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our roads from the countryside and to abate pollution of our waters and of the air we breathe. "I hope we shall look back to this as the beginning of a time of increased attention to our heavy responsibilities for the maintenance and preservation of our natural environment.

What happens will come as the result of many hearings such as this to decide the fates of specific tracts of land. I hope you will deliberate with all possible gravity, for this will be a test of the effectiveness of the protection the year-old Wilderness Act can provide to the lands of our wilderness system.

What will be your criteria ? The flow of dollars to or from the surrounding communities? The opportunity to build a road where there was none, and thereby "open up the country"? Comparisons under competing proposals of that statistical hybrid, the man-day? Please use great caution, for such reasoning in the past has left us with many of the problems we have today.

The things that most matter seem the most resistant to statistical expression. What parameter can we assign to a group of lemon lilies, swaying in a forest clearing; to the leap of bighorn sheep; to the crouching trees of timberline or to the rough red bark of the pine in the last light of day?

You have heard testimony that we can have all this and still meet the demands of mass recreation for the skier. A road might be built, but only for winter use. Lifts would be placed, but only apart from the centers of summer use. Few trees would be cut since the high slopes are bare. Ninety percent of the area would be untouched.

This resembles a policy of 90 percent honesty. Where would they hide a great parking lot capable of holding 5,000 cars under the most unfavorable conditions of snow? Would all the construction and maintenance be restricted to the winter months when they claim the area is deserted? Would the commercial developers bear the cost of the access road or would they require a public agency to build it for them? In the latter case, how could one justify an attempt in the summer to bar the public from a road built with its own money? Should the area prove a commercial success, as would seem guaranteed, even with modest snow, next to southern California's well-populated metropolis, what would stop the extension of lifts and cleared runs to all the places that were to be left to the summer traveler? If it is hard to preserve a wilderness while it is whole, how much harder would it be to fight for one only 90 percent intact?

You have a critical decision to make. You can decide for mass recreation for San Gorgonio or you can retain the area as wilderness. What you cannot do is both. I urge you to reject this attack on the San Gorgonio Wilderness Area and, by so doing, to reaffirm the support of Congress for the Wilderness Act of 1964.

Thank you, gentlemen.
Mr. BARING. Thank you, sir.
Our next speaker will be Mr. Braverman.

Mrs. BRAVERMAN. I will present the statement of my husband, who is unable to be present today.

Mr. BARING. Very well, without objection, you may do so. It will be incorporated as if read in the interest of conserving time.



camps or other

Mr. BRAVERMAN. Let us state, immediately, that our position is one of unalterable opposition to the proposed legislation. Our opposition stems not only from the nature of the programing at de Benneville Pines, an organization camp, in the Barton Flats area of the U.S. Forest Service San Gorgonio District (the area with the secondheaviest concentration of organization camps in the United States), but also from the many other ways in which the members of our churches and fellowships have used and enjoyed the particular area under consideration in this proposed legislation.

Many of our member families send their children to Scout camps, Y


in the Barton Flats area in addition to their participation in the programs at deBenneville Pines. They report to us that, almost without exception, each such group is taken into the area each camp session for an overnight camping and hiking trip to the top of Mount San Gorgonio.

In addition, many of our member families spend weekends or vacation time at one of the public campgrounds in the Barton Flats area, and consider a hike to Slushy Meadows, Dollar Lake, or even an overnight trip to the top of Mount San Gorgonio an essential part of the family recreation. They report to us that the same is true of the many other families they meet in the public campgrounds and that they often take these hikes and overnight camping trips in groups of several families.

The nature of the trails and campsites make such trips completely safe for either a family, a group of families, or a large group of young children with proper supervision.

Considering the frequency with which these public campgrounds are filled to capacity, and the number of organization camps in the Barton Flats area, this board cannot help but feel that the use of the area must be very heavy.

As a board of directors charged with the responsibility of operating an organization camp in the Barton Flats area, we have many objections to the proposed change in use of that part of the San Gorgonio Wilderness Area.

While we have not scheduled overnight camping trips and hikes to the top of Mount San Gorgonio as part of our programing we do have hikes to Slushy Meadows or Dollar Lake scheduled and as part of our leisure week and leisure weekend recommendations for our campers. (This last July 3 some of our leisure weekenders signed the Poop-Out Hill Forest Service register at 9:30 a.m. and found that they were signed in near the bottom of the fourth page for that day.)

Because de Benneville Pines rents its facilities to groups outside our own denomination, we do have camp groups that make wider use of the area than do the groups for whom we arrange the programing.

Our concern is not only for the loss of use of the area we would suffer should this legislation be enacted, but for the winter traffic it would bring to Highway 38. DeBenneville Pines is open throughout the year, as are a number of the Barton Flats area organization camps, operating almost every weekend through the winter and frequently accommodating at operating cost during winter weeks groups of children from such agencies as the State hospitals for the mentally defective.

A ski lift on San Gorgonio, with no overnight facilities for those who went into the area to ski or ride the lift, would increase the traffic on Highway 38 considerably. Since most of these people would be traveling to and from the area in cars, with possible minimal use of buses, and would have to go down the hill the same day they went up, the traffic problem would be enormous if the ski lift were to draw the number of people its proponents indicate. Highway 38 is a twolane road with little likelihood of widening of the road in the immediate future. Even now, winter weekend traffic on the highway is considerable, with organization camp use, use by residents of private dwellings in the area, use by people who come up the hill to enjoy the snow, and use by those who have found the usual road to Big Bear Lake and Big Bear City so crowded that they take the longer route to save time.

Those of us who must use Highway 38 to get to and from our facilities stand in awe of the efficiency of the crews responsible for clearing snow, fallen rocks, and man-tossed litter from this highway. In spite of their remarkable efficiency there are times they cannot keep up with falling snow. As those of you who visited the site know, Highway 38 is far from straight. With a thin layer of snow or packed snow, it is very slippery as well as very winding. During a snowfall it is also invisible to the driver of a car, not only because of the falling snow but also because it is usually right in the clouds (frequently referred to by drivers as "fog”). Those very familiar with the road find driving up the hill under such conditions a trying experience. Those familiar with the road make no attempt to drive down the hill under such conditions. If the proposed ski lift drew the number of people its proponents predict, what arrangements have been made for facilities for those who find the road too treacherous to negotiate on a winter evening!

This board speaks from experience. There have been times the management at deBenneville Pines has had to ask people to leave camp immediately in order to get down the hill safely (sometimes almost on their arrival in camp). There have been other times when weather conditions changed to rapidly that those in camp have been unable to leave for a day or more after the camp session was to have ended. With heated cabins and each person in camp already assigned to a bed, this has not been a major problem for deBenneville Pines.

With remarkable frequency, falling snow is accompanied by failing electric power, and electrically operated thermostats prevent our heating systems from functioning. Since everyone at deBenneville Pines under such conditions had already been forewarned to bring warm clothing for day and night, and since everyone there has had warm bedding or a warm sleeping bag, it has been no problem to them down in our lodge, with a good fire going in the fireplace. What can be done, however, to accommodate the many who might be caught similarly, but unprepared, in the proposed ski-lift area, with or without electric power?

Another area of concern to our members, related to the first point of opposition, is what will be done to provide those who would use the area as it now exists with an alternate facility. Since this facility would be converted for the use primarily of only one special interest group-downhill skiers-certainly some facility must be provided for the multitudes who would lose their use of the area.

The building of a safe and scenic trail and safe and comfortable camping sites can be no small matter. Because we recognize the neutral position required of U.S. Forest Service personnel, we have made no attempt to involve them in our inquiries, even to the extent of trying to determine the cost of building these trails. Our combined imaginations have been unable to guess at the cost. We can only feel somewhat staggered at the thought of the many problems and dollars which must be involved: surveying the land to find the best possible route for a safe trail, possible blasting (bringing in men, equipment, and so forth, necessary for such an operation), clearing the trail down to bare ground, marking and setting markers, levelling the ground in some areas, establishing camping sites—the list could go on. Not only must the cost be staggering, but the time it would take to establish an alternate facility must needs stretch into at least a few years. We can only envisage an entire generation which would have to forego the experience of Scouts, Y groups, Boys Club groups, and so forth, to date, to say nothing of the families who would use the facility during this and succeeding years.

Because of the unusual “sa feness" of the existing facility, the need for patrols and emergency crews has been minimal. Injuries on the trail are an extreme rarity, and generally no more serious than a twisted ankle. The trail is so designed that there is no place where a hiker can fall down a slope, fall from a ledge, or otherwise sustain more serious injury than he would walking on a well-kept level lawn. To find an area for a comparable trail would indeed be difficult.

The accident and injury rate is quite high for downhill skiers. We can find nothing in the proposed legislation which would handle this problem. This means that the Forest Service, the San Bernardino County sheriff's office, the volunteer San Gorgonio search and rescue team and, possibly, the California Highway Patrol, would have to assume responsibility for handling victims of such' accidents and injuries.

While the proposed skilift might bring additional revenues into the coffers of the business establishments in nearby cities and towns, we cannot see how the revenue it would bring into the coffers of San Bernardino County and the State of California and into the U.S. Treasury could approach the expenditures which would be required from public funds for building alternate trails and camping facilities; for providing adequate patrol of Highway No. 38 (one sheriff's deputy would be hard pressed if he had no other responsibility than seeing to it that tire chains were used when required); for providing for the handling of injured skiers; for the ultimate widening of Highway No. 38; and for the many other public services that would have to be increased considerably to deal with the needs created by this proposed private facility.

Thank you very much, and since Mr. Bartlett had to leave, I offer his statement.

Mr. BARING. Without objection, so ordered.
It will be incorporated in the record at this point as if read.



Mr. BARTLETT. I would like to present the following reasons why H.R. 6891 and related bills should not be passed.

The area under consideration already serves as a family winter recreational area as well as family spring, summer,

and fall recreational area.

Many people as myself enjoy cross-country skiing and snowshoeing in areas of natural beauty unmolested by civilization. To construct artificial winter sports facilities in the prime area, the heart of the San Gorgonio Wilderness Area, would be to deprive us a place in which we can perform these winter sports since there is no comparable area in southern California.

The group of people which prefer artificial ski areas for their winter recreation already have at least 12 existing manmade ski areas in southern California.

San Gorgonio cannot be the only place in which artificial sports facilities for winter use can be built; it is the only wilderness area.

San Gorgonio may have ideal snow conditions and other conditions which would make an easy financial profit for the proponents of these bills, but since ski lifts, skating rinks, artificial snow, et cetera, can be made elsewhere, it would be unjust to deprive the families of the several million people of southern California of the only wilderness area which they depend on for spring, summer, and fall as well as winter use, and to cater to a group of people who are interested in financial profit or who can use the area for only a few weeks a year.

As the number of people increases, our natural resources will become limiting and it will become increasingly important to look at natural biological systems in order to see how they are regulated in terms of their populations and resources. If we destroy all of our natural systems, we may lose information contained in those systems, information which may be of great benefit in determining how to regulate human populations and resources. Therefore, several natural regions in this country should be left intact for future scientific biological study. The San Gorgonio area is the only such protected natural area in southern California.

Mrs. BRAVERMAN. I have a few remarks I would like to make, Mr. Chairman, in addition to the statement which has been presented. Mr. BARING. Very well. You may proceed.

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