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B. OTHER FEDERAL RIVER-MEASUREMENT STATIONS The need for maintenance and operation of other Federal river measurement stations was recognized by the Congress by the inclusion in the appropriation act for 1932 of funds in the amount of $45,000 for the operation during the 9-month period, October 1931 to June 1932, of about 120 gaging stations selected from about 600 stations which the Geological Survey had established and operated for the Corps of Engineers in connection with their investigations and reports in conformity with House Document 308, Sixty-ninth Congress, first session. (See hearings on Interior Department appropriation bill, 1932, pp. 371-375.) Federal "Gaging streams" funds have been made available each year thereafter for continuing this group of gaging stations.
In connection with many public activities, especially those relating to developments in the Mississippi and Columbia River Basins, the need for additional records of river flow at places where such information was not available became imperative for the proper consideration of many Federal projects. As the appropriated funds were not sufficient to provide for any of the additional stations needed in connection with such projects or for the general studies being made by the National Resources Committee and other Federal agencies having to do with national river. development probleins, Public Works funds were allocated or made available by transfer to the Geological Survey for the establishment, and for the operation during the fiscal years 1934 and 1935, of about 40 new Federal stations in the Mississippi River Basin, and 6 new stations in the Columbia River Basin. Those in the Columbia River Basin were installed at the request of the Corps of Engineers to provide for stream-flow information necessary for the present and future development of the Columbia River in Oregon and Washington. The Public Works funds thus made available were practically exhausted by July 1, 1933, as shown in Table No. 9. All these stations are of major importance to Federal projects in progress or under consideration. To meet the requirements of the situation Natisfactorily, as recommended by the various Federal agencies, it will be necessary to continue to operate on an adequate basis the Federal stations already established. There is a constant growing need that will apparently have to be met at some future date for the establishment and operation of additional Federal stations not possible of inclusion in the cooperative program to yield continuous and reliable records of tow for use at strategic points at other principal rivers of the country where Federal interests predominate. The funds available at the present time and as estimated for 1938 will not provide for the expansion in the program of Federal stations.
Table 5 shows the distribution of the funds for the Federal stations grouped under this heading.
TABLE 5.- Distribution by States of funds for Federal stations other than those in the
Colorado Rirer drainage
Table 5.—Distribution by States of funds for Federal stations other than those in the Colorado River drainage—Continued
C. MISCELLANEOUS FEDERAL PROJECTS AND FEDERAL ADMINISTRATION
The balance of the noncooperative water-resources funds that remains after providing as economically as possible for operation of the Colorado River and other Federal stations represents the only money available to cover other pressing Federal obligations and projects. These include that part of the administrative expense of the Water Resources Branch not related to or provided for by cooperative or other funds; the cost of handling and answering the large volume of general correspondence involved in the great number of inquiries regarding water-resources matters, including many problems related to underground water supplies which come to the Survey from Members of Congress, from other Federal agencies, from various State agencies and from citizens generally; and the many general investigations of water problems which the Geological Survey must or should make as a part of its normal work or in answer to urgent appeals of other Federal agencies. These purposes have been for many years inadequately supported; hence the Survey falls far short of meeting its public responsibilities in these matters. The amount requested for this purpose in 1938 is the same as that available during the 1937 fiscal year and is indeed a bed-rock figure. The allotments for these several purposes in 1936, 1937, and 1938 are shown in the following table:
Table 6.—Miscellaneous Federal projects and Federal administration
'That part which has no relation to cooperation or to Federal river measurement' stations. For breakdown, see table 7.
The work listed in the foregoing table is analyzed further under the following headings:
Federal administration.-—Under this heading are grouped those costs of administration of water resources activities which are not in any way related to or covered by the work or funds for cooperation. They include the proper part of the salaries in the office of the Chief Hydraulic Engineer, appropriate part of the salaries and other costs of administration of the several kinds of investigational work, part support for field distribution offices and the technical library in Washington, and the costs of general correspondence which is especially heavy in connection with ground water and quality of water work because of the great number of requests for information or advice related especially to regions that are not covered by
published reports, or that is not available elsewhere. The segregation of costs under this heading is shown in the following table:
TABLE 7.- Federal administration
Surface-teater investigations.-Under this heading are grouped the costs incurred in noncooperative work such as investigations and the preparations of reports regarding droughts, floods, rainfall run-off relationships; development of stream gaging and related equipment; and development of standard plans and specifications and salaries and other costs involved in the preparation for printing of the surface-water data collected by the 35 field offices.
Ground-water investigations.-Under this heading are grouped the costs for the completion of projects previously started and for current investigational projects on a small scale which are not included in the cooperative ground-water program. These projects include studies in methods of performing ground-water work, in the origin, discharge, and quantity of ground water in thermal springs in the United States, in ebbing and flowing springs, in quantitative studies of artesian basins, in well-drilling methods, in effects of droughts on wells and springs, and similar general phases of ground-water problems. Underground water supplies have always been recognized by specialists ss of major importance and are now recognized as vital by the millions who use ground water and especially those who reside in the areas which have recently been, and still are, drought-stricken. The ground-water division maintains a small hydrologio laboratory for making tests of permeability, porosity, and other physical properties of water-bearing materials.
Quality of water investigations.-Under this heading are grouped the costs for three principal items: Miscellaneous noncooperative office and laboratory work, & study of methods of water analysis, and reports on the availability of water for industry. Work on these noncooperative projects is a necessary adjunct to the cooperative work in all phases of water resources investigation. It is continuing in character and varies only in detail from year to year.
Pou er resources intestigations. These investigations were materially reduced at the end of the fiscal year 1936 by the transfer of the Federal Power Commission of the statistical work related to the power developed by public utility plants and the fuel consumed in the generation of this power. The estimates for 1937 And 1938 are correspondingly reduced below the amount for 1936. An annual report of water power development has been issued in mimeographed form with a companion report of the total water power resources of the country assembled by States, to and including the 1936 fiscal year.
Water tatilization inrestigations.-U'nder this heading are grouped in large part the costs of the Geological Survey of the salaries involved in the performance of field work and the preparation of reports thereon for the Federal Power Commis. son as provided by law and the costs for those studies relating to water utilization which are becoming of more and more importance each year. Investigations are now well under way of the disastrous floods which have occurred during the 1936 calendar year and for which comprelitlalle reports will be published.
OTHER WORK BY WATER R.DOIRCES BRANCH In addition to the work thus far described, which is financed by the rect stream-gag.r.k appropriation and by State cooperative funds, much other water. resources work is performed ar nually by the Geologial Survey for other Federal Agencies. This work is descrited lire as follow
(O ta'ion with Federal Poorne Comp,188109 The Geological Surver is called upon by the Federal Power (Commission to strive the strram gaging red by the Commission in connection with itpermits and licenses, to the end that
the records collected shall be reliable and acceptable to the Commission. Many of the permittees and licensees call upon the Survey to do the stream gaging required by the Federal Power Commission and advance the necessary funds therefor. Other permittees and licensees do the required stream gaging with their own forces of engineers under the supervision of the district engineers of the Geological Survey. The funds indicated in table no. 11 under the item "Permittees and licensees of Federal Power Commission" are those which are actually turned over to the Geological Survey for expenditure. In addition it is estimated that at least an equal sum is expended directly by the permittees and licensees under the supervision of the Survey's district engineers.
Investigations for other Federal bureaus.—The Geological Survey also conducts specific investigations for other Federal bureaus, for which funds are furnished by those bureaus. The totals of such funds for the years 1935, 1936, and 1937 (estimated) are shown in the following table:
Table 8.—Investigations for other Federal bureaus'
1 Funds made available on repav or transfer of funds basis. (Funds allocated to the Survey by the Public "Works Administration and the Works Progress Administration are not included, as these are shown in tabhs 9 and 10.)
1 This expenditure was made for the Soil Erosion Service, Department of Interior, later transferred to the Department of Agriculture and renamed Soil Conservation Service.
'Of this amount $17.91X12 was expended for the former Mississippi Valley Committee under the Public Works Administration.
< This amount was expended for Subsistence Homesteads before transfer to the Resettlement Administration.
Investigations similar to those indicated in the above table will be continued in 1938 in general as indicated by the estimate for 1937. In accordance with previous indications of the committee's wish. (See Hearings on Interior Department Appropriation bill, 1933, pp. 751-755), the Geological Survey has accepted the transfer of funds from the Army Engineers for the establishment, maintenance, and operation of gaging stations that are directly related to their authorized projects for navigation and flood control. Stream gaging and the maintenance and operation of gaging stations needed by the Tenneessee Valley Authority are being continued on essentially the same basis through the years shown in the table. The work done for the national committee in the fiscal years 1936 and 1937 relates to the Rio Grande Joint Investigation that is being made with special reference to interstate aspects.
ALLOCATION OF FUNDS FROM THE PUBLIC WORKS ADMINISTRATION
The Public Works Administration has recognized the need for expenditures in excess of funds possible under regular appropriations for the purpose of insuring the conduct of a more adequate and efficient national program of river-measurement work and water supplv investigations, particularly regarding recent floods, by allocating (up to Dec. 9, 1936) $1,294,100 to the Geological Survey for specified activities in this field, divided into the 9 items shown in table no. 9. The first J items were described at the hearings before this committee for the 1936 appropriation and the first 7 items were described at the hearings before this committee for the 1937 appropriation. These descriptions are repeated below together with the description of the last 2 items in order that full information relative to these Public Works funds may be before you.
The Public Works funds thus made available for the various uses shown in the following table are for specific purposes which only in minor and exceptional instances come within the field of the routine water-resources work of the Geoological Survey for which provision is made by regular appropriation. The item of $.r)00,000 for "Rehabilitation of river measurement stations" was used exclusively for repairs, replacement of equipment, and improvement of records at existing stations, and none was available for the regular operation of those station? to which the "Gaging streams" appropriation has been limited in very large part. This rehabilitation program will largely obviate the necessity for future expenditures (covering a period of perhaps 10 years) for certain necessary replacement of equipment, but it does not materially relieve the burden of present or future annual operating costs for which the regular appropriations are fully required The Public Works program has been most beneficial in providing for installation of complete and efficient which will enahnce the future accuracy and value of tie work and greatly strengthen the stream-measurement program.
The item of $70,000 for the establishment and operation of new stations on the Colorado, Mississippi, and Ohio Rivers was allocated exclusively for work ii addition to that previously carried on by the Geological Survey.
The item of $106,300 for underground-water surveys was allotted to five major Federal projects for the purpose of studying general principles and features i>: ground-water occurrence and recovery. The projects covered the Atlantic aci Gulf Coastal Plain, the high plains, the high plateau region, Oregon, and Wane Springs, CJa. The allocation was not used to supplement the regular appropriation, which, so far as it related to ground-water studies, was practically all allotte-i to specific projects that were conducted in financial cooperation with States an-i municipalities.
The item of $280,000 was allotted primarily at the request of the Mississippi Valley Committee and to satisfy in part the needs of that committee with respev'. to records in the Mississippi Basin. It provided not only for the rehabilitati.^ of existing gaging stations within the basin but for the construction of certair additional stations requested by the committee. As a result of this allocatur al>out 40 new stations were added, and have been included in the description •■:' other Federal river-measurement stations described on preceding pages. T <• item contained also the funds needed for the completion of new stations in : ■ Colorado River Basin for which the $70,000 item described atnjve was not siiifcient.
The item of $150,000 was allotted by the Public Works Administration at ire request of the Director of the Soil Erosion Service "for establishment and operation of stream-flow measurement stations and for obtaining records of silt increment at eight erosion-control projects of the Soil Erosion Service." The locati. - of the eight projects selected by the Director of the Soil Erosion Service for f -
«... — - ..„.v....^^« project. Pullmir
\\ ash. ^ hirty-three stations for the measurement of stream flow and silt mmment were established on these 8 projects, and 26 stations are now b*»-_z maintained by the l.eological Mirvey on 7 of the projects at the expense of t^ Soil Conservation Service. »~.-^ « » —
2.S00 was allotted in November 1935 at the request of X