions have resulted in removal of Indian children from their homes, they have been placed in Government boarding schools or in mission schools. This custom has been supplemented by putting the children, as far as possible, in private homes where at a very reasonable payment for board they receive good care under normal family conditions. No foster mother is allowed to take too many children and the foster homes are under careful supervision. There has been great improvement in many of the children placed and we consider this an important part of our program. Children who live in very isolated places, particularly high-school children, with no school facilities available, are to advantage placed in foster homes near the schools. This also frequently makes it possible for them to go home for Saturday and Sunday.

« PreviousContinue »