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recommending, from Ecclef. vii. 8. what is much wanted in the present state of our country and of Europe, political prudence, calmness, and moderation. By adverting to those circumstances in our history which this anniversary is intended to bring into recollection, and by combining them with the instructive lesson read us by the distracted ftate of a neighbouring country, the Right Reverend preacher takes occafion to urge the necessity of guarding, with peculiar vigilance, against total subversion and anarchy, while attempting to amend ur improve. He speaks of the French in terms becoming a christian Bishop; contemplating their fituation with sentiments of pity, and praying for their happiness and peace. We deem it some praise of his sermon that it only requires to be thus briefly noticed. Art. 45. Preached before the Hon. House of Commons at St. Marga.
set's, Westminster, Jan. 30, 1794. By the Rev. Thomas Hay, A. M. Chaplain to the House of Commons. 4to. is. Walter.
Similar to the preceding in its tendency, and certainly not inferior in point of composition. Taking his text from Isaiah iü. 5. Mr. Hay is led to mention the great object of civil government, the security of individuals from the oppression of each other, and to paint the evils which muft necefiarily relult from the diffolution of law and authority. As such anarchy must be the dread of every good citizen,--whenever the public mind is agitated, the maxims of caution are peculiarly sea. fonable. Mr. H. warns us against the extremes of fanaticism on the one hand, and of irreligion on the other, and endeavours to keep us in good humour with our government and religion. We, (says he,) amongst all the nations of the earth, are distinguihed for the possession of a mixed form of government, in which the powers of each branch of the legislature are plainly defined ; and withall so admirably constituted, that by the mutual controul and counteraction of its several parts, it precludes the evils and insures the benefits, attending each of the three forms of which it is composed, in their simple and unmixed state ; a fyftem extending protection to all the various members of the community, eminently marked by its energy, its wisdom and its virtue. We are pofleffed of a reformed religion, establifhed under the auspices of learning and moderation, equally remote from superstition and infidelity,'
Mr. H. does not forget to urge the necessity of virtue in individuals to give effect to these good institutions.
ÇORRESPONDENCE. To retradt an erroneous opinion is a duty which we owe both to the Public and to ourselves; but to revoke, as erroneous, a position which we know to he well founded, would be a derersion of truth, and a stretch of complaisance which we think nur correspondene Vindex Veritatis too reasonable to expect. He tells os that Mr. Bellam's Memoirs of our Kings of the Brunswic Line support the atfertion which we ridiculed in our review of Mr. Gerrald's publication in favour of a convention, viz, " That the purchase of two German duchies by George I. produced a Spanish war." We have again looked into those Memoirs; and an attentive perusal of the part of them that relates to his bufiness has not only confirmed us in the opinion which we have already delivered, but has alfo made us greatly wonder how Vindex Veritatis could possibly conceive that the credit of Mr. Betsham was in any degree affected by the ridicule which we threw on Mr. Gerrald's fatement. Had the propofition been, that the purchase of Bremen and Verden had involved u with Sweden, or that George I. was too much influenced by his predilection for his German dominions, we perhaps should not have thought of controverting it; what we asserted, and what we repeat, is, that it was not this purchase which brought on us a war with Spain. The origin of the war with Philip V. is thus fated by Mr. Beltham, pages 142, 143. vol. i.“ By the treaty of Utrecht, the kingdoms of Naples and Sardinia were ceded to the House of Ausria, together with Milan and the Low Countries; and the inand of Sicily, with the title of King, to the Duke of Savoy. The pride of Spain was, however, deeply wounded by this forcible dismemberment of her monarchy, though the experience of almost a century had shewn how little acceflion of Atrength the really derived from the poffeffion of these detached and remote provinces, or rather how great an increase of weakness. Cardinal Alberoni, prime minifter of Philip V. a man of a lofry and aspiring genius, which delighted to form bold and dangerous projects, at this time entertained the chimerical hope of re. uniting to the monarchy of Spain the kingdoms and province of which she had been divelted. And the Emperor being actually engaged in a war with Turkey, the Cardinal embraced the opportunity to equip a formidable armament, which failed from Bara celona June 1917, and landing at Cagliari, the capital of Sardinia, loon made an entire conquest of the isand; pretending as a reason for this invasion (the purchase of the duchies of Bremen and Verden by George I.? No; but) the previous violation of the most positive engagements on the part of the Emperor, or to adopt the haughty language of the court of Madrid, of ihe ARCHDUKE :"-For it seems that Spain had not recognized him as emperor. Mr. Belmam, in a note, gives a copy of the Marquis de Grimaldi's circular letter addreffed to The ministers of all the foreign courts, which contains all the grounds on which Spain thought herself justified in going to war: but not a word is said in it either of Bremen or Verden, of Great Britain or Hanover. So far we have the authority of Mr. B.'s Memoirs for saying that Spain did not go to war with this country on account of those duchier. Why then did the declare against us? The same Memoirs tell us that the took that step in consequence of the destruction of her Açet by Admiral Sir George Byng on the coast of Sicily; nay, it appears that, inde. pendently of this action, which surely might well be called a declaration of war, the first formal declaration of hostilities was actually from Great Britain. Mr. B., in his account of the consequences of the English naval victory, having stated various particular, thus proceeds, vol. i. P. 150." But the court of Madrid exclaimed in the moft passionate language against the conduct of England, as contrary to the law of nations, and a flagrant violation of ihe most solemn engagements; and orders were ifsued at all the ports of Spain and the Indies, for making reprisals upon the English; in consequence of which, war was formally declared by England against Spain, which was foon followed by a like declaration on the part of the Regent of France.” From all this it ap. pears that we have Mr. Belmham with 18, when we say that Spain did not go to war with us on account of Bremen and Verden.
Our correspondent, however, may perhaps say that, if George I. had not purchased thefe duchies, he would not have supported the Emperor; and that, if he had not supported that prince, we would have had no war with Spain; that he took part with the Emperor for the purpose of procuring from bim the investiture of these Aaies; and that,
consequently, the purchase of them was the primary cáuse of our wat with Spain. This we deny; and we inlift that, had this purchase never been meditated, we should not have been the less engaged in that war. Leaving Hanover totally out of the question, if England were interefted in procuring for the House of Anfria the position of Sardinia and Naples, was the not interested in preserving i hofe dominions to that Houle? Was not the bound to it by every confideration of good faith and policy? Was it for the safety of Great Britain that the power of the Emperor, the only one which could then be effe&ually opposed on the continent of Europe to the Hoose of Bourbon, should be attacked at the same time by the Turks and the Spaniards, and be exposed to the danger of being crushed between theni? He mult be a furry politician indeed, who could not discover various important grounds of justification of the part which Great Britain took on that occasion, without bestowing a thought on the paltry confideration of fecuring Bremen and Verden.
If it were the purchase of these duchies that made us interfere between the Emperor and Spain, what purchase had France and Holland made, which induced them to take the same step, and to join with the courts of Vienna and London in forming the famous quadruple alliance? None. Did they confederate with us for the purpose of iecoring Bremen and Verden to the Fiector of Hanover? This would have been an act of complaisance unparalleled in the annals of politeness; Holland certainly understood the valne of money too well to squander it in proofs of condescenfion; and the finances of France were in too disordered a flate to allow the Regent to go to war with Spain merely to thew how ready he was to enrich the Elector of Hanover.
That the purchase of Bremen and Verden had nothing to do with our Spanish war in the year 1718, is evident from Mr. Belsham; an author whose authority we are lo far from impeaching, that we appeal to it for support; and we recommend it to Vindex Veritatis to read the valuable Memoirs published by that gentleman, before he again afferts ' tbat honest Shippen was sent to the Tower for commenting with severity upon the fail, which Mr. Gerrald ftates to the public information.' Had V'index Veritatis read, or understood, Mr. Keltham, he could not poflibiy.nave made such an affertion. We will give two extracts more from the Memoirs; which, we truft, will convince our correspondent himflf that he ought to retract his own opinion, inítead of calling on us to retract ours; and that, if Mr. Belthain has any cause for complaint on this occasion, it is not against os, but against the Champion for Truth who attacks us. The case of Shippen's commitment to the Tower is thus ftated, vol. i. p. 151, 152.
" In the reflion of parliament which commenced Nov. 1717, the King had in his speech assured the two houses, that his endeavours to preferve the public tranquillity had not been unsuccessful........ A coa, liderable reduction of the army was in consequence proposed on the part of the ministers, who contented themselves with moving for 18,003 men only for the service of the ensuing year. Even this force was deemed by the opposition very unnecessary, and an effort was in vain made to limit the number to 12,000. Mr. Walpole, in particular, declaimed, with much energy, on the dangers of a standing army in a free country... .., And Mr. Shippen, in the course of a very able Speech, declared the expence attending the army to be the smallest objection to it. The chief argument against it was, that the civil and military power would not long ftand together. Far from being neces: fary to our protection, he apprehended so great a force to be inconsistent with our safety. In certain cireumstances an army might be neceffary,.
but in such circumstances it was only to be chosen as the leser evil; for that abstractly considered, it was an evil, every lover of liberty mult aeknowledge. I know, said this inflexible patriot, thai there a fértions interfere with some paragraphs of his Majeity's speech. But we are to consider that speech as the composition of the ministers and advisers of the crown, and we are therefore at liberty, to controvert every propolition in it, particularly those cehich seem calculated railer for the MERIDIAN of GERMANY ihan of GREAT BRITAIN. But it is the infelicity of his Majesty's reign, that he is unacquainted with our language and CONSTITUTION.'
For there marked expressions, taken down by Mr. Isechmere, and which were stated to be a scandalous inveclive against the King's person and government, Mr. Shippen, refusing to give any explanation of ihem, was committed to the Tower. The expressions were highly constiina tional; Mr. Shippen's whole speech was calculateil to sew the danger with which the constitution of England was threatened by a landing army: but, with all our attention to it, we are not able to discover so much as an allusion to Bremen and Verden, nor a hint that the purchase of ihere duchies had occafioned our war with Spain. To prove that Shippen was not committed “ for commenting with severity on the fadi which Mr. Gerrald ftates,' we will quote Shipper's own declararion, recorded by Mr. Beltham, vol. i. p. 327. In a parliament holden long after, viz. 1733, an attempt was again made the House of Coin. mons to reduce the number of ihe landing army. Mr. Horace Walpole afferred that the number of troops then proposed was necesary to support his Majesty's governmeni, and would be necessary fu long as the nation enjoyed ine happiness of having the present illufirious family on the throne. Mr. Shippen, among other things in answer to this declaration, " said thar His Majesty KNEW how much the nation was loaded with debes and taxes—and how inconsistent it was with our confiitution 10 keep up a sanding army in tinie of peace. Mr. Shippen, being called vehemently to order for thele last words, declared himielf peculiarly unfortunate; for that, in a former parliameni, he had incurred the severe displeasure and cenfure of that house, for afferring that the late Monarch was unacquainted with the conftitution; and he now gave high offence, by declaring that his present Majelty was not unacquainted with ihe conftitution."
We presume that Mr. Shippen knew for what he had been committed; and, if he here Rates the cause correctly, Vindex Veritatis surely ought to make the amende honorable to Mr. Beltham, for ascribing to chat author an allertion which he never thonght of making, viz. “ that the purchase of Bremen and Verden had involved us in a war with Spain in 1718; and that Mr. Shippen was committed to the Tower for having commented with severity on that fact;" an afleriion which, if he had made it, we certainly should not have passed unnoticed in our review of bis Memoirs.
+++ We can assure • A Suffolk Freeholder that his appeal to our candor and impartiality would not fail of procuring from os 2 manly and ample apology,' if we were convinced that we had · ignorantly misrepresented him, and hastily mified the public;' and, if we refuse to make the desired apology, it is only because we are satisfied that we have not wronged him. He refers us to a publication in support of his statement, on which, if its contents be such as he deferibes them, he ought to discharge all his resentment, for it has urdoubtedly misled himn. We certainly would spare time to read that
publication, publication, if the tak had not been rendered unnecessary by this cir. cumstance, that the Reviewer of the Suffolk Freeholder's work (fee Rev. for March, P.343.) happened to be present when Mr. Fox made the speech in question; and, from the evidence of his own ears, he can take upon him to say that nothing can be more unlike the original than the copy on which it appears that the Suffolk Freeholder has founded his observations. As it was the with neareft our hearts to be just to the public, to our correspondent, and to ourselves, we resolved to take the opinion of some friends who also heard Mr. Fox deliver the speech in queftion; and we had the satisfaction to find, that their recollection of it tallied with and confirmed our own idea of it. Had it been otherwise, we assure the Suffolk Freeholder that we would have been, if possible, more ready to make him reparation than he can be to require it. All that we can do at present, is to advise him to be more caatious in future in the choice of the documents on which he intends to build a charge against any publis man. We are persuaded that he must have been mifled by an erroneous account of the speech to which he refers; for it is a fair prefumption that the man, who exacts an apology for a misrepresentation, is himself incapable of wilfully misrepresenting another.
1111! We are pleased to find that an obliging correspondent from Berwick, whose signature is J. or S., agrees with us in his idea of the proper punctuation of the line in Othello: Put out the light and then Put out the light! but we have not room to infert che explanation which he gives of the line fu pointed.
tllt Medicus, of Jedburgh, requests us to point out the exact title of a work to which we have alluded in another article: but our me. mory does not serve us in this particular, nor do our Indices avail us. We only recollect the tendency of that publication.
tit In reference to our query in the note + p. 173 of the Review for February, Dr. Beaufort informs us that he literally made so ulē at all of any of the printed maps of Ireland,' in constructing his new one; and that, with regard to Rocque, he only quotes topographical maps of two counties which that geographer surveyed. This explanation is due to the Doctor.
ISI1 Mr. Buchanan's letter is received: but we have not yet had leisure to peruse his new work.
*** The communication from Mr. G-s, of the R. E. A. Ofice, is acknowleged, and hall receive attention.
*q* Our notice of other Letters is unavoidably deferred.
In the last Review, p. 245, 1. 15. from the bottom, for project dies,' r. projects dies ; 253, I. 25. for • Vexatis,' r. Vexatio ; 256, 1. 18. for above,' r. below; 263, I. 20. for • pale thee,' r. pall thee.