Cross-cultural Differences in Perspectives on the Self
Virginia Murphy-Berman, John J. Berman
U of Nebraska Press, 2003 - Self-Help - 341 pages
Cross-Cultural Difference in Perspectives on the Self features the latest research in a dynamic area of inquiry and practice. Considered in these pages are cross-cultural differences in the idea of the person and in models of balancing obligations to the self, family, and community. ø Revisiting and questioning the concepts of self and self-worth, the authors investigate the extent to which factors traditionally associated with psychological effectiveness (intrinsic motivation; assuming personal responsibility for one?s actions; and feeling in control, unique, hopeful, and optimistic) are culturally bound. Hazel Markus and Shinobu Kitayama consider cultural differences in models of psychological agency; Joan Miller critiques the meaning of the term agency, analyzing the extent to which many popular theories in psychology rest on rather narrow Western models of behavior and effective functioning; Steven Heine calls into question the presumed universality of some forms of cognitive processing; Sheena Iyengar and Sanford DeVoe apply a cross-cultural perspective to better understand intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and the value of choice; Kuo-shu Yang questions the universality of the pervasive and popular ?theory of self-actualization? formulated by Abraham Maslow; and finally, Ype Poortinga reexamines not only the cultural boundaries of theory but also the very meaning of the concept of culture itself.
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actions American Psychologist Asian Americans attachment theory autonomy basic human needs behavior belongingness needs Cambridge Chinese cognitive dissonance Coherence of Culture collectivism collectivist cultures collectivistic and individualistic college-educated concept Confucian conjoint agency contrast CROSS-CULTURAL DIFFERENCES cross-cultural psychology cultural differences cultural psychology Deci defined DIFFERENCES IN PERSPECTIVES disjoint agency double-Y dutiful choosers East Asian emphasized empirical esteem needs European American functioning genetic goals Heine high school-educated in-group independent Individualism and collectivism individualist cultures interdependent internal interpersonal interpersonal relationships intrinsic motivation Iyengar Japan Japanese Journal of Personality Kitayama Lehman Lepper Markus Maslow's Theory Miller models of agency moral Nisbett one's orientation parenting participants perceived Personality and Social Poortinga positive preferences processes relational relationships responses role Ryan self-actualization self-determination theory self-enhancement self-esteem sense Shweder situations social esteem Social Psychology societies sociocultural studies suggest theoretical tion Triandis University Press Value of Choice volitional choosers Western York