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w ing program of work and general budget has been assembled from turntal surver authorizations, Cadastral Engineering Service data, Federal .. .ng agency reports, and from other sources.

1. Original surveys Agricultural. This classification includes surveys of lands subject to all *24 of settlement, of agricultural lands applied for by the States, and by the

si te accommodate valid selections, and all unsurveyed areas under the :1– Grazing Act broadly classed as agricultural. rev. in this classification to meet the needs of settlement laws and the

show slight increases over the current year. The total area, however, --:ling the above, over which cadastral surveys should be extended on a com

zeve seale next year in the interests of the Taylor Act for administration, " ibration, and the exchange of lands approximates 5,000,000 acres, exclusive

– Lar boundaries, field investigations, and special cases not measurable in er or scres. Fatimst., 1938, $180,000.

Vonagricultural and mineral.—This classification includes lands within the • Ecl the Mineral Leasing Act under which coal, phosphate, oil, oil shale, gas, . am, and potash are held in national ownership under a percentage of minerals - . areas outside the national reservations for recreational uses, public and sa-puhlie lands such as rights-of-way for railroads, canals, reservoirs and ter preets, State and grant boundaries, and controlling township exterior lines. Sners to further administration of the Mineral Leasing Act, of coal and oil 1 spplied for in Colorado, Wyoming, Utah, and New Mexico constitute the

est single activity under this classification in next year's schedule. Other R.:D aized projects include approximately 192 miles of township exteriors in

eastern Utah, for geographic control; portions of the California-Nevada ", darr line between Lake Tahoe and the Colorado River, and subdivisional - G o thereon; ties to the Texas-Oklahoma State boundary line to perfect title

ta ; connections from the public-land survey system in Minnesota to the - cristal boundary in the segment between the Lake of the Woods and Lake -. r, a distance of over 300 miles; the survey of power sites and rights-of-way • Aruna, California, and Oregon, and of certain Spanish grant boundaries in a Monico, California, and Colorado. In addition, surveys to accommoate tre degendent upon the segregation of mining claims will be made in normal

in the mineral districts of the West. Estimate, 1938, $35,000.

© Cooperatire.- Cadastral surveys on the national domain within and adjoin-Itse established reservations and permanent withdrawals furnish engineering un rol bases for administration, the establishment of land boundaries, farm 2 . bome sites, and soil-erosion projects, for grazing and lumbering control, -d and trail building, reforestation, the exchange of lands, fire prevention, tim

conservation, classification and sale, trespass prosecution, and for the developut recreational and wildlife areas. Such surveys are fundamental in the Telopment programs of governmental agencies administering the public lands. Tre more extensive projects in this classification to be undertaken next year

o the national forests in all States west of the one-hundredth meridian, and - Sbama, Arkansas, Florida, Michigan, Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the Terri

Alaska. As basic factors in watershed protection, in economic classifi2 spd land-use planning, and as prerequisites to the administration of appli

e land laws, approximately 3,000,000 acres should be surveyed on the forests ut fiscal year in addition to linear boundaries, field investigations, and special vere not measurable on an acreage basis. The schedule indicates a slight

- in survey execution on national forests over the current year. Da and in connection with national parks cadastral surveys are necessary to E ustration, area identification, and development. Surveys awaiting atten

- next year now authorized or in prospect include the north and east boundrosed the revised west boundary of the Rocky Mountain National Park in z adn, the boundaries of the national parks of Everglades, Fla., Glacier Bay,

seks, and Grand Teton, Wyo., and those of the national monuments of Grand PASTOO, Ariz., and Death Valley, Calif. Authorizations for surveys in connec16 rith other parks and monuments are anticipated in 1938. An increase over

current year is indicated.

For the Bureau of Reclamation cadastral surveys are authorized in Westem States on the Camp Verde project, Arizona, of which the Horseshoe and Bartlett Reservoir sites are a part, the Gila Valley project in the same State, the Central Valley (on which surveys are now in course of execution), and the Parker Dam projects, California, the Payette division of the Boise project, Idaho, and the Grand Coulee reclamation project in the State of Washington. Survey requests from the Bureau of Reclamation are in excess of those of the past several years.

l'nder departmental authorizations boundary and area surveys will be neces sary of certain lands within Spanish grants in New Mexico recently purchased and now administered by the Soil Conservation Service for the benefit of various tribes of Indians. The work should be initiated next summer and be completed by fall.

Applications for surveys from other Federal agencies are indicated from the Division of Investigations and Geological Survey of the Department of the Interior, the Coast and Geodetic Survey of the Department of Commerce, and in normal degree from other bureaus whose activities are based upon or are related to the public lands.

Estimate, 1938, $100,000.

(d) Miscellaneous.- Surveys in this class include those of small, detachedi. often fragmentary, areas not listed in the foregoing established classifications and as a rule not measurable on an area basis.

In next year's program for the l'nited States proper are surveys of islands, townsites, villa sites, isolated homesteads and homesites, new or abandoned rights- wav, lighthouse reservations, private land grant boundaries, rrall holding claims, detached Indian allotments, mineral and forest segregations, water holes. swamp, overflow and riparian lands, areas in the older public land States omitte 1 from the original survers, and in addition to the survey, the classification and sale of the Oregon and California and the ('004 Bay Wagon Road Grant lands.

Of outstanding importance are field investigations of obliterated, distorted art fictitious surveys of an earlier period for use as evidence in boundary suits before the courts and the Department, and to develop data for resurvevs. Of leser importance and extent are surveys under sperial acts of ('ongress, particularls the acts of February 27. 1925 (43 Stat. 1013), December 22, 1918 (45 Stat. 1069, and February 16, 1929 (45 Stat. 1184), which provide a means of relief for individuals holding certain classes of public landunder claim or color of title, and the acts of March 3, 1891, commonly known in New Mexico as the Small Holding Act, and of December 22, 1928, and March 23, 1932, which require the surves of lands under certain conditions.

In Alaska, the group includes a number of projects of the type above mentioned. and in addition administrative sites, Indian villages, trustee townsites, school reserves, community parks, emergency landing fields, agricultural experimental stations, mission sites, cemeteries, and trade and manufacturing sites.

As a whole, miscellaneous surveys indicated for 1938 are well above the average of the past 4 vears. Estimate, 1938, $10,000.

II. Resurrey's The major problems of cadastral engineering now before the Service are tho*** originating in resurvers in all of the established survey classifications. Such problems consider legal restoration of the generally obliterated, often dintorted. and not infrequently wholly fictitious original surveis made in an earlier periud of the country's history under the old contract wwwfem of surveving the purlic lands Lawful recovery of the original surser is not only posential to orderl admi.istration but in the mittlement of controverudom involving public lauds and private rights is a fundamental requireinent.

The offical plat of piiries is the basis of public and disposal. Most of the oluer Land other plats are based on in which although made under less eracting standards of procedure than are theme of torlar, were fairly well erecuted However they were general monumented with perishalle material. As a conf ence survet obliteration in whole or in part is one of the chief sources of location uncertainty and of rotation H ittalai, Vianottier plats. although reglur in all repets, are based upon parls and only partly evcutert field mark. Server restoration in such can freuently disli min fantasticalls distorted states 1810ns on the ground of no value in dentifying prisale and public lart, or as a basis for winnistration

Wall other plats of an earlier das, fortunately constituting or A tall portiots of the whole but depicts in the aggregate millions of acris in many parte 1 the country **** of the one hundrerith nampuan, have no foundation whatever

* actual surveys on the ground. Such plats are regular in all respects but the Geld surveys they allege to represent were never made. And yet valid rights

sve been legally acquired in such areas on the basis of these fraudulent official aista of record. The resultant confusion over boundary lines, out of which often po major problems of hiatus and overlap, hampers the Government and the Sustes in the administration of their lands and retards even to the point of cessa

private enterprise and development. The permanent relief in such cases is brough resurveys of the General Land Office. Local agencies as a rule are without

stbonty to execute resurveys where public land is involved, or when within their prou see, are not experienced in the intricate technical and legal processes of the Fadel resurvey system. The problem is steadily growing in complexity and

So banket plan of resurvey is recommended. Such a program would be costly Peyond reason and could not by providing for resurveys everywhere at the same

e successfully serve the purpose intended. Experience deomonstrates that the esent procedure of executing resurveys on certain conditions as they are applied by the parties in interest, is far more practicable and economical and, if financed

moderately liberal scale over a period of years, could be kept abreast of the er mistrative necessities of the public-land laws and the requirements of economic asd .se and policy. Estimate, 1938, $130,000.

III. Office work Te 12 public survey offices of the Cadastral Engineering Service in the 11

se public-land States and Alaska, prepare the official record of public-land and 29ral surveys executed in their respective districts and serve the public interested

data obtainable from the official records. Supervision and direction of the Sok n the field and office is from the headquarters of the Supervisor of Surveys

Draver, Col. In this office is also performed the work of auditing, accounting,

cast keeping for the Service within the United States proper and Alaska, and (andrting and accounting for the Division of Grazing Control in Western States.

Work in public survey offices is practically current in all districts and it is rieved that the present personnel, with occasional additions in the lower grades, Tre sufficient to keep it so. Estamate, 1938, $165,000.


(Estimates by survey classes) I ruginal surveys: 11 Agricultural...

$180, 000 di Nonagricultural and mineral

35, 000 la Cooperative...non

100, 000 d Miscellaneous.

40, 000 11 P irvers (in the foregoing classes).

130, 000 :1 (nice work...

165, 000 Total... -------------

650,000 T 1935 estimate of $650,000 is $50,000 less than the appropriation of $700,000 * the 1937 fiscal year.


Mr. SCRIGHAM. How much public land remains to be surveyed or

ains unsurveyed? Nr. FRED W. JOHNSON. In the continental United States we have out 128 million acres. In Alaska we have 376 million, which makes a total of 504 million acres.

Sir. SCRIGHAM. Is it necessary to survey these lands? Mr. FRED W. JOHNSON. Yes, sir; in order to identify them so that a can put them to proper use or whatever economic value they are. They must be designated before we can do anything with

Mr. ScrUGHAM. Is there any section of law that authorizes or requires it?

Vír. Fred W. Johnson. Section 2218 of the Revised Statutes of the Ĩ sary measures for the completion of the surveys in the several survey. ing districts.

ALLOTMENT OF P. W. A. FINDS FOR SURVEYS Mr. SCRIGHAM. Why is it that your estimate for public land surveys has been reduced? I should think that there would be an increase in an effort to comply with the law, instead of a reduction. In other words, did your budget calculations contemplate a reduction in your surveying activities?

Vir. HAVELL. No, our budget calculations did not contemplate a reduction. Our budget request was submitted in the hope that we would get the small amount that we asked for, but we got less.

Mr. SCRIGHAM. Did you have some additional funds in the form of Public Works allotment money for surveys this year?

Mr. HAVELL. Yes; this year we have had an allotment of $750,000 from Public Works in order to survey public lands for them. That has been supplemented by a $700,000 regular appropriation, making a total fund available for surveying public lands this year $1,450,000.

Mr. SCRIGHAM. Do I understand, Mr. Johnson, that you said that there were more than 500 million acres of public lands yet unsurveyed?

Mr. FRED W. JOHNSON. 504 million acres remaining unsurveyed, that have never been surveyed.

Mr. JED JOHNSOx. In what States?

Mr. FRED W. Johnson. They are in the Western States and Alaska; 128 million acres in the Western States, and the rest in Alaska.

Mr. SCRIGHAM. Do you now have a number of field parties employed on these surveys?

Nr. FRED W. Johnson. Yes, under the combined funds, the regular appropriation and the Public Works allotment, we have a very splendid corps of trained engineers and field assistants. We have a very excellent organization.

Mr. ScriGHAM. Is this appropriation sufficient to keep those men busy?

Mr. HAVELL. No. As the Commissioner stated a while ago, our Public Works projects terminate on June 30, and unless we get some relief in our regular appropriation, it means that this body of trained people will have to be let out.


Mr. SCRIGHAM. The Director of the Division of Grazing testified that he had approximately 140 million acres of grazing lands under his jurisdiction that had to be administered. Is all that 140 million acres of grazing land surveyed?

Mr. SCRIGHAM. How much of it is unsurveyed?

Mr. HAVELL. The Director of Grazing has been hammering at us to bring about the survey of a large part of the land that is unsurveyed in order that he might carry out his range survey and properly administer the Taylor Grazing Act.

Vir. SCRCGHAM. A range survey is entirely different from a publicand survey, is it not? Mr HAVELL. A range survey is a study of forest growth suitable for staining animal life. There are 23 million acres of unsurveyed land

the grazing districts of the 140 million acres that the director of szing, Vr. Carpenter, referred to, 23 million acres that have never en surveyed.

Vr. FRED W. Johnson. In addition to these lands that we have Dane that are unsurveyed, we have some resurveys to make.

Mr. SCRIGHAM. How much resurveying do you have to make? Mr. HAVELL. The resurveying work is difficult to measure, because : comes up in the form of applications under two acts of Congress, :49 and 1918, and it is controlled by the number of applications

ring up during the year. There is no way to anticipate it. Under *be one act, where more than half the lands are in Federal ownership,

be Government pays for the entire resurvey, but where more than • De-half of the lands are in private ownership, under the terms of the ster act, the private holders are required to pay their part of the spenses.

We do not know how many applications we will receive during the Tear. The best that we can do is to estimate it, and that is set up in

I justification that will be presented for the record.



Coming back to the statement on surveys, I would like to add this kuaternent. There was reference made to the unsurveyed land in During districts of 23 million acres. The surveys of the unsurveyed srds in the grazing districts, and the survey of the lands that the Forest Service has been requesting for like reasons, will cost us $3.000.000.

M. SCRIGHAM. Is that included in the Forest Service appropriation zonevs?

Mr. HAVELL. No, the survey of the public lands in the forest roserres is a responsibility of the General Land Office, because all land ties in the national forests are handled through the Land Office.


Mr. FITZPATRICK. Is there any overlapping in the surveys made by he different departments?

Mr HAVELL. The President had a commission not long ago to study at problemMr FITZPATRICK. Do you know of your own knowledge?

Sir HAVELL. I know it, but I wanted to give you the other inforation Their recommendation was that there be certain services combined, but we were excepted because of the peculiar status of our

Tots in relation to land titles. So far as I know, there is no dupliatan or overlapping of surveys. That does not mean that the same na is not surveyed once, twice, or three times; but for different pur

s. Our surveys are what are termed cadastral surveys, surveys be the purpose of fixing property rights. They are boundary surveys.

Mr. FITZPATRICK. Could they not all be included in one?

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