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area from wilderness status, (b) curtail the extent to which the wilderness area can serve the people of southern California and the Nation as wilderness, and/or (c) result in substantial future pressures to withdraw any significant portions of the wilderness area from the wilderness status or curtail its value as wilderness to the people of southern California and the Nation.

The organization will work toward these ends by informing the people of southern California and the Nation of the importance of the San Gorgonio Wilderness Area as wilderness, the status of any threats to the wilderness area's integrity, and the means whereby individuals and groups can be most effective in meeting such threats. The organization will also repre

sent its member individuals and groups before public officials as appropriate. 2. Officers.

President: Mr. Joe Momyer, chief accountant, post office, San Bernardino, skier.

Vice president: Mr. Neale Creamer, attorney, Los Angeles, skier.
Vice president: Mr. Earle Williams, principal, Rialto school system, skier.
Treasurer: Mr. Bob Marshall, electrical engineer, Romona.

Secretary: Mrs. H. J. (Alice) Krueper, public health nurse; currently homemaker, skier.

Voting members : Mr. Clark Jones, teacher, San Bernardino High School; Mrs. Clark (Marjorie) Jones, dietician; currently homemaker; Mr. Harry Krueper, civil engineer, San Bernardino, skier; Mr. Gordon Cleaver, electrician, San Bernardino; Mr. Robin Ives, teacher, Claremont; and Mrs. R.

(Lorie) Ives, teacher, Claremont. 3. Advisory board.—Who are these men? Why do they favor preservation of the wilderness values at San Gorgonio? A sampling of responses to questionnaire sent November 1965 :

(a) Roy Coble, general secretary, Young Men's Christian Association, Redlands:

“Our organization, the local YMCA, is very much opposed to Ken Dyal's bill to open up part of the San Gorgonio wilderness to any commercial interests: ski lifts or anything else.

“I have been through this area many times. I know that its value as a wilderness area will be severely damaged, if any part of it is turned over to a bunch of guys whose primary interest is making money.

“As General secretary of the Redlands YMCA and youth worker for the past 37 years in this city, I believe I know the value of the San Gorgonio Wilderness Area in regards to molding the character of our youth.

“I hope this attempt will be defeated as it has in the past will will continue to be defeated in the future."

(b) Robert Neuman, general manager, Desert Electric Cooperative, Inc., Twentynine Palms, Calif. :

"I oppose H.R. 6891 because the construction of roads, ski lifts, and the attendant commercial installations would be to destroy one of the few remaining natural wildlife areas in the West. I believe that we should preserve these areas for the future generations to come, in order that they may see and know the beauties of wildlife, as it really is.

"The trails which have been constructed under the supervision of the Forest Service, are entirely adequate for hikers and horseback riders, who are willing to exert themselves enough to travel into this beautiful country.

From personal experience, I have made many trips to the top of San Gorgonio Peak, and intend to make many more. I know that many others could make this trip and enjoy it, without resorting to ski lifts and new automobile roads.

"Really enthusiastic skiers are able to get into this beautiful area to ski without ski lift facilities." Biographical sketch of Robert Neuman

Graduate of University of Colorado.
1941–46 : U.S. Navy, active duty.

1946–57: District manager, San Bernardino district, California Electric Power Co.

1958: Retired under Reserve Officer's Act as captain (U.S. Naval Reserve).

1957-63: Elected vice president in charge of districts, California Electric Power Co.

1964: General manager, Desert Electric Co-op.

Civic and fraternal organizations

Member and past president of the following organizations : San Bernardino Rotary Club, San Bernardino Chamber of Commerce, Arrowhead United Fund, and San Bernardino County American National Red Cross.

Chairman of Advisory Committee, Salvation Army.
Past director, San Bernardino YMCA.

Past exalter ruler, B.P.O. Elks No. 856.
Honors-

1955: Book of Golden Deeds Awards, Exchange Club of San Bernardino.

1958: Citizen of the year, San Bernardino Realty Board. (c) Dr. Robert R. Roberts, chairman of social sciences and professor of history at the California State College at San Bernardino:

“I vigorously oppose H.R. 6891 or any bill which would in any way diminish the protection of wilderness areas. I do so for the usual reasons: Such areas are too few in our urban society; the least violation of these preserves must lead to their total destruction.

Of course, such recreation areas must be preserved."

(d) Dr. Walter C. Schuiling, instructor, San Bernardino Valley College; chairman, board of directors, San Bernardino County Museum Association : “I oppose H.R. 6891 because of scientific, educational, recreational, and aesthetic value of wilderness."

(e) Orland J. Fowler, real estate, insurance, Redlands: "I have a deep personal interest in preserving the area as it is."

(f) Bruce Gregory Belt, M.D., Elmer Belt Urologic Group, Los Angeles :

“I oppose H.R. 6891 because this is the last untouched high-altitude wilderness area in southern California. Commercial skiing and wilderness conservation are mutually exclusive uses for this area which cannot coexist any better than could a hunting preserve in the middle of a bird sanctuary.

"Preservation of wilderness areas is difficult since every victory is only for now and any loss is forever. Yet like an heirloom, once a wilderness is destroyed by commercial use, cannot be replaced.

“John Kennedy said we have a land of vanishing beauty, of increasing ugliness, or shrinking open space.' San Gorgonio must be saved as an island of that wilderness which is our heritage and of that beauty which is our birthright."

(f) L. H. Dickey, superintendent of the Chino Unified School District from 1946 to 1960; camp manager of Camp La Verne in the Barton Flats area from 1925 to 1933; Boy Scout service from 1928 to date and hold the Silver Beaver Award; governor of Rotary International District 532 in 1961 ; now retired :

“I am very much opposed to H.R. 6891 and other bills to withdraw 3,500 acres of San Gorgonio Wilderness Area for any other purposes than a wilderness area. The reasons for my opposition are:

“Many youth organizations and churches have established mountain camps in the vicinity at great expense with the understanding that this area would be protected for such use. Opening the wilderness area to commercial interest would limit these youth activities.

“With the rapid increase in population it is necessary to maintain our wilderness areas.

(9) Wilson F. Heald, writer, consultant on national parks and monuments in the Office of the Secretary, Department of the Interior, Tucson, Ariz. : (a) Long. time believer in preserving representative areas of America's remaining wilderness; (b) Strong supporter of the national wilderness preservation system; and (c) Knows the area intimately in detail and believes it's more valuable as wilderness than any other form of land management.

(h) C. Edward Graves, author of "wilderness of the West," a monthly column on wilderness conservation, the Monterey Peninsula Herald : “A group of southern California ski promoters * * * are trying to mask their real purpose by calling it a plan for 'family winter recreation. This is a very thin disguise for an elaborate ski resort development which would emasculate southern California's only real wilderness area.”

(i) Dr. Joseph Wood Krutch, author of many books; Ph. D., Columbia University; member of American Academy of Arts and Letters and of American Academy of Arts and Sciences: “I believe the area one of such natural beauty that it should be preserved."

area.

(j) F. W. Went, distinguished professor of botany at the Desert Research Institute of the Unversity of Nevada :

"At present I am distinguished professor of botany at the Desert Research Institute of the University of Nevada. This organization is devoted to research and is deeply committed to conservation of nature. Thus, the Desert Research Institute would support any action which would preserve areas of special importance for the study of nature. The San Gorgonio Wilderness Area is of great importance for a study of the origin of the mountain flora in the West, since it is the highest peak in southwest North America. In connection with a study of the alpine flora in Nevada, which I have started (publication : F. W. Went, "Growing Conditions of Alpine Plants,” in Isreal Journal of Botany 13: 1965), I must be able to study the undisturbed flora of San Gorgonio as well (which I have visited several times in the past).

"There is one more remark I must make. If areas, set aside as wilderness areas or as national park, after careful consideration can be removed again from that protection, there is very little sense in protecting them at all. A wilderness area or national park, once established, should be inviolate."

(k) Devereux Butcher, author of “Exploring Our National Parks and Monuments,” 5th edition, with 120,000 copies of all editions printed or sold ; “Exploring Our National Wildlife Refuges,” 2d edition, 20,000 copies; and latest book, out last February, “Our National Parks in Color,” 22,000 copies; was executive secretary of National Parks Association for 15 years :

"I recently mailed a statement of opposition to the bills that would allow invasion of the area for downhill skiing. “It is good to know that you are pitching into the battle to save the wilderness

Those of us unable to attend the hearing will took forward to a victory." (1) T. C. (Ted) Binney, investments (self-employed), board of directors, San Bernardino Chamber of Commerce; serving on city charter study committee : “The land should be preserved for youth.”

(m) Gerald Scherra, professor of biology, chairman, Natural Sciences Division, California State College at San Bernardino: “I oppose H.R. 6891 as an undesirable bill since it would remove from the status of a wilderness area an extremely valuable scientific resource. As a wilderness area, the San Gorgonio region contains a number of interesting long-range scientific problems. If the region is disturbed by roadways, etc., the value of this region for these studies can be seriously impaired.”

(n) Dr. Carl W. Sharsmith, professor of botany, San Jose State College, San Jose, Calif.; park naturalist, U.S. National Parks Service, 1931 to present; ecological studies of heavily used areas at upper altitudes in Sierran National Parks: “I oppose H.R. 6891 on ecological grounds.” (His statement has been submitted to the committee.)

(0) Dr. Harlan Lewis, professor of botany and dean, division of life sciences, University of California, Los Angeles :

“I am opposed to H.R. 6891 because I consider the present use of the San Gorgonio Wilderness Area by hikers and cross-county skiers to be a far more valuable use of this particular area than its 'development for ski-lifts. Intrusion of the proposed activity into the heart of the area would destroy the present value of the whole area as a wilderness enjoyed by a very large number of individuals, particularly the young people that attend the adjacent camps.

"I grew up in Redlands and consequently have a very particular affection for the San Gorgonio Wilderness Area because it was in that very area that I first learned the exhiliration that comes with a wilderness experience. It was in 1931 when I was 12 years old and spent 2 weeks at Camp Arataba in Barton Flats. The present wilderness area, had, even at that time, a tremendous influence on my subsequent choice of a vocation. Over the years I have often been in the area with friends and with my family for wilderness enjoyment and have made many other trips along the trails with my college students and with YMCA groups, to which my two sons belong, in order to introduce them to the rare biota as well as the natural beauty of the area. I have also gone into the area on skis for it is truly wonderful for cross-county travel in winter, especially the side that is now proposed for development for a substitute, and to my way of thinking, less gratifying form of skiing.

"From these remarks it should be obvious that my opposition is more than just one of principle for I know from 35 years of intimate acquaintance with the area what a tremendous loss it will be to a significant segment of the population if this wilderness area is violated.”

(p) Dr. John D. Goodman, professof of biology, University of Redlands (he will present a statement at the hearings) : "I feel that the San Gorgonio area is unique. Also, a precedent would be set if skiing is allowed inside a wild area."

(q) Dr. Verne Grant, geneticist at Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden, Claremont, and professor of botany, Claremont Graduate School: “As our population continues to grow and urbanization spreads over our country there is an urgent need for preservation of wilderness areas now."

(r) Jack Coyle, auto dealer, president, San Bernardino member of Republican central committee: "I don't want to see the area overrun.

It should be kept remote."

(s) Dr. Walter P. Taylor, lecturer in conservation education, Claremont Graduate School, Claremont, Calif.; senior biologist, U.S. Department of the Interior, 1940–51; president of American Society of Mammalogists 1940-41. Gold Medal, U.S. Department of the Interior. (Many other distinguished offices and positions; coauthor, “The Birds of the State of Washington,” 1953; editor, “The Deer of North America,” 1956; author of about 300 titles principally in the fields of systematic zoology, ecology, and the conservation of natural resources: “I oppose H.R. 6891 because it is entirely out of line with the civilized procedure of conserving at least a little of wild nature undisturbed by commercialization, machinery, and the almost limitless exploitation to which most of our acres are now subjected." B. Other groups who support the Defenders' position

Time has not permitted a complete study of all groups who are supporting the Defenders in opposition to H.R. 6891. Organizations responding to my questionnaire included :

Members 1. San Bernardino Horsemen's Association, San Bernardino (representa

tive at hearing) 2. Inland Council of Conservation, care of Leonard Hummel, secretary, El Segundo, Calif...

25, 000 3. Pioneer Historical Society (Mr. A. G. Paal, president), Riverside, Calif.

75 4. Inland Council of Sportsmen's Clubs of Big Bear Valley Sportsmen's Club

950 5. "The Nature Friends," Inc., State of California, Los Angeles branch-- 125 6. The fellows of San Diego Society of Natural History, Natural History Museum, San Diego, Calif_.

79 7. Redlands Fish and Game Conservation Association, Ross L. Mossman, secretary-treasurer, Redlands, Calif_

60 8. Desomount Club care of Mrs. Evelyn Gayman, Los Angeles, Calif..

320 9. Orange County Memorial Garden Center, Costa Mesa, Calif. 10. Orange County YMCA, Orange, Calif.--11. Highland Congregational Church, Highland, Calif.

300 12. San Bernardino Valley Audubon Society -

203 13. San Bernardino County Museum Association..

550 14. Redlands YMCA board of directors, Redlands. 15. The Desert Protective Council, Inc., Banning, Calif--

800 16. The Whittier Audubon Society, care of Mrs. J. H. Comby, conservation chapter, Whittier, Calif---

130 17. California League of Rural Communities, Fontana, Calif. 18. California Garden Clubs, Inc., San Bernardino Valley District, includ

ing: Arrowhead Garden Club, Desert Planters of Ridgecrest, De-
vore Garden Club, Fontana Garden Club, Inter-Counties Garden
Club (Los Angeles, Orange, Riverside, and San Bernardino Coun-
ties), Muscoy Woman's Club, garden section, Oasis Garden Club of
Indian Wells Valley, Redlands Horticultural and Improvement
Society

500 19. Mountaineering Explorer Post 397, La Mirada, Calif_

NOVEMBER 15, 1965. HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, Interior and Insular Affairs Committee, Washington, D.C.

HONORABLE GENTLEMEN : Miss Gertrude Hagum, Redlands, Calif., has graciously consented and is authorized for the three organizations listed below to submit the following testimony opposing H.R. 6891.

"I. THE SAN BERNARDINO COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY, MR. BERNARD REST,

PRESIDENT

“The San Bernardino County Historical Society Board of 12 members at their meeting on the 25th of October 1965, unanimously passed a resolution vigorously opposing H.R. 6891.

"This group of citizens elected at large from the county by the members of the county historical society were disturbed that legislation is being again brought up before the U.S. Congress after the passage in 1964 which kept the area intact. Many of these board members are longtime or native residents of the mountains and valley and have keen insight as to the problem involved. Twelve members on the board."

"II. THE CITY OF REDLANDS PARK COMMISSION, DR. PAUL F. ALLEN, CHAIRMAN

“At the regular meeting of the city park commission, September 21, 1965, the park commission unanimously and vigorously went on record opposing any future opening of the San Gorgonio Wilderness Area.

“The commission is made up of five representative citizens appointed by the city council and are responsible for the beautification of the park and parkways of the city and are aware of the problems of conservation in the San Gorgonio area.”

III. FORTNIGHTLY CLUB, REDLANDS, CALIF., DR. ARTHUR L. SWIFT, PRESIDENT

“On the 1,077th regular meeting of the Fortnightly Club held October 7, 1965, on the motion of Dr. S. Stillman Berry (internationally known zoologist and currently a recipient of a National Science Foundation grant, adviser to numerous colleges and universities and eminent citizen of Redlands of more than 60 years, and who is thoroughly and personally acquainted with the area in consideration) that the Fortnightly Club opposes H.R. 6891 as irreputable harm will be done to this area. This motion was unanimously carried.

"The Fortnightly Club, an organization limited to 35 men, established in 1895 for purposes serious study, meets approximately 15 times a year to discuss numerous problems. Their formal papers are found on file in the A. K. Smiley Public Library, Redlands, Calif., where these papers constitutes a significant contribution to the knowledge of the area including several studies on this general problem being considered. One of the club's late members, the Honorable Jeffrey J. Prendergast, member of the California State Forestry Board and authority on water conditions and former legislator, also had opposed this change.”

Honorable Gentlemen, these three organizations represent a knowledgeable cross section of persons in the valley whose recommendation to you is that the San Gorgonio Wilderness Area be kept intact and not open to future development, inasmuch as it is already available to the public for them in other ways.

Thank you for your consideration and time and we earnestly hope this will be of help to you in your long-range planning and legislation. We thank Miss Hagum for her courtesy in representing us. Sincerely,

PAUL F. ALLEN, Representing San Bernardino County Historical Society, Redlands City Park Commission, and Redlands Fortnightly Club.

NOVEMBER 11, 1965. Miss GERTRUDE HAGUM, Redlands, Calif.

DEAR Miss HAGUM : We were most happy to receive your letter and request for information about our use of the San Gorgonio Wilderness Area. We have supported the Defenders with contributions and are glad to do it with words, as well.

Our group of Explorer Scouts specializes in mountaineering * * * year round. We have seen the area when spring is bursting forth in all its magnificence. We've been there in the summer when it's such a welcome refuge from the bustling smog-filled domain below. We've walked the trails in the fall when the nights are nippy and the air holds the promise of snow soon. And, perhaps most wonderful of all, we've trudged up the trails in the winter when everything is hushed beneath the new-fallen snow.

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