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able to suppose, that the day is not distant, when all who love the Lord Jesus will participate in the work.
The heathen world is extensively moved. All the principal nations have been visited, and the means of enlightening them prepared. The sacred Scriptures have been translated into their languages; and presses, in sufficient numbers, have been established, to give them a speedy and extensive circulation. The gospel has been preached, till, in some lands, the worship of idols is abolished, and in others, its ancient foundations are undermined, and it is tottering to its fall. Were it proper to descend to particulars, the service would be most easy and delightful to confirm these positions by a reference to facts ; but duty requires us at present to confine our details to efforts of our own denomination; and we shall commence, as usual, with stations in Burmah.
Rangoon. Rangoon is a city of Burmah proper, where our missions to that country first commenced. Rev. Messrs. Jones, Wade, and Kincaid, have successively occupied the place during the year. Mr. Jones, who was here at the date of the last report, could not, at the time of his arrival from Maulmein, speak the language of the country ; though before he left, on the first of Feb. 1832, he was able to converse with the natives, and interest them on the subject of religion. Mr. Wade succeeded him on the first of April, with the intention of remaining; but before three months had elapsed, he was compelled by a severe attack on the liver, to return to Maulmein for medical advice, where he was afterwards induced to continue. About the same time, it was recommended by the brethren to Mr. Kincaid to remove to Rangoon; and being strongly inclined himself to occupy the post, he gladly consented. He was, like Mr. Jones, unable at first to preach in Burman; but both found means of being extensively useful. This place, as heretofore stated, furnishes unusual facilities for the distribution of tracts and portions of the Scriptures, being the principal commercial city of the empire, and the centre of attraction for religious festivals. No method of doing good, in the present state of the country, promises so much usefulness as the circulation of books. These travel where the living preacher, from the prejudices of the priesthood, and the fears of a despotic government, would not be suffered to go. To this service the brethren diligently applied theinselves, and went daily to the chief places, either of business or superstitious devotion, and gave away tracts to all who were disposed to read them. They were, moreover, often called on at their residence, by persons residing far in the interior, whose principal object was to provide themselves with means of inforination respecting the religion of Christ, of which they had heard something in the places, froin whence they came.
Native disciples were employed by the missionaries to co-operate in the same work. Ko Thah-a, the pastor of the church, went daily about the city, and Moung En and Ko Shan made extensive tours in the country, stopping at the villages, and scattering such publications as they had with them. These were not always strictly religious. Of about eleven thousand, distributed by Mr. Jones and under his direction, most of which went into the interior, he says, about one eighth were tracts on astronomy and geography. These, though not properly speaking religious, are accomplishing their work. If the people can be inbued with correct sentiments on these sciences, they will at once perceive, that their religious system is a baseless fabrick, for it is founded upon and closely interwoven with, the grossest imaginable whims and conceits in regard to the solar system. Nearly one fourth are comparisons and reasoninys in regard to the merits of Christianity and Boodhism. Some are a clear statement of several of the prominent truths of the gospel, and the remainder, embracing more than one half, are Scripture extracts; some accompanied with occasional explanatory remarks, but generally without note or comment.
Those given away by the other brethren were, doubtless, of a similar character to the above.
The effects already produced, and which, with the blessing of God, are likely to follow a free circulation of these and corresponding publications, may be imagined from the following facts selected from many reported in the journals of the missionaries. Mr. Kincaid says, June 28, 1832," “ Within this immediate district, there are many inquirers; and for four weeks, I have had many visitors from the interior of the country.-By these individuals, I learn, that in many places, there is considerable excitement about the new religion, and that this excitement has been produced by reading the tracts and portions of the Scripture, which have been carried away by persons visiting this city. One person from Thong-oo, about 200 miles from this, has come for the purpose of knowing what he shall do to be saved. His eyes are open, and he is filled with admiration and love. He is one of the government men in that city, and a person of superior understanding: He says, he knows many there, who are convinced that this is the true religion. Some time since, Moung En visited Pegu, and a number of the villages in the district, preaching and distributing tracts. He related, that many listened and some disputed. An inquirer called from Pantenau, three or four days' distance. He has read the · View of the Christian Religion' and the 'Golden Balance,' and gives some evidence of a saving change."
“In Rangoon,” says Mr. Jones, “the native teacher who goes about the city from day to day stated, that the number of those who believe in the Eternal God and secretly pray to him is not small. Through fear of their rulers, they are not yet prepared openly to avow their attachment to the truth. They make no offerings to the priests, nor prostrate themselves at the pagodas; which, nevertheless, they occasionally visit, to avoid the reproach of their acquaintances.”
Even the Viceroy, for a time, seemed no way opposed to the operations of the brethren. Two of them called on him, and were received with distinguished kindness. They presented the Catechism of Geography and Astronomy, the Chronological Table, and a map of the world prepared in Burman, which he examined with lively interest, and asked many questions. “The remarks which he made concerning different places and the Christian Religion," says Mr. Wade, “evinced the knowledge he had obtained of these subjects, and proved, that he had read much in the books which have been circulated among the people.” The missionaries, however, do not place an undue estimate on this branch of labor, nor propose for a moment to make a substitute of it, for preaching the gospel. “There must be preaching," says Mr. Kincaid, " before we can expect the conversion of the heathen. The circulation of the scriptures awakens attention, and, in some instances, souls may be saved without the use of any other means ; but the history of the church in all past ages confirms the opinion, that we ought not to expect the demolition of the kingdom of darkness, and the building up of the Saviour's, only as we go forth in faith, preaching the word of eternal life.”
At the mission house, worship has been regularlymaintained every Sabbath, though the number who are willing to leave their secular business to attend is very small. More is accomplished by collecting them in groups on their own worship days, and other occasions, and by short addresses, awakening in them a sense of the folly of their schemes of darkness, and the absolute necessity of looking to another source of salvation. In the months of November and December, 1831, four promising converts, all males, were admitted to baptism, making the present number
of the church 34.
In August, 1831, Mr. Jones took preparatory measures to establish schools for the instruction of children born in the country, (whether wholly or partially Burman,) in the English language. He states, that those whose fathers are Eng. lish, Portuguese, Armenians, or Chinese, and whose mothers are Burmese, are more 'if possible) objects of charity than the full Burmans; for they are des
tined to exert a greater influence, and most of them are equally destitute of that instruction which is calculated to render that influence salutary.
Soon after, he carried his purpose into effect, and two schools were commenced, containing ten or twelve scholars each, one superintended by himself, and the other by Mrs. Jones. A lively interest was felt in them by the parents, and a most encouraging progress was made in knowledge by the children; so that at the end of a few months, nearly all had learnt the catechism of religion, twenty or thirty commands of scripture, all of the astronomical catechism, and a considerable portion of the geographical. A careful attention was paid to their religious instruction, and every evening they attended worship in the mission family. The same interest was felt in these important schools by the brethren who followed Mr. Jones; and we lament to learn by the last advices, that they have been discontinued through the interference of the viceroy." My two schools," says Mr. Kincaid, July 27, 1832, " are broken up. One of the teachers was called before the governor, and questioned about teaching the children the religion of Christ. He was then whipped, fined thirty rupees, and put in prison for one day. The parents also had to pay three rupees for each child that went to school. This is the boldest step that has ever been taken, and shows that the progress of truth alarms them. I trust it will all turn out for the furtherance of the gospel.”
We wish to anticipate a similar result, and doubtless may, provided the Christians of our country shall be aroused to more prayer in reference to the obstructions thrown in the way of missionary efforts. The priesthood and government, which mutually support each other, will unite their influence to exclude every ray of light, which tends to expose and bring into disrepute their superstition and deeds of darkness. The malignity which they exhibit is intense, and probably few, who have never witnessed it, can imagine the terror it excites in those who become convinced of sin, and wish to ask what they shall do to be saved, lest their bitter oppression should fall upon them. But the same power which overruled the wrath of man in the early days of Christianity, and created a fearless spirit in the face of fines, imprisonment and even death, can do it again, if sought unto for the purpose. It is only necessary for us to feel the subject in all its vast importance before the mercy-seat, to secure to our brethren and the cause which they advocate, an influence that none can successfully resist.
MAULMEIN. Missionaries. Rev. A. Judson, Rev. J. WADE, Mrs. WADE, Rev. T. Simons, Mr. Ceptas BENNETT, Mrs. BENNETT, Mr. 0. T. CUTTER, Mrs. CUTTER, Mr. R. B. Hancock, Mrs. Hancock and Miss Sarah Cummings.
In May 1831, Mr. and Mrs. Wade were obliged by the state of her health to jeave Maulmein for a voyage at sea; and nere being no other missionary at the time sufficiently acquainted with the Burmese to superintend the press, Mr. Judson was induced to return from Rangoon, and resume his labors here. So ardent however was the desire which he cherished to preach the gospel more extensively, that he imprudently ventured into the jungle during the rainy
He commenced ascending the river Dah-gyeing, and arrived on the 5th of September at the village where Mr. Wade first baptized, about four days' journey from Maulmein, and to which Mr. Judson gave the name of Wadesville.
At this place, Moung Doot had been stationed for some months, and was useful, though incapable of teaching except in Taling. The disciples appeared well; and the first of them, Taunah, whom Mr. Judson describes as an intelligent Christian, became his interpreter. Many inquirers appeared, and applications were made by persons from several villages in the neighborhood for baptism,-thirteen of whom, after careful examination, were received.
On the 17th, he ascended a branch called Laingbwai, to a region where Ko Myat-kyan and Moung Zuthee had preached the word, and where other disciples were found no less anxious than the former to avow their attachment to the doctrines of Christ. Nine were examined and baptized. Here, Mr Jud
son was seized with the jungle fever, and was compelled to desist from his delightful labors, and return to Maulmein. His sickness was alarming for a season; but a merciful providence interposed and recovered him. In this tour he conceived the idea of improving the condition of the Karens, by providing them with catechists and school teachers from among themselves. To this end he selected three of the most promising men in the church, and encouraged them to remove with their families to Maulmein, and enter a school established there for adults, the preceding month, to which they gladly consented. On the 28th of the month, Taunah, Pan-lah and Chet-thir, with their wives and children, and one girl from another family arrived. “It is our intention," says Mr. Judson,“ to place the men in the adult school, and qualify them to read and interpret the scriptures to their countrymen. In the mean time their families will be acquiring civilization and Christian knowledge, which will render them useful when they return to their native wilds. The plan will involve some expense ; but I know of no way in which a little money can be laid out to greater advantage for the promotion of the cause of truth among this people." Late in June last, he speaks of this school as in a flourishing state, consisting of 20 pupils, under the care of Moung Tsan-loon.
Mr. Bennett being necessarily absent, as will presently appear, the operations at the printing office were suspended for a time. This left Mr. Judson at liberty to repeat his visit to the Karen villages; and having made the necessary preparations, he commenced his second tour the first of January, 1832, leaving the Salwen river on the west, and the Attaran on the east, and ascending the Gyeing as before. We shall not follow the details of his journey; which will be found in his published journal, but shall confine ourselves to the principal facts and results. He took with him a number of the native assistants, and was absent about two months. During this time, he travelled several hundred miles, and visited a multitude of villages on the Dah-gyeing, Salwen and their tributary streams. He found the disciples, received by him on the former occasion, almost universally established and firm, though they had been obliged to encounter a great deal of reproach and opposition from their unbelieving countrymen. The spirit of inquiry was in some places checked, while in others, it had obviously advanced ; and a goodly number appeared, who wanted to put on the Lord Jesus by an open profession. From all that applied for baptism, 25 only were received ; and others, though decidedly hopeful in character, yet having had less opportunity for demonstrating the reality of their faith, were advised to wait.
On the last of Febuary, Mr. Judson commenced a third tour, particularly to the Karen villages on the Salwen, accompanied by Ko Myat-kyan, who speaks Karen, three Taling disciples, and the two Karen assistants, Panlah, and Chetthir. The 5th of March he arrived at CHUMMERAH, a station established in February, and standing at the intersection of a rivulet of the same name with the Salwen. Here a zayat has been erected by the converts in the neighborhood, which promises to become a permanent seat of religious instruction. Truth is evidently spreading, and one inquirer after another is coming over to the side of Christ. During a stay of two or three days, more than twenty disciples assembled, and five additional ones were examined and received.
On the 11th, Mr. Judson fell in company with a boat on the river, full of men; and when he inquired whether they wished to hear the gospel of Christ, an elderly man, the chief of the party, replied, that he had already heard much of the gospel, and there was nothing he desired so much as an interview with the teacher. We accordingly went to the shore, “ says Mr. Judson,” and spent several hours very delightfully under the shade of the overhanging trees, and the banner of the love of Jesus.' The old man's experience was so clear, and his desire for baptism so strong, that, though circumstances prevented our gaining so much testimony of his conduct since believing, as we usually required, we felt that it would be wrong to refuse his request. “ After the ordinance, he
went on his way rejoicing aloud, and declaring his resolution to make known the eternal God and the dying love of Jesus, on all the banks of the Yoon-zalen, his native stream." * The dying words of an aged man of God," continues Mr. Judson, “ when he waved his withered, death-struck arm and exclaimed, the best of all is, God is wilh us '- I feel in my very soul.--Yes, the Great Invisible is in these Karen wilds. That mighty Being, who heaped up these rocks and reared these stupendous mountains, and poured out these streams in all directions, and scattered immortal beings throughout these deserts,-he is present by the influence of his Holy Spirit, and accompanies the sound of the gospel with converting, sanctifying power."
During this tour of a month, 19 were admitted to baptism, making an addition, within the year, of 66, and bringing up the number of the Karen church, after deducting the loss of one by death, and two by exclusion, to 77.
During these intervals of absence from Maulmein, Mr. Judson made the best disposition of the native assistants, to supply the region round about and the church at home. Ko Man-poke and wife were sent to the aid of Mr. and Mrs. Wade at Mergui; Moung Sanloon and Moung Shway-Moung were instructed to itinerate in the direction of Yay. Moung Zah, was to labor chiefly in the vicinity of Pah-ouk: Ko Shan and family were stationed at Taranah, a populous Taling village, and Ko Dwah and Ko Shwa-ba, were to conduct the daily evening worship and the public worship on the Lord's day at Maulmein. When at home, these latter services Mr. Judson took on himself, besides the ordinary duties of the zayat, and superintendence of the press ; nor were they without avail. The opposition at this point, though organized and determined, is subject to constant though gradual inroads upon its ranks. Eight have given evidence of a gracious change, and have been received to the fellowship of the church,—making the entire number baptized in the year from among the heathen, by brethren of this station, seventy four.
When Mr. Judson returned from his last excursion, he found that Mr. Bennett had arrived, and was ready to resume the operations of the press, which made it necessary for him to remain. In this he acquiesced, though with reluctance, as he greatly desired to visit his beloved Karens once more, before the setting in of the rains. “ Must I,” he says, “relinquish for many months, and perhaps forever, the pleasure of singing as I go,
“ In these deserts let me labor,
To redeem a world from hell."
About the same time, however, he was induced to review the subject of scripture-translations, and arrived at a conclusion respecting his duty which was entirely satisfactory. The Board had renewed their request to him to complete the Old Testament translation, which he had successfully commenced and urged it on grounds which approved themselves to his judgment. The work, it was admitted, was vastly important; and if not executed by him, some years must elapse before the acquaintance of either of the other brethren with the Burman language, would justify his attempting it. No more hesitancy was allowed. He estimated the time requisite for the labor at two years, and immediately sat down to it.
Mr. Wade, being obliged to leave Rangoon, and repair to this place for medical advice, was induced, on his recovery, to accept the care of the native church, and discharge the duties from which Mr. Judson had retired. The last intelligence, however, from him was that his health had again failed, and his life was threatened. His physician had recommended, as the only alternative, a voyage to America provided he so far recovered his strength as to be able to attempt it-he may therefore, if living be expected to arrive soon in this country.
Note.-Mr. Wade arrived in America May 11th, accompanied by Mrs. Wade and two native teachers, a Burman and a Karen.