Final Report on the Revision of Settlement of the Sirsá District in the Punjáb

Front Cover
Calcutta Central Press Company, 1884 - Agriculture - 509 pages
 

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Contents

Soils
12
VegetationGrasses
13
VegetationShrubs
15
VegetationBushes and Trees
17
Wild Animals
19
CHAPTER II
22
Hindu Legends of the Saraswati
24
Notices of the Tract previous to the 18th Century
25
Condition of the Tract during the 18th Century
27
Condition of the Tract at the beginning of the 19th Century
28
Tracts of Country as known to the Peoplo
29
Border Raids 80
30
Conquest and Annexation of the Sotar Valley
32
Encroachments by neighbouring States 83
34
Later extensions of the Boundary of the District
35
Former Parganas
38
Pabas Subjects Pages 37 Summary Settlement of the Dry Tract
39
Condition of the District in 1837
40
Severity of Assessments
41
Drought of 183738
42
Revenue Demand 184142
47
Increase of the District and its Revenue
48
Results of the Regular Settlement
50
Colonisation of the Prairie round Abohar
52
Changes in the Demand
53
Increase of Cesses since the Regular Settlement
55
Remissions since the Regular Settlement
56
Balances since the Regular Settlement
58
Takkavi Advances since the Regular Settlement
59
Net Collections from the Land since the Regular Settlement Revenue Cesses and Takkavi
60
Coercive Processes
61
The Restoration of Order
63
The Attitude of the People
64
History from 1857 to 1863Drought of 186661
66
Drought of 186869 and great loss of Cattle
67
History from 1869 to 1872Gradual Accumulation of Arrears
68
Good Harvests and large Collections of 187273
69
History from 1876 to 1879Drought of 187778
70
Bumper Harvests of 188182 and 188283 and prosperous condi tion of the District
72
Colonisation of the DistrictGradual increase in number and size of Villages
73
Growth of Population and Rate of Increase
75
Immigration from Neighbouring Tracts
76
Increase of Population and Cultivation in different parts of the District
77
Density of Population in different parts of the District
78
The Tribes arranged in order of numbers
79
The number of Villages owned by each Tribe
80
The social position of each Tribe
81
The Jats and Rajputs
83
Different sections of Jats
84
Paras Scbjects Pages 78 The Bagri Jats
85
The Hindu Rajputs
86
The Musalman Jats and Rajputs
87
Clans of Musalman Jats and Rajputs
89
LIST OF APPENDICES
90
Clans of Bagri Jats
93
Clans of Sikh Jats
94
The Bodlas and Chishtis
95
The Rains
97
Other Musalmans
98
The Brahmans and Faqirs
99
The Banyas Aroras and other Mercantile Classes
100
The Kumhrs
103
TheKhatis
104
The Lohars
105
The Chamars and other workers in Leather
106
The Chuhras
107
The Machhi and allied Castes
108
The Chhimba Teli Nai Mfrdsi and allied Castes
109
The Bawariyas
110
The Dialects spoken in the Sirsa District
120
Characters used in writing
124
LiteratureVerses and Proverbs
125
Education
126
Muhammadanism in Sirsa
128
The Sikh Religion
134
The Bishnoi Religion
136
The Religion of the Jains Ascetics and Low Castes
139
Places of Pilgrimage
141
Fasts and Festivals
143
Superstitions Omens and Charms
144
Age and Conjugal Condition
146
Disparity of the Sexes
149
Health Infirmities and Insanity 15
152
Dress and Ornaments
155
Houses and Furniture
157
Family Life and Etiquette
159
Domestic Ceremonies at Birth Betrothal Marriage and Death
162
Tribal Custom
173
The Villages
176
Paras Subjects Pagks I78i Babi Harvest 1888 27+ 179 Summary of Observations of seven Harvests 27C
179
The Village Menials and Village Organisation
180
Labourers and Wages
183
Occupations
185
Trade and Carriage
187
Course of Trade
190
Paras Subjects Pages 180 Rates of Interest and Exchange
191
Rania Rori and Ellenabad
193
Abohar
194
Fazilka Town
195
Distribution of Population
197
Measures of Time
198
Measures of Length
199
Measures of Area
201
13 Measures of Weight
202
Measures of Capacity
203
Irrigation from wells in the Hi tar
219
The floods of the Ghaggar
221
Irrigation Works on the Ghaggar
223
Future Prospects of Irrigation on the Ghaggar
225
Area flooded by the Ghaggar and nature of the Annual Floods
226
Crops grown on lands flooded by the Ghaggar
229
The unirrigated Sotar lands
232
Satlaj Floods and Irrigation Works 283
238
Prospects of Irrigation in the Dry Tracts
239
Uncertainty of the Rainfall
241
Nature of the Rainfall in past years
245
Crops grown on Unirrigated Lands
247
Agriculture Implements and Operations
250
Use of Manure and deterioration of Soil
253
Causes reducing the outturn of Crops
254
Mode of observation of Harvests
256
Kharif Harvest 1880
260
Rabi Harvest 1881
264
Kharif Harvest 1881
265
Rabi Harvest 1882
268
Kharif Harvest 1882
270
of years
277
Estimate of average outturn and average Gross Produce of Grain and Straw
279
Account of the different Kharif Crops
280
Account of the different liabi Crops
283
Estimated average Gross Produce of each Crop
287
History of Prices
288
Estimated average Prices of Grain and Fodder
291
Estimated average Value of Gross Produce
292
The uncultivated Area
293
Enumeration of Live Stock in 1880
296
Bullocks
298
Cows
299
Produce and Price of Ghi
300
98 Cattlebreeding in Sired
302
Camels
304
Horses and Donkeys
306
Sheep and Goats 3o8 202 Other Domestic AnimalsPloughs
309
Miscellaneous Produce 31
310
CHAPTER V
311
Names of Villages 812
312
Boundary of British Territory Demarcated
315
Land parcelled out into Townships with Definite Boundaries 815
318
Right of the State under early British Rule 819
324
The Limitation of the Right of the State 824
325
The Division of the Cultivators into Proprietors and Tenants
327
The Grant of Rights of Occupancy to the Tenants 829
330
The Effect of the Kegular Settlement
332
Taras Subjects Pages 224 Abandonment of Rights of Occupancy
335
Rights in Land brought under cultivation after Settlement
337
Importance of the Tenant Class in Sirsd
338
The effect of the Panjab Tenancy Act of 1868 839
341
Special legislation refused
346
Rent in kind
348
Cash Rents
351
Sales and MortgagesRise in the value of rights in Land
353
Gradual Definition of Rights
356
State of Rights before the Revision of Settlement commenced
358
Principles of the Revision of Settlement
359
The Settlement Survey
360
The List of Holdings 863
363
The Size of Holdings
364
The Attestation of the Record
365
Transfers of Proprietary Right 333
366
The mode of Partition
367
334
368
The Distribution of the Assessment
371
The Progress of Partitions
373
Extension of cultivation by Tenants
374
Continuance of the Struggle between the Proprietors and Tenants
375
Questions regarding Land formerly held with Right of Occupancy 876
378
Grant of Occupancy Rights at Attestation
379
Determination of the Rents of Tenants with Rights of Occupancy
381
Defeat of the Tenants as regards Land broken up since Settlement
384
The Farmed VillagesGrant of the Leases
385
Former Reports on the Farms
387
Grant of Occupancy Rights to the Tenants
390
The Orders carried out 891
391
The Effects of the Orders
393
The Sukhlambari Grants
395
Rights of the Grantees against Government and among themselves 895
397
Arrangements regarding the lands of Absentee Grantees 899
400
Record of Local Customs
402
Rights of Pasture
404
Irrigation Rights
405
Rightsto Drinking Water
407
Rights in the Village Site
409
Common Expenses and Common Burdens of the Village
410
Roads and Land acquired for Public Purposes
412
Village Officials
414
CHAPTER VI
417
The Nali
427
The Rohi
434
The Hitar
449
Paras Subjects Pages
456
Ditto of Fluctuating Assessment on the Ghaggar
462
The HitarFluctuating Assessment introduced
468
Ditto Method of working the system
476
88 Ditto Working of the System hitherto
482
CHAPTER VII
488
The Assessments announced and distributed
494
The Patwaris Girdawars and Kanungoa
500
The Superior Revenue Staff
506
Vernaculab Index and Glossary
lxii
Tendency towards Separation of Rights 414
lxv

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