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The item of $125,000 was allotted in March 1936 "for surveys of stages and discharges of recent disastrous floods and for the preparation and printing of reports thereon." The floods to be surveyed and for which reports are to be prepared and printed under this allocation were those floods in the spring of 1936 in the northeastern section of the United States extending as far south as Virginia. The field work for the surveys and considerable of the office work has already been completed and excellent progress is being made on the preparation of the information obtained as a result of the surveys for the report.

The first item of $10,000 was made available in November 1936 "for investigating the stages and discharges of the central Texas floods of the autumn of 1936 and preparing and publishing a report thereon". The second item also in the amount of $10,000 was made available at the same time "for replacing and rehabilitating river-measurement stations damaged or destroyed by the central Texas floods of the autumn of 1936."

The wide scope of the interests of the Public Works Administration in guiding and promoting the development of a national program of public works is well known. Many of the Public Works projects are dependent to an important degree on reliable information with respect to the flow characteristics of rivers and ■water supply generally. The allotment of Public Works funds for the waterresources investigations of the Geological Survey reflect the practical operation of the policy of the Public Works Administration as signified in the following statement from page 4 of its Bulletin No. 2:

"The facilities of the Geological Survey, including the district offices, are available to the Public Works Administration. They should be used in all cases where such services or information are required."

The services supported by the funds supplied by the Public Works Administration were recognized and approved as being designed primarily to meet prospective Federal needs beyond the capabilities of available funds. Such support served only to an insignificant degree to relieve the urgency of the demands upon the funds derived from regular appropriations. Table 9 shows that most of the funds made available for the first five items was practically exhausted by July 1, 1935.

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ALLOCATION OF FUNDS FROM THE WORKS PROGRESS ADMINISTRATION

When the Public Works allocation in the amount of $125,000 was made in March 1936, for surveys of stages and discharges of recent disastrous floods and for the preparation and printing of the reports thereon, there were also made available to the Survey two allocations of Works Progress Administration funds, one in the amount of $100,000 of which $5,000 was later rescinded and the other in the amount of $8,000 of which $400 was later rescinded. The larger amount is for repair and replacement of stream-gaging stations which had been damaged or destroyed by floods of 1936 and the smaller amount is for administrative expenses involved in the prosecution of the work under the larger allocation. These fund? have assisted largely in replacing and repairing the damaged equipment and gaging stations. Table 10 shows that this work was fairly well under way bv the end J the 1936 fiscal year.

Table 10.—Funds from Works Progress Administration l

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> Expenditures are made through State treasury offices, not through the Geological Survey. SUMMARY OF FUNDS AVAILABLE FROM ALL SOURCES

The following table shows the total funds expended for water resources investigations during the fiscal years 1935 and 1936 and an estimate of the funds thst will be available from all sources for these investigations and related work for the fiscal year 1937.

Table 11.—Summary of funds available from all sources

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i Includes $8,439.21 of noncooperative funds furnished by States and municipalities.

LIMITATION ON PERSONAL SERVICES IN THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA

Services in the District of Columbia relating to the water-resources program in 1938 are limited to $133,000 as compared to $130,000 for the 1937 fiscal year. This amount provides with narrow margin for the central-office administration of the program of water-resources investigations, a large part of the preparation of reports for printing by the Public Printer, much of the laboratory work, especially in relation to Investigations of the quality of water, and other incidents: technical work essential to the conduct of the water-resources investigations.

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INSUFFICIENCY OF FEDERAL FUNDS FOR COOPERATIVE WORK

Beginning with the fiscal year 1931 Congress, following the recommendations of this committee, authorized cooperation in water-resources investigations with States and municipalities on the basis of an equal sharing of costs. During the last 4 years, the appropriation acts have not carried sufficient amounts to meet the funds offered by States and municipalities on that established basis. The estimated amount of Federal funds necessary to meet such cooperation on the established basis during 1938 is $626,263 as shown in the second column from the right near the end of table 2. The amount provided for this purpose in the Budget is $600,000, leaving an expected deficiency slightly over $26,000.

In the agreements with States the Geological Survey necessarily must embody a statement that the amounts of Federal funds are subject to the availability of appropriations. That is, each agreement is so written that the Federal participation may be made less than the State or municipal participation without a violation of the contract. However, the good faith of the Federal Government in its cooperative program with States and municipalities is involved.

NATURE OF WORK DONE IN COOPERATION WITH STATES AND MUNICIPALITIES

Dr. Mendenhall. If you will permit me, I would like to call on Mr. N. C. Grover, who is our chief hydraulic engineer, to tell you about this item.

Mr. Fitzpatrick. I see that last year you received $791,317 and that this year you are asking for $800,000. There is a difference there of $8,683, is there not?

Mr. Grover. There is an $8,683 increase.

Mr. Fitzpatrick. What is that for?

Mr. Grover. That is to make up in part the deficiency with respect to the cooperation. Our work is done largely in cooperation with States and municipalities; and of the $800,000, which is the total of the items for next year, $600,000 is available only for cooperation. That increase goes to make up in part the amount that would be needed in order to meet cooperation on the basis that is contemplated in the law of equal cooperation by the States and the Federal Survey.

Mr. Fitzpatrick. In what States are you doing most of this at the present time?

Mr. Grover. We are cooperating with practically all States and the Territory of Hawaii.

Mr. Fitzpatrick. I appreciate that, but what particular States are you spending the most of the money in? Where do you do most of your work?

Mr. Grover. We are spending large amounts in California, Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and New York. New York, in fact, is next to California.

Mr. Fitzpatrick. But your object in New York is a little different from that in the other States, isn't it, or is it just the same? There is irrigation out there, I suppose, is there not?

Mr. Grover. The New York interests are divided more between municipal water supply, industrial uses, power, and ground water in connection with municipal and industrial uses. There is great need for such information in its relation to floods in New York as well as in all other sections of the country where flood remedial measures are under consideration. In the West, of course, the interests are more heavily in irrigation, largely in power; also to a lesser extent in municipal supplies and industrial uses.

Mr. Fitzpatrick. Take the southern California area. I suppose that it is more for irrigation there than for industrial supply?

Mr. Grover. Yes. Probably more for irrigation than industrial supply. But in southern California the interest also relates questions of municipal and industrial use and of flood control. In Arizona the information would be largely used in connection with irrigation and power.

Mr. FITZPATRICK. Do you supply any of that information to private corporations that supply municipalities with water?

Mr. Grover. Only as it is made available to the public. That is, we do not furnish it to private corporations ahead of the general public.

Mr. FITZPATRICK. Do they have the privilege of getting the information that you have on file?

Mr. GROVER. Yes. Just as anyone else has it, but no more.
Mr. FitzPATRICK. But it is open to the public?

Mr. GROVER. It is open to the public. And it is open to the public in generaly currently, because of the demand for current information for use in problems relating to the development of the rivers or to utilization for many purposes, or to control floods. It is necessary to make the information available currently. That is generally understood, and we have many demands for current information with respect to stages of rivers, quantities of water that flow in the rivers in times of drought and in times of flood. All records related to both surface streams and underground waters collected by the Geological Survey, are of course finally published in the regular series Water Supply papers.

Mr. FitzPATRICK. It is very important just now in our American life to make studies of those things

Mr. GROVER. It is very important, and the demands for cooperation are therefore very much heavier than they have been before. And as a result of that, the amount provided by Congress this year and the amount suggested by the Budget for next year, as shown in the justification presented by Mr. Mendenhall, are not sufficient to meet on a dollar-for-dollar basis the cooperation that is offered in an effort by States to obtain information needed currently in connection with pressing problems related to use, control, and administration of water.

COOPERATION WITH SOIL CONSERVATION AND OTHER FEDERAL AGENCIES

Mr. LEAVY. There are now particularly the soil conservation coming into the picture, and crop control, soil fertilization, erorion by water, and numerous new Government agencies that are interested in this subject. Is there any overlapping between their activities and yours, or does your service supply them with their information?

Mr. GROVER. We cooperate with them and supply them with information. They may mahe additional detail survey of their own, but they will be supplemental to the work that we are doing. There is no overlapping.

Mr. Lili. To be concrete, in the Tennessee Valley, for instance, that luthority might want to ascertain the annual run-off in that watershed. Does your service furnish them with information on that?

Mr. GROVER. Yes We cooperate very heavily with the Tennessee Valley Authority; and they furnih us money in addition to the money that is appropriated to us.

Mr. Leavy. That is something that I was just going to ask you. Do they match you? Are they compelled to match you?

Mr. Grover. No. They do not match us. They give us the full amount that we spend for the work that they want us to do.

Mr. Leavy. But in the Colorado River drainage and Boulder Dam, you carry on studies there and work?

Mr. Grover. We carry on studies there, and that is paid for directly by the moneys appropriated to us by Congress.

Mr. Leavy. And that is made available to the Reclamation Servic«9

Mr. Grover. That information is made available to them.

Mr. Leavy. Likewise in the Columbia River region?

Mr. Grover. Yes, sir.

Mr. Leavy. Do you go into the question of sanitation at all?

Mr. Grover. No, we do not. That gets into the field of the Public Health Service. We do not go into the problems of sanitation. However, our records are widely used in connection with problems related to pollution by municipalities and industries.

Mr. Leavy. That is all. I appreciate the tremendous significance of your work.

Mr. Fitzpatrick. In addition to this $800,000 that you estimate to be spent here, you also spend $600,000, which makes a total of $1,400,000?

Mr. Grover. Yes. And then in addition we have other moneys furnished by Federal organizations of various kinds, as shown in the justification offered by Mr. Mendenhall. The total that we are spending this year is about $1,900,000 of moneys from all sources.

Mr. Fitzpatrick. Have you any questions, Mr. Chairman?

Mr. Scrugham. No.

CLASSIFICATION OF LANDS

Mr. Fitzpatrick. We will go over to the item on classification of lands on page 325 of the bill. It reads as follows:

Classification of lands: For the examination and classification of lands with respect to mineral character and water resources as required by the public-land laws and for related administrative operations; for the preparation and publication of mineral-land classification and water-resources maps and reports; for engineering supervision of power permits and grants under the jurisdiction of the Secretary of the Interior; and for performance of work of the Federal Power Commission, $100,000, of which amount not to exceed $70,000 may be expended for personal services in the District of Columbia;

Dr. Mendenhall. The justification for this item is as follows:

In 1879 Congress delegated to the newly formed Geological Survey the classification of the public lands and examination of the geologic structure, mineral resources, and products of the national domain. Subsequent legislation has had the result of defining the present work of the Survey in public-land classification as determining the location, quantity, quality, and workability of mineral resources and the location, quantity, quality, and best methods of utilization of the water resources of the lands of the United States. It is essentially a job of taking inventory as a basis for securing use of vast natural resources in the best interests of all the people of the Nation. The related duties of publishing classification maps and reports, of supervising operation of water powers on the public lands developed by private parties and corporations, and of furnishing information and advice to the Federal agencies that manage or supervise the exploitation of mineral and water resources of the public lands are also performed under the auspices of the appropriation for classification.

Under present policies, when the 16 million acres in unperfected entries are

'nially adjudicated and outstanding grants to States and railroads are staisfied,

to little of the remaining public land will pass into private ownership. The

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